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Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development model explains how a team develops over time. The five stages of development are: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. According to Tuckman he says that all of the phases are necessary and inevitable. In order for the team to grow they most face up to challenges, problems, find solutions to problems, planning as a team, and to deliver results.
In this first stage of team building, the ”forming” of the team takes place. The individual’s behaviour is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or conflict. Serious issues and feelings are avoided, and people focus on being busy with routines, such as team organization, which does what, when to meet, etc. But individuals are also gathering information and impressions – about each other, and about the scope of the task and how to approach it. This is a comfortable stage to be in, but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that not much actually gets done.
Every group will then enter the ”storming” stage in which different ideas compete for consideration. The team addresses issues such as what problems they are really supposed to solve, how they will function independently and together and what leadership model they will accept. Team members open up to each other and confront each other’s ideas and perspectives.
At the team enter into the ”Norming” stage. Team member’s behaviour is adjuster to each other. Also the team develop work habits which make the work seem more natural and fluid the team members often work through this stage by agreeing on rules, professional behaviour, there shared methods and working tools. During this phase, team member’s start trust one other and motivation increases as the team gets more acquainted with their project and goals.
As for the teams who will reach the ”performing” stage, the team members are now become interdependent, motivated and knowledgeable. The team members are now competent and able to handle and make decision without being supervision. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channelled through means acceptable to the team.
Adjourning was the later stage that Tuckman talk about and this stage is basically on involves dissolution that is terminating roles, completing each team’s task and reducing dependency.
Training can be defined as an educational process. Where people can learn different new ideas and gain information. In most organisation go into training their works making them get and lean more thing. They are different type of training and it important.
Why training is important in an organisation
Most of the reasons why organisation goes into training are new employees have to learn and gain new skills, and also their motivation is likely to be high. On the other hand, training experienced employees can be problematic. The training needs of such employees are not always easy to determine, and when they can be, the individuals involved may resent being asked to change their established ways of doing their job.
Organizations also use more ways to determine the training needs of employees.
The performance appraisal: on this one each employee’s work are measured accorder to their performance standards and objectives established for his or her job. There are different types of training in which organization in training their employees.
TYPES OF TRAINING METHOD
The lecture is best used for creating a general understanding of a topic. Several variations in the lecture format allow it to be more or less formal and/or interactive. In the pure lecture, communication is one way-from trainer to trainees. It is an extensive oral presentation of material. A good lecture begins with an introduction that lays out the purpose, the order in which topics will be covered, and ground rules about interruptions (e.g., questions and clarification). This is followed by the main body of the lecture in which information is given. The topic areas should be logically sequenced so that the content of preceding topics prepares trainees for the following topics. The lecture should conclude with a summary of the main learning points and/or conclusions.
The lecture training is one of the most efficient teaching methods for presenting many facts or ideas in a relatively short time. Material that has been logically organized can be presented
Concisely in rapid sequence.
The lecture is particularly suitable for introducing a subject. To ensure that all
Students have the necessary background to learn a subject; we can present basic information in a lecture. By using the lecture in this manner, we can offer students with varied backgrounds a common understand. A brief introductory lecture can give direction and purpose to a demonstration or prepare students for a discussion.
The lecture is a convenient method for instructing large groups. If necessary, we can use a public address system to ensure that all students can hear us. The lecture is sometimes the only efficient method to use if student-to-faculty ratio is high.
The lecture does not lead to maximum achievement in certain types of learning. Speech skills, cooperative group thinking, and motor skills, for example, are difficult to teach with the lecture method. Students can develop such skills well only through practice. Moreover, the formal lecture alone is generally not appropriate for presenting material above the comprehension level of the cognitive domain. Because it allows for little or no student verbal participation, the formal lecture may also be inefficient for comprehension-level lessons in which concepts and principles are developed.
The lecture does not provide teachers with an opportunity to estimate student progress before an examination. Within a single lecture period, we may unwittingly present more information than our students can absorb, and we have little accurate means during the lecture of determining what they have learned.
Too often, the lecture makes no provision for participation by the students. As a result, many students willingly allow the instructor to do all the work. Learning is an active process, but the lecture method tends to foster passiveness and dependence on the instructor.
