Camera Sensor with Phone Notification Alert

6637 words (27 pages) Essay

18th May 2020 Engineering Reference this

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Executive Summary:

 There are advancement in technology every day. The rate at which the technologies are evolving, at the same rate crime is increasing. Hence to provide a car with a maximum security in the absence of its owner, an advanced technology of the existing Reverse Aid camera is developed. This camera sensor is not just used for the parking of car. It is capable of performing much more task. It has some features that will provide not only an obstacle free parking but also a secured environment around the car by sending notification to the owner. The intruder alert was previously only present with the CCTV surveillance camera. Now it can also be done from a camera sensor present at the rear side of the car. There are some unique facilities present in the device itself like night vision and remote access. The device is especially designed to eradicate the restrictions of the previously designed system.

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Introduction:

The parking sensors are a kind of a proximity sensors that are placed on a vehicles vicinity in the rear or the frontal part such that a person can sit inside and park the vehicle without facing an obstruction. The device alerts the driver about the presence of any object with the help of electromagnetic or ultrasonic sensors [1]. This technology was already prevailing in the system. Hence, a project is prepared such that when the car is parked, if there is any movement in front of the car, the owner or the car in charge will immediately receive notification on his or her smart phones. This will be an extra ordinary technology that can increase a car’s safety up to a limit. The proximity sensors present in the camera immediately detects the motion of any object, may it be living or non-living sends multimedia message to the owner. Hence, the owner receives a notification along with an image of the object or the intruder and take actions immediately. This device is expected to make sound and alert the neighbourhood too so that they can come forward and look at the matter. The rear camera’s motion sensor is activated with any movement within 100 meter radii. With development of latest and advanced technology every day it is possible for the users to access certain things which are in their budget and easy to install and command. This camera is designed efficiently so that it is efficient enough for the user and saves time [2]. Device is not only light weighted but also it has an easy installation process.

The camera is expected to perform a lot more than just detecting obstacle behind it while parking. It has been laden with features to act as a surveillance camera while the car is parked while the owner is away. The following research studies the Camera sensors on the vehicles [13]. It also deals with the technologies that are added to the existing technology for sending notification on the phone with many other features for better performance of the device. It also discusses the features of the Reverse Aid camera designed [3].

Problem domain and research questions:

The prevailing system in this field used to generate noise and made use of some visual aids such as blinking of LED for making the people surrounding it aware of the sensor. There may be a scenario that an owner of the car had parked the car at a place and have been to somewhere else. It is basically impossible to make some aware of the intrusion going on with the car. Theft of the car was far easier as the owner of the car who is away from his vehicle was unaware of the things going on with his car [11]. There was no way to make them alert of their situation. Hence, it was necessary to make the owners aware of what is going on with his car. The camera sensor with notification alert over phone makes even the distant owner of the car or other vehicle aware of what or who has been around the car by sending those photographs to them which were clicked by the camera [4].

Problem statement:

 The technologies developed previously was capable for detecting objects of a certain dimension. Alert was generated accordingly. But this alert was generally sound alert, which was audible up to a limited range. The sound becomes inaudible or less coherent if a car is parked in the parking lot. Hence, a technology has to be developed such that the owner is made aware of any situation or issues happening around the car. Hence, this research is performed for developing a better technology which is useful as well as efficient.

Research objectives:

  • To plan a development of a technology capable of sending notification after receiving data from the Camera sensor of a parked car.
  • To look for appropriate requirements for Camera Sensor for sending notification.
  • To check how helpful it can be for the owner.

Research questions:

  • How this technology can be used such that it can send notification to the owner after receiving signals from the camera sensor?
  • What are the requirements for this technology?
  • How can it enhance the security of the cars and how can it help the owner?

Background and related works:

 The parking sensor of the car was designed in a way that it can measure a specific distance from an obstacle. The ultrasonic sensors are capable for evaluation of distance. Sound waves are generated from the ultrasonic sensors. This sound wave echoes back after hitting an object (if present). That time is initially measured and the distance of the vehicle from the object is measured and the alert is generated. This system totally depends upon the sound wave reflection as it is ultrasonic in nature. Hence, the system may or may not detect the object which are not large enough or may be flat. This included objects which are longitudinally pointed towards the car or even the objects which are capable of absorbing sound waves like wools or mosses. In such cases there is a high chance of less or no detection object at allas the sound wave may not return or the intensity of the sound wave returned is very less resulting in failure of detection.

 Tom Heyes invented the Parking Sensor in 1970 while he was involved in the Blind Mobility Research Unit in United Kingdom at the Nottingham University.The concept of the Parking Sensor was developed from the Sonic Pathfinder. This electronic guidance mechanism was developed for the blind people. The Parking Sensor was then known as Reverse Aid [32]. Later he proposed the mechanism to the Jaguar Cars who after testing the device criticized him by saying “You like it because you are a one-eyed driver who cannot judge distances. Real people would not want a thing like this”. Though he did not give up on his invention and collaborated with a local vehicle manufacturer and around a hundred and fifty of Reverse Aids were attached to Petrol tankers, delivery vehicles and trucks as no one wanted their cars to be drilled for fitting the device [20].

