The Role Of Edwards College Peshawar Modern Education Education Essay

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Education is key to success and to all human developments. It is basic human need and has long been recognized as central element in the over all developments. It is the most important factor in socio economic development and welfare of the country. It is essential for the sound future of a country because it enables the people to respond to new opportunities, adjust to social and cultural changes and participate in the political, cultural and social activities. The advanced countries of the world have made advancement in socio-economic and scientific fields through over all educational attainment of their population.

Despite the fact that Islam has laid great emphasis on education, it is one of the neglected sectors in Pakistan. Pakistan has never allotted more than two percent of its GNP to education which is quite low as compared to United Natioins Standards, which recommends minimum expenditure of 4% of nation's GNP for education in developing countries. Therefore our literacy rate, enrollment ratio and quality education are among the lowest in the world. Serious efforts are needed for the provision of quality education and training. The quality and high standard educational institutes are pre-requisite to achieve quality education goals. In Pakistan we are having few quality educational institutes which have won fame and respect all over the country for their excellent performance and have produced extra ordinary talent. The experience of these institutes, their system of education, training and teaching, their staff and infrastructure, their curriculum, social activities, professional vigor etc are the role model for government and other educational institutions in the country to improve the quality of their institutions, education and personality grooming training.

Edwardes college is one of those educational institutions, which has gained fame for its high standard education and countrywide recognition due to its brilliant performance.

HISTORY OF EDWARDES COLLEGE

The Pakhtuns are considered mightier with sword then the pen. It seems to be true when we see the performance of the people of the frontier in the field of education. The literacy ratio in the province according to 1981 census was 16%. 1 This shows the deplorable condition of education in the province. If this was the situation in 1981, the kind of situation that prevailed before partition is unconceivable. The frontier was the most neglected and backward area of united India. The people of the area were kept ignorant and deliberate and no attention has been improve their status.

It was Sir Herbert Edwardes commissioner of Peshawer from 1835 to 1858, who paid attention towards the deplorable conditions of the people of the area. Under his guidance and leadership educational and medical works were started in the province. To educate the Pakhtuns be laid down the foundation of a school in Peshawer. After two years in 1855, the school was raised to the level of high school and was affiliated with church missionary society London.2

EDWARDES CONTRIBUTIONS IN PROMOTING MODREN EDUCATION IN KPK

BEGGINNINGS: 1900 TO 1907

In may 1900 the missionary society upgraded the school to the level of college. The college was started within the building of school and was named after Sir Herbert Edwardes in recognition to his services rendered for the promotion of education in the frontier province and also because he initiated the project when he laid the foundation of a school in 1853.3 Mr. Henery Hoare was appointed as first principal of Edwardes College. During these years there were about 30 students in the college. In 1903 the Principal reported:

"……The college continues to do good work in a quite way…..and will in the near future prove a very real force in the moral and social culture"4. Brook smith

First year class was started in May 1900 in the Central Block of Edwardes High School Peshawar. Sudents were prepared for the intermediate Arts Examination of the Punjab University . From 1900 to 1903 the subjects for which provision was made were: English, Philosophy, History, Mathematics, Sansikrat, Persian and Arabic. There were no endowments. The college conforms to Government regulations as to fees but received no aid from Provincial or Municipal Funds. In 1904 the college gave scholarship of 8 rupees per anum for two years to the student who got highest marks in the Annual Examination5.

1908 to 1914

The demand for college education at that time was slight. For the first few years the numbers had fluctuated around 30 of whom more than half were Hindus and Sikhs. Even in 1913 after the start of BA classes (1911) the total number was 42. Students were prepared for the BA examination of the Punjab university. The subjects for which provision was made were: English, Philosophy, History, Economics, Mathematics (A and B), Persian, Sansikrat and Arabic6.BROWN BOOK

