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The Curriculum evaluation model applied in the modern education system in most of the schools, universities and academic institution is based upon the objectives defined by Ralph Tyler in his renowned work Basic Principles of Curriculum (1949/50) and Instructions. The Model is based upon the Eight Year Study (1993-1941), a national program, involving 30 secondary schools and 300 colleges and universities which addressed narrowness and rigidity in high school curriculum. (Tyler, 1969) The objectives of the model were as simple as it can be, yet comprehended a profound initiative that was about to redefine the methodology of the modern education system. The paper intends to discuss the curriculum of Humanities and Social Sciences in 7th grade in Australia.
The Curriculum of Humanities and Social Sciences comprises understanding of four sub-strands of History, Geography, Civics and Citizenship and Business and Economics. The Australian curriculum includes the sub-strands of history and geography in Foundation Year to Year 2, further introducing the sub-strand of civics and citizenship in Year 3, and then sub-strand of economics and business in Year 5.
The Curriculum is intended to develop the student’s ability to acknowledge the discipline in various areas of life and certainly apply the same with utmost integrity and responsibility. The specifics of each sub-strand define certain objectives of their respective fields that will help students to comprehend the subject areas. Furthermore, these sub-stands undertake seven concepts that are known as concepts of Interdisciplinary thinking. These concepts bridge link between different subjects to provide an overview of the subject of Humanities and Social Sciences as whole. (Curriculum, 2019)
The paper chooses this particular area of curriculum as its significant relevance in the society for each and every human being from his birth till death. It defines the role of our existence in this world. Maybe the area of Science or Mathematic may not remain as particularly relevant to an artist or a sportsperson in after school-life as it will be for doctors and engineers. But the relevance of the discipline of Social Sciences will certainly remain the same, irrespective of any specific profession, until the realm of a society and in particular, the State binds all of us. (Marshall, 1983) The source of this curriculum is from the Australian Curriculum website.
The Curriculum Evaluation model by Tyler is a conceptual framework which brilliantly outlines a methodology to evaluate the progress of the students in correspondence with the principles or objectives established for it. The model consists of four steps:
- To determine the purposes or objectives
- Selection of educational experiences related to purpose
- Organizing learning experiences
- Evaluation of students performance
The methodology of education system of different schools, universities and academic institutions is initially reflected from its curriculum. Though, there can be other factors as well but it does not get clearly identified, until one experiences a live interaction at any particular institution.
The significance of each and every subject included in any particular curriculum is highly acknowledged. All the subjects possess natural objectives and principles underlying essence of its relevance in the respective curriculum. The significant part is to do deliver it accordingly in correspondence with the philosophy of any institution in imparting the education. The objectives need to be consistent with the principles of the institution. (Dr. G.A., 2019)
As an example, a school which is developing an English Curriculum will definitely expect the students to be well versed in the language in all the forms. It will make it as an objective or a goal which has to certainly evolve in the curriculum to get accomplished. Further, elucidating the concept for successful accomplishment of an objective, it demands complete focus on it. Somehow, the correlated factors are neglected and it may lead to failure of completely delivering the objectives.
For example to accomplish the objective the students will be asked to write essays in English. When a teacher introduces writing of an English essay to students, she will probably write one as an example. The technique of introducing a particular objective is defined as an educational experience. The experience is consistent with the objective of writing.0
The third step defined in Tyler’s Model is to organise the experience in accordance with corresponding factors of the objectives. The teacher needs to determine the factors and execute accordingly. Should the teacher demonstrate first or should the students learn by writing immediately? There can be numerous ways of execution as and until it is reasonable and logically organized.
The last step is to evaluate the objective. Again, there can be various ways to assess the ability of the students for writing an English essay. As a satisfying result, if the students are able to write essays without assistance, the purpose is accomplished.
The Tyler’s Model defines an instructional objective for the educators and teachers to successfully implement a well-defined curriculum. The model defines an outline to chart, collect and compare the progression achieved by the students. (Kliebard, 1970)
The paper presents an analytical review of the methodology of Tyler’s Model. The prime objective of it is to determine the progress of the students. The model can be divided into three sub-points:
1. Specify Instructional Objectives
2. Collect performance Data
3. Compare performance data with the objectives/standards specified.
The Tyler’s Model provides an insight in the designing of the curriculum and to determine and achieve the objectives underlying it. Yet, it limits the capability to learn and bounds the education to certain defined syllabus. The model lacks the proper justification of the progress throughout without any means of regulations. It does not encompass the forms of learning which are immeasurable or uncertain for a definite outcome. It also fails to consider the constant changing factors in the education system. (Vo, 2018)
To further elaborate this fact, the model doesn’t provide clarity in on the actual or natural process of the teaching methodology which certainly varies from time to time and needs to be adapted according to the requirements of the various factors that affect the education system.
To understand the Tyler’s Model or Rationale Model (Kliebard, 1970), the paper compares and analyses it with different models and its types.