 Later in 1922, Electronic Parking Sensor was invented by Mauro Del Signor. The Electromagnetic Parking Sensor or EPS was a technology which work on the mechanism of temporarily slowing down the car when it is approaching an obstacle. Once the obstacle is detected the vehicle motion is paused for a moment and a continuous signal is generated by the vehicle for the presence of the object []. These were very effective for two reasons, firstly as it alerts the driver continuously while approaching the obstacle; secondly it preserves the new factory looks of the car as its elegant design makes it mountable without boring a hole in the car. This technology kind of persists now a days but comes with a backup camera facility. Since 2018, United States of America is having a high requirement of backup sensor cameras for all cars.

 Apart from these technologies, Blind Spot Monitors are also used which can detect and monitor objects on the sides of the vehicles. This technology also comes with the “Cross Traffic Alert” technology. When the traffic approaches towards the vehicle from the sides, it alerts the driver so that it can back up in time.

But this was possible only for a certain distance and the value was limited, for example, a few centimetres from the car. At times it would be even difficult to prevent a collision even after the sensor detects an object as the range was too small for the driver to react urgently. The Electronic Parking Sensors or the EPS with the wheel automated sensors are very useful but these technologies also have some flaws. Firstly, these systems are short ranged. Secondly, these devices works when the car is use or the engine is turned on. This can avoid undesired collision from other vehicles or objects but they cannot detect or identify any sort of unethical activities going around the vehicles when its engine is turned off [12].

The main purpose of the research is to plan a technique which can eradicate some of the above mentioned flaws of the previously developed techniques, especially the one when the engine is turned off. The technology to be designed is expected to work when the car is parked or the engine is turned off. In some cases, the cars parked outside is either subjected to theft of damages by ruffians. This technology is expected to be provided with a motion sensor camera which is turned on with a slight movement of any object in front of it. The device detects the movement and captures it. The images are then stored in the back up. Apart from this, the device is equipped with sensors and gadgets that are capable of sending notifications to the owner of the car. The movement captured by the motion sensor camera in the car are sent directly to the owner which generates a high priority alert. In the era of Artificial Intelligence, where everything can be achieved with a touch of finger as the device known as smart phones are very proficient in one touch solution to almost everything, it will be very helpful for the vehicle owner to know about their vehicles whereabouts in their absence. A person almost remained glued to their cell phones throughout the day, hence any notification received in their device reaches them almost immediately provided there is an easy availability of the network in that area where the user is present at the moment. Immediate actions can be taken by the user if there is some kind of serious issues going around the car. Previously there was a concept of smart home, developing a concept of a device which can provide a smart environment around the car is beneficial.

Illegal activities like the car thievery or illegal transaction behind the cars can be easily caught over the camera. The notification system can even be helpful for the police as the tracking of the criminals becomes easier. Though this can be very useful, but it can also be very annoying at times. In a known surrounding, intruder alert can be very unpleasant. Hence, the technology has been equipped with a very innovative solution. The camera is equipped with Artificial Intelligence such that the device can detect faces. Few faces are pre-recorded and stored in the memory of the camera. Whenever such entity comes anywhere near the sensor or the camera, the motion sensor is activated, which locates the faces and checks with the databases. If there is a match, no notification is sent, but the snap of the person or the object is stored in the memory of the device. Notification is disabled for these pre-recognized by the system. Hence, unnecessary notifications can be prevented.

As the camera is set up to send push notification to the devices, it is provided with Wi-Fi access. Dual- band Wi-Fi is preferred for remote viewing. The camera is capable of proper night vision mode for assistance in detecting movement in the dark. The motion detection camera enable push notification in no time and sends alert when any suspicious person or object is seen in the camera. In short the Camera Sensor of the car can act as a full time surveillance camera for the owner. Well the benefits of this system does not ends here. The camera is capable of making videos and send them along with the message to the owner. The owner on the other hand may not be necessarily present somewhere near. They can access it from a remote location. The purpose of the camera is to provide all round security to the vehicle and it is expected to perform it up to the fullest.

For remote viewing on the cell phones, an application can be downloaded in the phone for accessing the Camera sensor. The application then scans for available devices and connects to the camera. After linking the camera with the cell phone, the whole view can be seen by clicking on the network camera view.