The college was known at this stage as Edwardes Church Mission College and it was affiliated with the University of Punjab. It was the only college in the frontier. Just as it seemed that the college had established itself, a new problem arose the proposal to established an Islamia college. For some years it had been felt that some of the more conservative families were reluctant to send their sons to a missionary college. Although the college policy was "to unite upon one platform young men of varying race and creed and bind them together with common aspirations to rise to true citizenship", it was nevertheless regarded with deep suspicion in some circles. In 1913 Islamia College was opened with solid government support both in generous grants and in scholarships. A serious crises ensued for Edwardes College. Number of students declined drastically over a number of years. In 1913 the numbers entering the first year declined by over 75% - down from 19 in 1912 to 4 in 1913. The damaged was done and it took several years for the college to recover its numbers and its confidence . Principal Hoare retired in 1914 and the Great World War broke out. By this stage there were 65 students in the college.7

WAR AND INDEPENDANCE

During this period the college became established in the form we recognized today. A feature of college life was the production of plays of high literary merit. In 1914 the college produced "Twelfth Night" ( William Shakespare Play ).8

Under Canon R. H. Noble ( 1924-28 ) , Rev. C. A. Bender ( 1928-37 ) and Rev. A. M. Dalaya ( 1937-47 ) the college reached an inter- war high point. On all forms the college came to fulfill the liberal and unifying ideals upon which it had been founded. R. H. Noble stated, "We are men of different communities and faiths and races living in harmony and friendship. We work together and try to learn the secret of fellowship and peace…..we hope our lives may be more useful and this spirit of helpfulness will enrich the province in which we live TO THE GREATER GLORY OF GOD". Principal A. M. Dalaya, was the first and only national to become principal. He was an outstanding principal. In every field the college developed and flourished. He enlisted the warm support of the Governor, Sir George Cunningham, who reffered to himself as the "honaray mali" of Edwardes College. Most evenings he could be seen in the college grounds planning the lawns and lying out the gardens. To this day the college lawn infront of the library is known as the Cunningham Lawn. During this time regular social work schems were established at the College. In summer of 1947 Principal Dalaya left on summer leave never to return back and in August Pakistan was born.9

POST INDEPENDENCE

Challenges that Edwardes successfully survived over the years included the founding of Islamia College in 1913, controversy over the role of religion in the college during the 1950's and the nationalization of most churcg colleges…except edwardes…in the 1970's. In the late 1980's Edwardes College School was established on the campus as a feeder school for the College.Long a men's college, Edwardes is now co-educational with over 300 women students and 17 women among its 93 faculty members, with numbers of women anticipated to increase over time. A Women's Center was established in 2007 where separate rooms for both female teachers and students were allotted for their free time and relaxation.10

In 1995 the college had 1400 students, and by 2010 that number had grown to 2000. The addition of evening classes in 2010 increased the number to 2800. The number of academic programmes has also grown over the years so that now eight different undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications are offered. In March 2010 the Board of Governors of the College authorized the management to pursue degree awarding status through the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Ministry of Education and Provincial Assembly and the Federal Higher Education Commission. The process is now underway with many academic and organizational preparations being made. As Edwardes becomes more able to design its own academic offerings, the historic Edwardian contribution to education will intensify. In the second decade of the 21st century the College will be servant leaders in meeting the challenges and opportunities of Pakistan today.11

ACADEMICS AND ACHIEVEMENTS

Since its establishment in 1900, Edwards College has remained one of the renowned educational institution of the country. The aim of the college was to provide quality education to the people of the areato enable them to play their positive role in the society. To achieve its goals the college has set up high standard of education and training for its studends. The quality education, personality and character buildings and high intellectual standards being the main aims the college has tried to set up an atmosphere conductive to achieve their ideals. The qualified staff from abroad and the country standard curriculum, co-curricular and extra curricular activities, sports,debates and speeches, fuctions and celebrations of events by the college societies etc are some of the devices employed to achieve these aims. The college has produced large number of intellectuals who have served and are still serving the nation in all walks of life, some of the prominent personalties who got their education from Edwards College are Dr. Abdul Jabar Khan, former Chief Minister of N.W.F.P West Pakistan, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, renowned political leader of All India Muslim League N.W.F.P, Sardar Aurangzeb Khan who represented people of N.W.F.P in the historic meeting of All India Muslim League at Lahore in 1940. Yahya Khan former CHOAS President of Pakistan, Aftab Ahmed Sherpao, former Chief Minister of NWFP, Fida Muhammad Khan, former Governor of NWFP, Ghulam Ahmed Bilour, General Arif Nawa, General Waheed Kakar former COAS of Pakistan Army, Ahmed Faraz a renowned poet who started his career from the stage of Edwards College and many more who are serving in every department and are playing their role in the socio-economic development of the country.12