Apprenticeship training dates back to the Middle Ages, when skilled craftsmen passed on their knowledge to others as a way of preserving the guilds. Today, apprenticeship programs are partnerships between labour unions, employers, schools, and the government. They are most often found in the skilled trades and professional unions such as boiler engineers, electrical workers, pipe fitters, and carpenters. The typical apprenticeship program requires two years of on-the-job experience and about 180 hours of classroom instruction, though requirements vary. An apprentice must be able to demonstrate mastery of all required skills and knowledge before being allowed to graduate to journeyman status. This is documented through testing and certification processes. Journeymen provide the on-the-job training, while adult education centres and community colleges typically provide the classroom training. Formal apprenticeship programs are regulated by governmental agencies that also set standards and provide services.
Coaching is a process of providing one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve the work performance of the person being coached in a specific area. It differs from other OJT methods in that the trainee already has been working at the job for some time. Usually, coaching is directed at employees with performance deficiencies, but it can also serve as a motivational tool for those performing adequately. Typically the supervisor acts as the coach. Like the OJT trainer, the coach must be skilled both in how to perform the task(s) and how to train others to do them. The amount of time supervisors devote to coaching activities steadily increased during the 1990s and will likely represent more than 50 percent of supervisors’ time by the new millennium.
Many companies have implemented e-learning, which encompasses several different types of technology assisted training, such as distance learning, computer-based training (CBT), or web-based training (WBT). Distance learning occurs when trainers and trainees are in remote locations; typically, technology is used to broadcast a trainer’s lecture to many trainees in many separate locations. Distance learning provides many of the same advantages and disadvantages as the lecture method. Distance learning can be much less expensive than paying for trainees in multiple locations to travel for a lecture, but it may reduce motivation to learn because of the remoteness of the trainer.
Convenience is one of the major advantages of e-learning. It allows students to work and learn at their own pace without the unyielding time restrictions of traditional learning. Because e-learning provides access to learning materials at any time, students have the flexibility to schedule around families, jobs and other activities. Another major benefit of e-learning is the accessibility it provides. Students can learn from anywhere in the world. This is an especially important consideration for students who wish to study in a different country. In addition, because e-learning can be done from home, students have less clothing and driving expenses than with traditional learning.
A major disadvantage to e-learning is the self-discipline it requires. While being able to work at your own pace can be an advantage, it can also be a disadvantage. This is especially true for students who have difficulty with time management and procrastination. These students tend to be more successful with the structure of traditional learning. Another disadvantage to e-learning is the technology involved. Some people do not have ready access to a computer and Internet connection. And some who do have the required equipment feel ill-equipped to use it. Lack of interaction between teacher and student is another drawback to e-learning. Some students need the immediate feedback that interaction provides.
The most common method of training, on-the-job training (OJT) uses more experienced and skilled employees to train less skilled and experienced employees. OJT takes many forms and can be supplemented with classroom training. Included within OJT are the job-instruction technique, apprenticeships, coaching, and mentoring. Formal OJT programs are typically conducted by employees who can effectively use one-on-one instructional techniques and who have superior technical knowledge and skills. Since conducting one-on-one training is not a skill most people develop on their own, train-the-trainer training is required for OJT trainers. In addition to training the trainers, formal OJT programs should carefully develop a sequence of learning events for trainees. The formalized instructional process that is most commonly used is called the job-instruction technique
It is cost effective for the employer because the person continues to work whilst learning.
Training time is reduced when compared to traditional off site learning.
It has been tested for techniques ranging from milking cows by hand to brain surgery.
Structured programs for training multiple trainers, and for in house training of new trainers exist and are available from numerous providers.
These programs reduce the training times of unstructured OJT by more than 50% and reduce the perpetuation of less safe and more costly production techniques.
Inconsistent – Traditional OJT relies heavily on an experienced employee to provide the instructions based on what they feel are the most important topics. What is important to one employee may not be important to another. The result is what is learned may vary greatly, depending on who is assigned as the trainer.
Lack of founding principles :While the hands-on aspect of OJT may appeal to the practical learner, often the underlying theories of operation are not covered in sufficient detail or accuracy. Without this foundation of knowledge, trainees often learn what to do, not why they are doing it, resulting in poor decision making when things don’t go exactly right.
Bad habits : The trainee observes and may adopt the trainer’s habits and attitudes about all aspects of the job including safety, quality, customer service, and relationship with management. Poorly selected trainers can have many unintended consequences.
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