The motion detection which is recorded by the camera can be stored in a micro SD card. This can be kept optional though. The storing of the recorded motion sensed videos can help police in identifying the intruder who was trying to gain access to the car. These videos can be played as many times as desired by the owner. The camera itself comes in handy and the installation cost is very low. It can be installed by oneself without any technician’s assistance. There is no subscription charges required. Thus the system is cost effective. The desired image quality can be set by the owner. The modes can be changed from high definition image to medium or average or may be low. Though it is preferred to keep it in high definition mode for proper functioning of the system.

An all-time functioning camera which is placed mostly in outdoors has to be durable enough to endure toughest weather conditions. It is designed to be waterproof so that service is enabled even in the rainy, sunny or freezing weather without hindrance. The recording is enabled for all the day and every day.

Project requirement and analysis:

To proceed with this project there are certain requirements that has to be met. They are stated as followed:

      Hardware requirements

For the motion sensor camera, a hard drive is required which remains connected to the camera. The most suitable video camera that is best compatible with the system will be iMac with an inbuilt camera. For an advantage of a fully interactive operation, an Arduino board is required. Along with proximity sensor [5], and colour recognition sensor.

      Interfaces for the software

Some user libraries has to be created for the purpose of processing. They are, for the face detection and processing live video- OpenCV; for manipulating and displaying video faster – GSVideo; for interaction with the Arduino Serial is used. The libraries created helps in combining the sensors with how the videos will be displayed.

      Motion sensor camera

 Motion sensor camera is a technology developed in a way such that it detects the movement of the pixels. When a person or an object moves in front of the camera, the pixels of the screen present within the camera changes. The change is then detected by the sensor and the camera is activated.

      Dual band Wi-Fi

 There are two types of wireless router; they are namely single band and double bands. The dual routers make use of two bands: 5GHz and 2.4GHz. They can transmit two signals simultaneously. Thus the performance is better in the case of dual band routers. In comparison to the single band router, dual band routers are easier to set up. For the purpose of a 360° coverage back up camera for a car that can send notification with high definition image coverage, it is beneficial to use dual band Wi-Fi router for faster and unhindered performance.

      Night vision mode:

 The next most important function of this camera is the inclusion of the night mode. The night mode present in a motion sensor camera can capture anything and everything in the camera clearly even in the darkness. Most of the intrusive activities occur at the night hours. The night vision camera makes use of the infrared radiation. The infrared radiation detects the presence of very little light and the sensor is activated. Later the little light is amplified to give a clear vision of the image captured [28].

      Blind spot monitoring system

 The camera is provided with a blind spot monitoring system. The work of the blind spot monitoring system is to alert the driver of an approaching vehicle when it is coming out of a parking space. Radar is used to detect the vehicles approaching towards it. The radar detection system present within it helps in preventing accidents [29].

      Remote controlled access

 The remote control access is very beneficial and is an emerging trait. The dual band Wi-Fi used in the camera system is highly capable of transmitting signals over the air. Moreover, an application is installed in the smart phone or any smart device for addressing to that signal. Thus wherever the user or the owner of the car is he or she is always notified about the things going around with the car. The only thing they need to receive the information generated by the Camera Sensor is internet. All the photographs and the videos recorded are sent to the user from that camera even though the user is nowhere near. The user on the other hand immediately receives notification via internet and can see all the captured media and the video to the user immediately [30].

      Sound alert system

 The second most important functional requirement is the sound alert system. The car is equipped with a smaller form of microchip which is a sound producer in general. The motion detected by the camera intrigues the sensors present in the form of micro chip that enhance alarm sound. The remote users may to be available to receive the sound alarm, but the people around can act smart and dial the emergency number for the police to turn up and perform their actions against the intruder alert [7].

      Light alert system

 Along with the sound alert system, the motion sensor also enhances the light alert system. The indicators along with the side lights keep on blinking continuously. This system makes the whole area alert; hence the intruder has a very narrow escape plan if the region is being alert. The sound and light sensors acts simultaneously with the notification alerts. The users in the remote location receives the notification. The users in the nearby places can hear the sound alerts and react as quickly as possible [8]. Moreover, picture of the intruder is captured and stored in the memory and sent to the user at a remote location. 

      Face detection software and Face recognition software

With the development of a motion sensor camera technology as a car back up camera, it is very annoying to receive random notifications from the camera about the family members. Hence, the camera is provided with an efficient and elegant technology [31]. This is artificial intelligence. The Artificial Intelligence detects the face in presence of the owner of the vehicle, and the data is recorded and stored in the memory of the device. The notification is disabled for those entities whose are already recorded in the system’s database.

      Video recording

The whole point of creating a motion sensor camera is to collect information from the back up camera. The backup camera present in a vehicle is no more expected to just prevent collision from an obstacle [15]. It is expected to perform a lot more task than a general back up camera on a vehicle. Whatever motion is detected by the camera is recorded immediately and stored in the memory or SD card inserted in the camera. This can be accessed anytime even after the notification generated is removed from the system.