PURPOSE OF EDWARDES COLLEGE

Edwardes College admissions are designed to ensure a diverse student body in ethnicity, religion, economic status and nationality. The college admits both men and women to its programmes, and a strong academic background is a hogh priority. While the majority of applicants are from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and from the Federally Administered Tribel Agencies (FATA) , persons are admitted from all regions and ethnic groups of Pakistan. The college does not discriminate on the bases of race, ethnicity, region , religion, physical disability or nationality in its admissions. Edwardes expects its students to reflect the spirit of tolerance and mutual exploration that informs the college's admissions policies.13

"we have a long and proud history of growing and shaping leaders for the nation. As our concern has never been myophic, so beside academics we have been stressing character building. Here young Edwardians have the privilege of developing themselves into sharp, responsible, sensible and tolerant individuals."14

INTEGRITY PROJECT

The integrity project is launched for all Edwardes students for 2012-13 academic year. The compulsory weekly sessions are an integral part of the personal development that Edwardes cultivates alongside its educational programme."How can we go about improving our personal character?" asked Project Coordinator Samin Khan, who is also lecturer in Philosophy. "these are the kinds of questions the Integrity Project is addressing. We are looking at empirical and philosophical literature in order to help our community develop what the most promising account of Pakistani character might be."15

The integrity project is designed to nurture in Edwardes students the personal qualities of ethical understanding, moral behavior, community responsibility and servant leadership. This initiative enhances the College's ability to fulfill its mission to educate and develop professionals who will be servant leaders in meeting the challenges and oppurtunities of Pakistan today.16

The mission of edwardes College is to educate and develop professionals who wil be the servant leaders in meeting the challenges and opportunities of Pakistan today. Edwardes has a long history of preparing students for the professions, and many graduates have offered leadership in medicine, the arts, religion, engineering, government, the military and education. Such leadership arises not only from academic learning but from the formation of personal character thet radiates creativity, integrity and responsibility. It arises from habits of spiritual faithfulness, nurtured here in an interfaith environment where Muslims and Christians. Hindus and Sikhs grow together in a setting shaped by the college's sponsorship by the Church of Pakistan. The college integrity project is designed to give students an opportunity to discuss intensively the aims of education and the ethical standards that will guide them throughout their lives.17

WHAT DOES THE TERM INTEGRITY MEAN?

A dictionary definition of integrity:

1:Steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code- a person's integrity.

2:State of being unimpaired; soundness- integrity of the hull of a ship.

3:Condition of being whole or undivided; completeness- integrity of an empire18

The word comes from Latin integer, meaning entire.

Urdu equivalent: deyaanat -honesty free from corruption, free of doubts, complete.19

For the integrity project we combine the word's meaning of "adherence to an ethical code'' with "state of being whole or entire" and say that integrity means consistent living in relation to positive ethical values such as honesty, faithfulness, respect, service and transparency.20

Vice Principal Professor Kalim Ullah said in an interview about the integrity project that this is really advance for us as an institution. It will revive and give substance to what we have always understood as the 'Edwardian Culture' that has made unique contributions to cultural life and civic leadership in this province and in Pakistan.21

ENGLISH IMMERSION CLASSES AT EDWARDES

In linguistics to teach the target language in the same language is called immersion. This is a direct method to teach any language. In edwardes the main aim of immersion classes is to make English to be easily accessable and learnable through some latest technique.22

The English immersion classes is for all the new comers in the college at first year. According to the head of department of English "we want to encourage students to speak in English without the fear of making mistakes"23. Students must be encouraged to use English on the campus and during the class timing  i.e., when students enter the gate they should begin practising greetings and pleasantries with each other in English rather than in Pashto and Urdu, and during breaks they should chat in English.  It will feel awkward to them, but only so will they begin to truly acquire facilities.24

