This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Piaget is a well-know pioneer of on cognitive development theory who created four distinct stage of cognitive developmental in children that described how children's ways of thinking developed as they interacted with environment surround of them. He contributes the theory of constructivism has been adopted by wide-world as major strategy in central teaching. He was different with other theorists who focused on studies children's cognitive aspect of occurrence in distinct, measurable, and observable stages. This theory is influenced by much of the non-formal learning sector that created enormously influence in domain of children education.
The self-esteem is a domain of development in children's of concept of themselves. It is built on individual and real unique thinking that encompass self's beliefs to relate with self experience. With the growth of age, children try to adapt themselves with environment around them. Lisa's, in my observation is 5 years ole. According to Piaget's theory of fore stage, Lisa is in proportional stage, her prominent characteristics are representing objects with images in simple ways. She's self-esteem is often sway with 'ego', she has no concrete self-esteem yet to esteem self and make diction, play, happy and image is her all life. Her brain, psychology and physical development is expecting to mature. Lisa's social cognitive and experience is limited, in this way, the parenting style to her will be significant influence. Piaget and Vygozsky both emphasized the social environment integration is children cognitive development obbligato factor.
Ego and self-esteem has different definition. The ego, generally express ones ask. If a person have unhealthy ego, for example, "I am master, I am use to critical of others' and 'I must resent other people', it is not a simple self-confidence, it is harmful propensity, self-central pride, and self-worthiness. This is a biggest hurdle to working with others social communities. To distinguish the ego correctly with keeping health self-esteem that is adult nurture strategy.
Human development is on love, help children are help ourselves. Children's self-esteem comes from a nature resource that is parents' love and understanding, it is a perpetual process of learning and cognitive development, in lifelong. I think that without love and understanding, the self-esteem function will miss out or lopsided development.
Parenting understanding unnatural recourses sustained support and guide children behaviors and cognitive development in lifelong. they are growth. Parents need recognize and avoid while parents provide an appropriate environment that does not overly challenge their sense of self, self-esteem is to esteem internally developed.
Children esteem them self and develop their self-esteem engaging in solving problem ability that around them every day. Followed the age developing, their senses of self become concretely. This period Piaget The concreter cognitive is one of the Piaget's theories which called operationally "Concrete It characteristic can think logically about objects and eventsÂ
Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)Â Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size, physical experience, the accommodation is increased. The child starts to think conceptually and abstractly, and to create logical structures and explain his or her life experiences. For example, a child used to say, 'I am a man.' and parents often say to him: 'Oh, you are a man ' as praising. It's meaning so positive to stimulate self-confident and solid self-esteem and forward to enhance concrete cognitive development. These occurred at thinking, perception, or imagination and reasoning intellect, etc. While the growth of age. A child tries to adapt itself with the environment that results in the behavior and cognitive change.
My observation shows of her uses meaningful pleasure game to I proved the relationship with others. For example, under mother's suggestion, she pretends putting a sweet in to Peter pocket to complete game. In fact, she cannot undertake certain tasks like why she has been asked to do so, it just a pleasure. But her self-esteem cognized that she is successful, she becomes more self-confident to solve the problem. For health self-esteem, sometimes parents cannot awareness, but it is important to relevant influence in children cognition practice in the relationship.
Like a child used to say, 'I am a man.' and parents often say to him: 'Oh, man ' as praising. It's meaning so positive stimulate self-confident to solid self esteem. These occurred at perception, memory, imagination, thinking, reasoning intellect, etc. With the growth of age, a child tries to adapt itself with the environment that results in the behavior and cognitive change.
The theory of Constructivism
Piaget's theory of constructivism impacts learning curriculum becoming central of teaching method in most of school. The educator connects with the adjoining atmosphere play in student education. For example, teachers hold fundamental concepts or role in her mind, then plays when it comes to build cognitive structures; that are same Peter's mother, she asked her children playing a imaging game and she involved with them until her children build up new cognitive construct. During children's solving-problem ability has raised, their psychology has been changed as well, and followed is which lead to cognitive developing. Some of psychologists like J.Vygotsky (1896-1934) and J. Bruner (1915- ), they also emphasis the constructivism concept on the part played by children's learning and language acquiring.
