The Role Of The 1870 Forster Education Act Education Essay

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This Act provided a network of elementary schools for filling the gaps in the provision from church-run charity schools which were available for the poor, while the rich could afford private tutors. They only wanted all the children to have the basic education, not to change the class basis of education.

Forester Education Act made state education compulsory up to the age of 10 and so they were taking children's out of employment. The children's families did not like that because they would have less money with children's not working. The writer H. G. Wells describe this "an act to educate the lower class lines, and with specially trained, inferior teachers". However, the Act signified the first general acceptance, which leads in schooling being paid from state taxations and resulting in a link between the state and education that exit today.

The 1870 Act, also explain the cause of so many old primary schools existing from 100 years ago, many of them being build in the years following the Act. There were some reasons for introducing this Act such as an economical benefit like educated workforce beneficial for society and also for maintaining global position. Philanthropic reason, because it was wrong to have children's working from young ages, seen as being antirevolutionary, appearing to bring equality which will also be beneficial to society and to individual. Another reason could be that it seemed that the school provided some kind of social control through education by teaching people how to behave. This Act was introduced also because of political functions being in need for educated population (Taylor P, 1995), (Wilson P, 1989).

Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press.

Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.

Identify the differences between formal education and the hidden curriculum. Make reference to the functionalist and the Marxist viewpoint.

In schools children's are learning a lot of things that are not part of their timetable of official lessons. The hidden curriculum term is used to refer at what children learn indirect from the manner in which the school is organised and also from their teachers. In most of the schools hidden curriculum include punctuality, obedience to authority, appropriate dress, co-operation, honesty. These values and others are communicated by teachers in assemblies.

The formal education, comparing with the hidden curriculum, refers to the skills that a person already has, that are prescribed, fixed and it can't be changed.

Marxists argue that it creates subservient workforce who are trained to be compliant and bored but the functionalists argue that this is beneficial for the society, they argue that society needs to be in balance, to work together(Guy, C., 2012).

Guy, C., (12.12.2012), Hidden Curriculum-Formal Curriculum, Handout

Describe and evaluate the tripartite system of education.

There were theories that there were different "types" of pupils, with different abilities and aptitudes and that they could identify a child's "type" by intelligence testing. Because of this theory, the 1944 Act had introduced a national test called the "11 plus" test for allocating children's to one of the three types of secondary school. Those three types of secondary school were technical schools, secondary modern schools and grammar school. These three were known as tripartite system of secondary education. Grammar school were aiming for children who were classified as "bright" and "academic" good at solving logical problems. These children's were meant to study science, mathematics and difficult subject in order to prepare for GCE exams. There are records showing that less than 20 % of the school population went to study in grammar schools. The technical schools were meant to be for children with abilities in technical subjects with an attendance of 5 %, but most of the children went to secondary modern schools. They received basic education with an opportunity in taking an external examination until CSEs was introduced in 1960.

The tripartite system was meant to provide separate but equal types of schooling geared for those children with particular abilities. Some of the ideas of the Act were to have equal status, similar equipment and staffing, but that did not worked in practice. There were children that did not participated in the tripartite system at all. Also the private sector of education was being excluded from the scope of the Act and the independent schools continued to charge fees. There were some criticisms of the tripartite system because they provided low self esteem for children making them to think that they are not cleaver enough or they did not tried enough. Another criticism was that provided social class division in society because even though the fees were abolished, working class children were less likely to go to a grammar school that those from middle class. Because of the criticisms about 11 plus examination, the tripartite system was rejected. (Taylor P, 1995), (Wilson P, 1989).

Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press.

Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.

Describe and evaluate the comprehensive system.

Comprehensive system is based on the principle of one type of secondary school for everyone. Children from all kind of social backgrounds and with all kind of abilities could attend the same type of school, being provided with the same chances and opportunities to obtain training and qualification. The age 11 entrance exam does not exist. Legislation from 1980s provided parents with large choices of schools.