MAIN OBJECTIVES:

a) Encouraging students to use English most of the time, eradicating the fear of making mistakes.

b) Students should be able to use most common tenses & other common grammatical components correctly in spoken and written English.

c) They should be able to use educated & suitable vocabulary rather than using good, bad and nice all the time.

d) Awareness of Edwardes culture, stressing on decency, politeness, honesty and tolerance, especially for being a part of a co-educational college. Special counseling against the growing menace of cheating.25

SYLABUS OUTLINES

The immersion programme is must for every student at the start of first year and the time duration is of 20 days. The syllabi is divided into three portions, speaking module , writing module and the grammer.26

In the speaking module the teacher's duty is to encourage the student to talk in English without the fear of making any mistakes. Speaking in English as often as possible is very helpful in the development of one's powers of expression. A good deal of our speaking has to be done in the mother tongue but the student may profitably increase his opportunities of English conversation with persons of recognized taste and culture. If we speak in correct and idiomatic English, whenever we speak in that language, our written English will be all the better for it. The style will also gain a natural flow and conversational ease.27

It is wrong to think that one can write English by mastering a few rules of grammer. There was never a greater delusion. Rules of grammer do count but they are not the whole matter. Thus it is possible that one may not still be good English.28

The Pakistani student is in a particularly difficult position in acquiring the knowledge of English because it is a foreign language foreign to him in spirit, in origin, in traditions and in genius. He cannot be blamed if he finds it difficult to master the intricacies of English idiom and usage.The secret of writing good English does not lie in memorizing the rules of grammer but in developing the habits of clear thinking and expression.29

Medium of instruction is English in the college and almost all the staff of English department is engaged in academic research.The English Department is also involved in Cambridge course called International English Language Testing System (IELTS). Several teachers of English department got academic scholarships and this department is currently working on a language laboratory.30

A levels programme

Edwardes College Peshawer is one of the approved centres for the Cambridge Advanced Level qualification. Edwardes A Level programme in Edawardse provide direct link to the foreign universities. In edwardes college the A level programme was started in 1999 for both male and female who has the lust for acquiring modern education. Inn the A levels programme of Edwardes college included physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, accounting, economics and business study.31

The A level programme of edwades provided the experienced staff of teaching who wok hard to facilitate the students and to give them courage and powers to face the challenges of the modern world. In the past few years due to the hard work of the experienced and well trained teachersthe students showed very good results and they were nominated for the High Achievers Awards.32

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

This department was establish in 1998 for the first time in the history of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa where equal oppurtunities were given to male as well as female students.

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In this department Edwardes college offered courses for intermediate, bacholar of computer science and Masters in computer science. Apart from these courses the department caters for degree in electronics, for which the requirement can be intermediate in science. Digital power supplies,functional generators and oscilloscopes are included in the laboratories of this department and both students and teachers can use these things all time. Internet facility is also provided for staff and students and all the four lecture rooms air centrally air conditioned.33

The results of this department is very good from its start and currently graduate from this department is in UK for higher education and specialization. Edwardes college provided strong link with Liverpool Hope university.34

DEPARTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES

The Department of professional Studies offers HND Higher National Diploma qualifications, which are industry-specific vocational qualifications in the disciplines of Business and Computing, Public Sciences and Strategic Management and leadership. HND qualifications are affiliated with Edexel in the UK and are recognized by the higher education commission HEC in Pakistan.35

The department of professional studies was the first center in Province to offer Higher National Diplomas HNDs in 2003 and EDSML in 2011. HND qualifications are considered equivalent to two years bacholars degree B.A, B.Sc by the higher education commission, Pakistan. Edwardes centre has been ranked for its excellent academic track record as amongst the top two institutes in South Asia by Edexecel UK.36

In Pakistan, our graduates are accepted on competitive programmes of business schools at Masters Level. HND graduates also secure admission in the third year of the Bachelor degree in the United Kingdom. Edwardes alumini are pursuing their higher studies in Liverpool Hope University, the University of Hertfordshire, the University of Northumbria and Glamorgan University in UK. One of the HND graduate has also been awarded a PhD scholarship at Liverpool Hope University.