The most significant characteristic of the theory of constructivism is based on the interaction. In the playground or classroom, the interaction of activities are dialectical transformed, those newly transformation creates new unitarily and motivate the children's cognitive developed. Children enjoy finding a way to fit external reality with their internal structures. For example, Lisa is eager for play with Peter's car but she too young, her mother is not encourage her to do so. But she would have had to somehow assimilate information from playground. She assumes that she could drive the car fast as others and her hair is waving. Peter is 7 years old; his personality has further development in self-concreter, he become augured (just like augured with Lisa in playground), social issues involved in school, he start creating and athletic activities setting his own goals. He unconsciously develop self's feeling of at industry or inferiority (Eric Erickson). This characteristic I saw in playground. Ability shows on and stronger self-esteem, his and logical thinking has developed; on social-cognitive experiences. Peter would be in retune. Peter received friendship and allowed Lisa play with his mini-car. As reality assimilated the structures are accommodated. Piaget emphasized teachers or parents apply interacting strategy to develop mental structure assimilate with new situation and changing an action in response to the environment. Piaget's dialectic and his theory of constructivism are enormously influential, particularly in educational.
Contrast to old teaching method, strategy and theory that Piaget's theory of constructivism reformed traditional education. In traditional education, the teachers have to make a curriculum plan with experience and blend in her personality thoughts to enhance students' learning and conceptual growth. There is no interaction between teacher and learner in classroom. The teacher is justice that likes prior teaching system in China before the country reform and openness in 1978. Students have asked to abide by school discipline. One of the items was "must not talk in class", "Have any question to ask teacher dismissed the class". If not, the student will be punishing by hard ruler. I remember one of my teachers always said to us: "In class, you must stand as a pine, sit up like a stand-clock". So, under traditional teaching method, the students were much less critical thinning and fear of teacher, in fact, it is fear punishments and desire for knowledge have been suppressed.
Vygotsky had different concepts to Piaget at the theory of cognitive development. Vygotsky emphasized interact with social play engaged with social cognitive development; Piaget sparkplug universal stages and content of development. But even they have different notion, they still have similar common viewpoints that is children's cognitive development comes from the both at motivation of internal and external interacting to unity and development.
Pretend play is a inspiriting the imagination and thinking skills. In different life stage, children have their own self-esteem and cognitive abilities. Peter plays make-believe game which involves with concrete mental sense fundamental role to development of cognition; Lisa is difference. The psychological characters let them attentively to image a virtual world and along with the universal stage forward to next cognitive filed. Lisa is younger than Peter 2 year. She's cognitive ability staying on preoperational stage. She has limited concepts of quantity and logical thinking. She gains some positive and negative behaviors and emotional manages relationship but she still cannot conversation with others logically. She play pretend game surround with pleasure. They need their mother support and guide to improve behaviors and cognitive abilities.
"We can say that imagination in adolescents and schoolchildren is play without action" (Vygotsky ).
Pretending play and make-believe game is most of children loved action that assists children's mastery of language and mentality, developing social cognitive and gradually mature intelligence forwarding transition to next stage..
"one of the basic psychological structures determining the child's relationship to reality is radically altered". (Vygotsky, 1894 - 1934).
I think, Vvgotsky's notion at children psychology evolution deepener easy carry out.
This transformation cans have to be positive or negative. If the parenting style or teacher that is being authoritarian/totalitarian, the result would be negatively influencing children's cognitive development (Peterson p.233). My ob4servation shows of she uses meaningful pleasure game to improve relationship with others. For example, under mother's suggestion, she pretends putting a sweet in to Peter pocket to complete game. In fact, she cannot undertake certain tasks like why she has been asked to do so, it just a pleasure. But her self-esteem cognized that she is successful, she becomes more self-confident to solve the problem. For health self-esteem, sometimes parents cannot awareness, but it is important to relevant influence in children cognition practice at relationship.