The Models presented in any study can be classified into the following division:
Classification of Models
Three Dimensional Models
Three Dimensional Models can be sub-classified into:
1) Static Model and Working Model
2) Large Scale and Small Scale
Types of Models
The types of models can be mainly divided into three types:
- Conceptual Models
- Procedural Models
- Mathematical Models
(Wikkiam J Browne, 2001)
The limitation of Tyler’s Model is that it seems quite ambiguous with the focus on the process and its implementation. As to be precise, it lacks proper procedure to practice the curriculum. Secondly, though being regarded with such lofty stature it lacks the litmus quality to diagnose the faults in any curriculum.
The paper focuses on the Curriculum of Humanities and Social Sciences in the 7th grade of Australian Curriculum
As discussed above, the objectives of disciplinary and inter-disciplinary thinking is clear in the structure of the Curriculum. The concepts inculcated in the curriculum possess the natural objectives which are expected to mould the sense of morality in the students. The syllabus and subjects definitely make bear the knowledge and will definitely be transferred into the one who comprehends it. The point to be justified is anything that beholds information or fact will be acknowledged. The ways of doing it and the level of acquiring it is relatively varied by many factors.
The most important part is to cultivate the same values in the students with such thoughtfulness that it encourages them to practice the discipline. (Elliott, 1987) As an example, almost all of us are aware about the traffic rules usually taught in the lower grades. Its importance is highly regarded by everyone, yet most of us are bound to break most of simplest of it at some point in life. This may be regarded as a failure of the curriculum.
To be precise, the philosophy behind the design of the curriculum is profound and comprehending, but to cultivate the same in the students hailing from different backgrounds of society is challenging task. This task cannot be practically bounded to certain criteria or norms. The end goal of a curriculum is to induce the lofty thoughts of philosophy underlying it. It is concentrated to develop particular skill in the students. (Prideaux, 2003) It takes immense effort and hard work for any teacher to make this endeavour fruitful.
The paper takes into account the subject of civic and citizenship taught in the 7th grade in the Australian Curriculum. The Year 7 curriculum provides a study of the key features of Australia’s system of government and explores how this system aims to protect all Australians. Students examine the Australian Constitution and how its features, principles and values shape Australia’s democracy. They look at how the rights of individuals are protected through the justice system. Students also explore how Australia’s secular system of government supports a diverse society with shared values.
Division according the general disciplinary and inter-disciplinary thinking-
The civics and citizenship content at this year level involves two strands: civics and citizenship knowledge and understanding, and civics and citizenship skills. These strands are interrelated and have been developed to be taught in an integrated way, and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions. (Australian Curriculum, Civics & Citizenship, 2019)
Supposedly, a student acknowledges the information inculcated to him with an adequate level of understanding. Then, after being a responsible adult, he may break or manipulate the values or principles he acknowledged and understood earlier. The basic accounting of such evaluation cannot be achieved until and unless the knowledge is practised in accordance with the rightful understanding. At this point, the remarkable role is provided to the procedural models of curriculum evaluation like CIPP Model (1971). In terms of modern education methodology, interactive teaching aides play such significant role in articulating and developing the skills in the students as per the objectives.
As we take an insight into philosophical perspective, most of the philosophers attribute to practical knowledge which is oriented towards action. Theory and practical knowledge has been a topic for debate. Educational theory is considered as a form of practical theory which is distinguished from purely theoretical knowledge and is completely discarded from any direct practical concerns. The function of a practical educational theory is to determine practices while the function of purely theoretical knowledge is to explain phenomena. The aim for any educational theory is to provide a basis for rational action rather than simply rational understanding. (Elliott, 1987)
In the light of the above discussion, the curriculum for the Humanities and Social Science needs to be adapted with such manner that it develops concepts which provide scope towards rational actions along with rational understanding.
The paper concludes on the note that an effective curriculum evaluation result has to be of an eclectic approach, one that draws from the strengths of several different models. The educational experiences and evaluation or assessment methods need to be specifically tailored according the situations.
- Australian Curriculum, Civics & Citizenship. (2019, April 1st). Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au: https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/civics-and-citizenship/?year=12494&strand=Civics+and+Citizenship+Knowledge+and+Understanding&strand=Civics+and+Citizenship+Skills&capability=ignore&capability=Literacy&
- Curriculum, A. (2019, May 3). https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/hass/structure/#. Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au: https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/humanities-and-social-sciences/hass/structure/#
- David J Flinders, N. N. (1986). The null curriculum: Its theoritical basis and practical implications. Curriculum Inquiry 16 (1), 33-42.
- Dr. G.A., R. (2019, April 21). http://talc.ukzn.ac.za/Libraries/Curriculum/models_of_curriculum_evaluation.sflb.ashx. Retrieved from http://talc.ukzn.ac.za: http://talc.ukzn.ac.za/Libraries/Curriculum/models_of_curriculum_evaluation.sflb.ashx
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- Vo, T. (2018). EVALUATION MODELS IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 34.
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