In addition to HND and EDSML, department is offering MBA in HRM AND Finance. MBA is three years programme in affiliation with the university of Peshawer.37

LIBRARY AND READING ROOM OF EDWARDES COLLEGE

Library is an essential part of any institution or college. Those days are gone when a single text book was sufficient for the student to pass the examination. In the changing world it is very much essiential for the students as well as for the teachers to search on the topic or subject to know about the different opinions and ideas of that particular topic or subject. The aim and object of the private study is to ensure that the students may learn to treat books as natural sources of knowledge and interest. To achieve these aims and objects Edwardes College from the very beginning provided the students with combined reading room and library fully equipped with essential material and above all local and foreign Urdu and English newspapers, magazines and weeklies.38

One of the assets of Edwardes College is its library which has a treasure of both classical novels and modern books in a variety of subjects. The history of Edwardes college Library is as old as the history of the college. In 2005 the Library building was restored and refurnished. Library collection holds some approximately 8490 books and other media with some rare books in existence. All the important national and international news papers are provided for the students to keep them aware from the rest of the world. The use of computers and laptops is not restricted to students.39

The library extents many services to its readers…. The orientation of the entire collection to the new comers as well as to all. Information searching facility and retrieval facility through computers. Assistance in the use of computerized catalogue and retrieval of information from reference books etc.I nformation is provided to the students seeking admission in local or foreign universities. A separate reference sections is available in the gallery of the library.40

The library collection is divided into five categories.

1: General

2: Text

3: Reference

4: Manuscript

5: Reserved/ Rare Books41

According to the Director Studies of the Edwardes College the core purposes of the Edwardes library are as follow…..

Provide environment for high quality teaching and learning through imaginative, stimulating and rigorous professional practice.

Give value to each individual's right to develop their full potentials in every aspect to achieve their educational goals.

Provide an effective system of Pastoral care and academic support.

Provide effective home college link.

Encourage students to seek excellence in sports and hobbies in the pursuit of becoming rounded and compassionate human beings.

Promote and encourage the creative use of intelligence.

Encourage the spirit of intelligent tolerance and understanding of multi-cultures, multi-races and multi-faiths.

Prepare the students for optimal performance in public examinations.

Prepare the students for being responsible citizens and future leaders.42

COUNSELING OFFICE

At Edwardes college we have one simple goal; developing the personality traits in young learners in order to make them stand confidently against the odds in their practical life. This is what we consider at the college "The Edwardes Way" of building your personality out of your person.43

Edwardes offers a counseling service that is of great benefit to students experiencing stress in their lives. College can be a difficult time of life for students. Academic pressures are constant. Some students live far from home, and for all there is the stress of life in the prevailing terrorism situation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa today. Self-esteem , peer relations and gender relations can be a challenge. Long latent psychological problems sometimes arise from personality or family background.44

Simply having someone to talk to is beneficial in and of itself. A counselor can provide professional and un biased feedback. Through being councelled students can gain tools to manage everyday life issues and gain insight into causes and effects. Counseling can make a situation feel more manageable and help the student see that he or she can and will get through a challenging situation.45

Edwards offers psychological counseling through the psychology lectures. Students are free to schedule appointments at any time. The counseling relationship is confidencial, which means that what the students share in counseling wil not be told to anyone else. The counseling service is not part of the discipline of the proctoral system but operates separately.46

STUDENT ACTIVITIES AND SPORTS

 The college believes students activities which usually fall outside the traditional college curriculum are an important part of its social and intellectual environment. It recognizes the fact that education, in its broader perspective, must apply to the whole person and should not be limited to intellectual training alone. To this person and should not be limited to intellectual training alone. To this end the college endeavors to provide ample opportunities to students in the form of sports and various societies and clubs. Every student is expected to participate in at least one sport and one cultural activity.

