An Annotated Bibliography on the topic of Multiple Intelligences

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Campbell, L., & Campbell, B. (1999). Multiple Intelligences and Student Achievement: Success Stories from Six Schools. Alexandria, VA.: Association for supervision and Curriculum Development.

Throughout this book Campbell and Campbell share stories about six schools (two elementary, two middle, and two high schools) that incorporated Multiple Intelligences into their curriculum. The authors outline how MI is applied, its role, and its effect on student achievement. Campbell and Campbell provide examples of how a Multiple Intelligence curriculum enables students to use their strengths to improve their academic weaknesses.

Campbell, L., Campbell, B., & Dickinson, D. (2004). Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences. (3rd ed.). Boston ; Montreal: Pearson/A and B.

This book is introduced by explaining what the original seven intelligences are in detail. It continues on to describe how teachers can begin to integrate Multiple Intelligences into their classrooms. The authors of this book give specific examples of how an educator can plan their lessons or projects and give assessments using the MI theory.

Gardner, H. (1993). "Choice Points" as Multiple Intelligences Enter the School. David Lazear Group | Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from

In this short essay written by Howard Gardner, he describes seven purposes of which Multiple Intelligence has been applied. He discusses that the theory of MI has been used to support a range of educational goals. Gardner describes the relationship of curriculum, instruction, assessment, targeted audiences and students in relation to Multiple Intelligences.

Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (10th anniversary ed.). New York, NY: BasicBooks.

This is the tenth anniversary of the original book that outlined Multiple Intelligences. Gardner broke this book up into three sections: Background of MI, The Theory itself, and Implications and Applications. In Frames of Mind Gardner describes the idea of Multiple Intelligence and how he came up with it; he discusses the nature and characteristic of each intelligence as well as how MI could potentially help our educational system.

Gardner, H. (2002). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice (29. printing. ed.). New York: BasicBooks.

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice is a collection of essays written about how Multiple Intelligence has been implemented in schools since the first book, Frames of Mind was published. In the "Assessment and Beyond" section of the book, Gardner outlines evaluations and gives an alternative form of assessment to standardized exams: a student portfolio to demonstrate strengths.

Garnder, H. (2003, April 21). Multiple Intelligences After Twenty Years. American Education Research Association. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from

Throughout this article, Gardner explains how he came up with the idea of MI and how it has evolved in twenty years. Gardner gives examples of colleagues and studies that have implemented the theory and how it enabled student achievement. He also describes and corrects some misconceptions that he has come across over the years.

Mettetal G., Cheryl J., & Sheryll H. (1997). Attitudes toward a multiple intelligences curriculum. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(2), 115.  Retrieved December 12, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 29295806).

This article is about a small school that adopted the Theory of Multiple Intelligence into their school district. Considering the school went from being a traditional school to a school that fully implemented MI into its classrooms, there were many research activities and studies done to evaluate student assessment. Some activities include: surveys to parents, observations, interviews, and classroom assessments.

Hatch, T. (1997). Getting Specific About Multiple Intelligences. How Children Learn, 54(6), 26- 29. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from leadership/mar97/vol54/num06/Getting-Specific-About-Multiple-Intelligences.aspx

This article describes how each student is smart in their own way. Hatch describes each intelligence in relation to professions. For example, a person with a linguistic intelligence may be a reporter. Hatch proposes that educators teach to the students strengths opposed to the intelligence itself. The main purpose of this article is to try to get educators to avoid labeling their students to a specific intelligence.

Lazear, D. (2000). Multiple Intelligence Approaches to Assessment: Solving The Assessment Conundrum. Global Learning Communities. Retrieved December 10, 2010, from ch_to_assessment.pdf

This article goes into detail about assessments and how they can be conducted. According to Lazear, any student who performs "successfully on a given test does not necessarily demonstrate

genuine learning or understanding; it may tell us only who is good at taking that type of

test (Lazear 2000)." He feels as though students need to demonstrate their knowledge in various ways to show genuine learning and understanding. In his article he outlines Brain-Based and Research-Based Assessment procedures.

McClaskey, J.  (1995). Assessing student learning through multiple intelligences. English Journal, 84(8), 56.  Retrieved December 12, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 9081119).

McClaskey feels as though students need to have opportunities to identify and build on their strengths.