      Video storage

A micro SD card of suitable size is can be inserted into the camera for storing all types of recorded files. The recorded files can be viewed anywhere afterwards in the form of video or images. They can be copied or deleted from the memory card as desired.

      Durable structure

Rear camera of a vehicle is subjected to extreme rough usage. It is not only exposed to harsh weather condition but also to high heat, pressure, temperature, dirt and water. Hence, a waterproof and dustproof structure is to be created so that it can withstand not only the harsh weather conditions but also can endure wear and tear due to dust and water. The better is the structure, more durable it is for usage.

      Full coverage:

A full 180° coverage is beneficial for the system. A wide angled camera is useful for the purpose of capturing motion at the furthest of its capability. It can even detect motion a point lying horizontally to it. Thus any activity taking place even at the back corner of the car is detected by the camera [14].

There are a few non-functional requirements that has to be considered too. They are stated as follows:

      Requirements of performance

Users always expects a device with high performance. The technologies are developed in such manner that they can perform up to the full limit of the user’s expectations. The connection must be established with a device or system so that the device can remain in activated mode all the time. This connection can be established with the help of the wireless connections like Wi-Fi. Any sort of disruption in the connection will affect the performance of the device [6].

      Requirement for safety

The camera is a sensitive object. Though it is designed to be durable but it has to be fasten properly with the vehicle such that the device don’t fall off. A cell phone is used for receiving the notifications from the camera, it is preferred to use smart phones as they are more compatible with the wireless access. In that case the phone must be taken care off. Any kind of damage done to the cell phone will affect the performance of the system as the notification generated by the device will not be conveyed to the phone [16]. The whole purpose of the remote access goes in vein.

      Requirement for security

A motion sensor video camera if placed in the public parking lot will capture numerous objects and videos. This may affect the privacy of the individual. Hence, signals or indications must be provided so that an individual is aware of the camera which is in active mode [17].

      Rules for the business

A person who is interested in creating an art with video is free to use this product. It provide all round protection with the help of the surveillance. There are no special circumstances involved or no restrictions in usage of this [21].

Support and maintenance requirements

      The software used in the whole system like the application used in the cell phones for establishing a connection between the phone and the camera with the help of wireless connection must be updated time to time so that the performance remains unhindered [22].

      Though the camera installed is tough and durable, timely maintenance ensures a smooth performance of the device. Degradation of the image quality due to dust influence can be removed [23].

      Proper usage training is essential for the user to understand how the system functions. Understanding the functionality of the system is important as the purpose of the device fails if the user is unable to access the device properly [9].

Criteria for acceptance of the device:

 Verifying the activation of the camera when the motion is detected.

 Requirements:

  • Snaps taken of the detected image
  • Notification received in the cell phone
  • Known face detection
  • Storage of the images and videos in the memory for later access

Procedure of verification:

 When a person or an object moves behind the car, a notification is sent directly to the user. A snapshot with an alert message is received by the user immediately or within a few minutes. No notification snap shot is sent when there is detection of previously loaded images in the system marked as close people. This may include family and specific friends [19]. The snaps taken by the camera are stored in the memory. The camera captures all movements in the surrounding but sends notification for only for the unknown faces or objects.

Few areas where the new device may need some future work:

      Notification time constraints. The notification is generated immediately after the intrusion or unknown motion is detected but the message generated can take some time to be transmitted based on the availability of the network, bandwidth and connectivity [24].

      Similarly the response time is also dependent up on the network bandwidth and the connectivity of the system [25].

      Minimum 40Mbps bandwidth is required for the transmission of live video notification.

      Back up battery must be there to support the system as the amount of activities performed by the device may consume battery [10].

Conclusion:

 From the research performed above it can be concluded that the Reverse Aid camera of a vehicle is used as an alert to prevent collision with the object while parking a car. The camera sensor previously used in the cars were only used for the purpose of detecting obstruction. An improved version of the camera is proposed which is capable of performing much more than it previous version [18]. As it has become mandatory for the vehicles to have rear Reverse Aid camera at the back of the car, it can be innovated and an all-rounder surveillance camera can is developed. This device is not only capable of detecting obstacles in the path of parking bust also is capable of sending notification to the user on their cell phones while they are away [26]. This indeed helps the user as the remote location notification alert is also set up in the system. Unlike the previous versions of the camera which were limited to a certain zone, this camera is capable of notifying a person even if he or she is nowhere near the system.

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 With the improvement of technology, there are new ways of securing a person’s property. Hence, a vehicle’s rear camera can also be used for the purpose of detection of the intruders and undesired activities in the nearby areas [27]. Known faces can be detected in the area too and the notification alerts can be set as desired. Durable, elegant and efficient design of the technology not only makes is user friendly, but also an important aspect for increasing security. The technology can further be improved with improved network availability and better bandwidth availability.

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