 

There are a number of societies to which students are encouraged to contribute. These include the Debating Society, Science & Culture Society, English Literature Society, Bazm-e Adab, and Blood Donors Society. Examples of clubs are Hiking & Trekking Club and the Entertainment Club. The Dramatic Society produces an annual play open to the public. The most recent productions include Volpone, Hamlet, Macbeth, DR. Faustus, A Man for All Seasons and Then There were None.47

 

Hockey, Football, Volleyball , Basketball, Tennis, Cricket, Badminton and Table Tennis are regular college sport. Indoor games of various kinds are also available. "We try hard to keep our campus humming and buzzing with activities. Here at Edwardes there is always something good happening, whether a sport, a debate, a drama, a charity or a stimulating conversation."48

 

Duke of Edinburgh's Award in Pakistan:

 

This scheme, founded in UK in 1956, was extended to Pakistan in 1987. Bronze, Silver and Gold medals are awarded to to youths ages 14-25 years who offer voluntary community service or who reach high levels in physical and adventure skills. To date 100 gold, 150 silver and 1200 bronze medals have been awarded to students of Peshawar zone and Edwards students are encouraged to participate.49

 

Tutorial System:

 

Every student is a member of a tutorial group normally comprising between 30 and 40 students with a faculty member as Tutor. Each group meets for a tutorial period on a regular basis once or twice a month. The Tutor normally has additional contact with his/her "tutees" on a daily and weekly basis and is available for consultation by students and families at any time by arrangement.50

 

The Tutor and Year Head monitor academic performance and attendance and deal with the other matters of the concern to students or families. Guidance is available concerning future academic courses in Pakistan or overseas and concerning choice of career.51

 

Academic Enrichment & International Links

 

In today's shrinking world it is important to look outward. The college encourages and assists students who wish to continue their studies abroad, and has we a developing resource of information on study opportunities in the UK and elsewhere. Counsel is also available about careers and higher education in Pakistan. Students in the HND course can have their 3rd year hopup in foreign universities. In this connection College provides complete counsel for getting admission in reputed foreign universities. The college has links with academic institutions in UK and is developing a close relationship with several, including Liverpool Hope University.52

CONCLUSIONS

Edwards College is one of the oldest institution of Khyber Paktunkhwa. It was founded in 1900 by the church Missionary Society of London to meet the educational needs of Peshawar and the North West Frontier Province. The college maintains the traditional links with worldwide church Missionary Society in London and the church of Pakistan. The college is quality English medium institution built on long traditions of excellence. The history of successful students ,many of whom have gone on to become the leaders of NWFP as well as have achieved outstanding distinction throughout Pakistan as statesmen, Soldiers, Public Servants, Lawyers and in many other field is clear proof to its outstanding performances. With the college campus English Medium School is also working, which was established by the college as feeder school under the overall auspices of supervision of the college principal. It offers both SSC and Cambridge courses. The college provides the type of education which enables the students to grow to full status of man, sound in mind and body. The aim of the college is to give a student knowledge and skill so that he may live in life useful to his fellowmen and enjoyable to himself. The student should acquire a high standard of conduct and honorable Profession.

The college provide an all round education that includes first rate supporting facilities and number of clubs and societies that cater for a very wide range of interests. The education at the college is not limited to intellectual training. The college arranges wide range of curricular and co-curricular and extra curricular activities. To this end the institution endeavors to provide ample opportunities to the students through sport clubs, athletic associations and various societies. There are various societies in which students are encouraged to contribute. These include the Debating Society, Science & Culture Society, English Literature Society, Annuak Mushaera, Bazm-e Adab, and Blood Donors Society. Also there are clubs like Hiking, Chess, Computing and Karate.

Sports like cricket, hockey, football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, badminton and athletics are regular college sports and students are encouraged to participate in games. The college has a unique atmosphere. The buildings are well designed with well lit lecture rooms, wide hall and a health centre, a very big library with vide range of books, a separate science building well equipment with substantial supply of laboratory material, fine student teacher centre with a shop, canteen and other facilities are adding to the beauty of the college campus. The sport areas are spacious and provide space for cricket, hockey, football, volleyball, basketball and tennis.