The movement from selective to comprehensive school remains a political matter. The political left and the Labour party favourite comprehensive schools because in their opinion this was the only school that provided equality in education. In contrast with this, the right and the Conservative Party were very concern about providing "appropriate" education for everyone.

In 1965 the Local Education Authorities were asked by the Labour government to reorganise secondary education on comprehensive lines. The trend of comprehensive slowed down after 1970 allowing grammar schools to exist at the same time as comprehensives. With the election of Labour government was also introduce a legislation requiring all LEAs to go comprehensive. By the end of May 1979, 80% of secondary school children were attending comprehensive.

Comprehensive schools failed to meet their originals aims because some public opinions opposed comprehensive education; a broad social mix in a school has rarely been achieved as schools reflect their catchment area; New Right claimed that academically capable children were held back (Taylor P, 1995).

Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press.

Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.

What is marketization in education? Explain and evaluate how league tables can play a part in marketization.

Marketization in education represent the way the school make them "buyable" by the parents who want a good school for their children's, a school that provide high standards of benefits such as school that provide a swimming pool, a meal, a music room or a sport club.

The League Tables were introduced to provide information about the schools. Also because of the existence of League Tables, parent were able to make a better choice in which school to enrol their children, meaning that there was a competition created between school named as marketization; parents wanting to sent their children to schools that appeared successful in League Tables (Wilson P, 1989).

Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press.

Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.

Describe and evaluate the role of vocational education in the UK today.

Vocational education means training for a specific job. Because the industry needed skilled work forces, they made these vocational education schools in which pupils were trained in vocational courses because some of the children's responded better to courses related to work. Some of the recent initiatives are; youth training scheme (YTS), employment training (ET), national vocational qualification (NVQ). This is another attempt to raise standards.

Evaluating the vocational education, some argue that don't leave equal opportunities, some vocational courses are not highly valued and may be considerate as "second rate". Some are saying that are unfair because are set when children's are too young; also this may be a way of paying law wages and there may not be a job at the end.

From Marxist point of view, the industry is failing. He argues that it is more about training for low wages. However, universities have been open to vocational qualification, but not all (Guy, C., 2012).

Guy, C., (05.12.2012) Vocationalism, Handout

Describe and evaluate the Assisted Placed Scheme.

This scheme sponsors academically gifted children, helping them to pay the fees for their independent schooling. It was initiated in 1980 by The Education Act and operates by the Secretary of State for Education. The parents who had children's at independent school were given help in paying the fees. They wanted to give a chance to gifted children who had less affluent parent at having a high academically education. By 1985, 17,500were using the scheme and by 1990, 34,000. In 1988 and 1989, the cost of the scheme was £50 millions. As an overall the cost was small. The scheme weakens the state sector of education but reinforce the private sector. The selection process involves interviews with parents and children, procedure which can affect children's with parents from working class backgrounds. There is an assumption in the scheme that the schooling offered by the independent schools is better that that from the state system (Taylor P, 1995).

Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press.

Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.

Analyse and evaluate the role that the Public School System plays in Britain today.

The public schools were categorised as agents of moral and spiritual development. They are still following their tradition, they have special attire. They are "controlled by democratic authority and administration". In public schools, people can be seen as "constituents "meaning, they have a legitimate say in how the school should be run. In a way it can be said that private school are run by the parents who pay fees for their children's (Holborn, 2004).

The Public Schools term is commonly used in England and Wells referring to a group of 10 per cent of independent schools. The Public Schools are more prestigious schools such as Eton, Harrow and Rugby because they had always prepared pupils for important public offices. From 2000 independent schools, 200 are public schools.

Holborn, H. a. (2004). Sociology-Themes and Perspectives, sisth edition. London: HarperCollins.

Taylor P, R. J. (1995). Sociology in focus. Bath: The Bath Press.

Wilson P, K. A. (1989). Sociology for GCSE and modern studies. London: HarperCollins.