Political activities of any kind are forbidden in the college including the wearing of political badges due to which excellent peaceful atmosphere prevails in the college. For its academic standards the college has won the nation wide praise. It has produced an extra ordinary talent who served the country in the various fields.

REFERENCES

1:Abdul Razzaq and Mohammad Naseem Iqbal Farooqi , (1982) The State of

Population in Pakistan , Islamabad , NIPS , P.129.

2: Imran , Rashid Imran , ( july 2011) 2nd Edition, Peshawar: Liaquat Bazar , p.439

3 : Hussain, Dr. Syed Sultan Mahmood, (1997) ,50 years of Edwardes College 1900-1950 , Lahore: 9- Rattingan Road, p.4

4 : Smith, Robin Brooke , (2000), Outline History of Edwardes College 1900 to 2000, Peshawar : Edwardian Press Edwardes College, p.4

5 : Hussain, 50 years of Edwardes College 1900-1950 , p.10

6 : Ibid , p.26

7 : Smith, Outline History Of Edwardes College 1900 to 2000, p.6

8 : The Edwardian 2009, Annual Magazine, Edwardes College Peshawar p.16

9 : Smith, , Outline History Of Edwardes College 1900 to 2000, p.7

10: Edwardes College Prospectus, 2012, p .7

11:Ibid, p. 8

12: Edwardes College ki satanvi salgirah, (1957), Peshawar: Hamidia Press , p.3

13: Edwardes College Peshawar, (2000) , Diamond Jubilee Celebration Magazine , Peshawar, Khyber Mail , p.32

14: Interview with Vice Principal of Professor Kalimullah 15. 10. 2012

15: Interview with Lecturer Samin Khan, Project coordinator Integrity Programme, 20.10.2012.

16: Interview with Principal, Canon Dr. Titus Presler. 16.10.2010

17:Ibid

18:Brousher Integrity Programme, July 2012.

19:Interview with Associate Professor Mohammad Jamal Khan, Head of Urdu Department, 11.10.2012

20: Interview with Lecturer Samin Khan, Project coordinator Integrity Programme, 20.10.2012.

21: Interview with Vice Principal of Professor Kalimullah 15. 10. 2012

22: Interview with Professor Alwin Edwin, Head of English Department, 13.10.2012

23:Ibid

24: Interview with Principal, Canon Dr. Titus Presler. 16.10.2010

25: Interview with Professor Gulzar Jalal, coordinator of writing module in the English immersion programme. 14.10.2012

26: Interview with Professor Alwin Edwin, Head of English Department, 13.10.2012

27: Interview with Assistant Professor Hanif Rasool, coordinator of speaking module in the English immersion programme.20.10.2012

28: Interview with Assistant Professor Nasir Iqbal, coordinator of grammer module in the English immersion programme. 20.10.2012

29: Interview with Professor Alwin Edwin, Head of English Department, 13.10.2012

30: Edwardes College Prospectus, 2012, p .22

31: Interview with Associate Professor Shah Jehan, Head of Department of A-Level.

32: Interview with Vice Principal of Professor Kalimullah 15. 10. 2012

33: Interview with Associate Professor Naveed Ali, Head of Computer Science Department and Director Studies Edwardes college , 11.10.2012

34:Ibid

35: www.edwardes.edu.pk

36: Interview with Vice Principal of Professor Kalimullah 15. 10. 2012

37: : Interview with Associate Professor Naveed Ali, Head of Computer Science Department and Director Studies Edwardes college , 11.10.2012

38: Interview with Librarian Shahzad Ahmad, 12.10.2012

39: Interview with Principal, Canon Dr. Titus Presler. 16.10.2010

40: Edwardes College Prospectus, 2012, p .22

41: Interview with Librarian Shahzad Ahmad, 12.10.2012

42: Interview with Associate Professor Naveed Ali, Head of Computer Science Department and Director Studies Edwardes college , 11.10.2012

43: Interview with Vice Principal of Professor Kalimullah 15. 10. 2012

44: Interview with Lecturer Jolia Parvaiz Edwin, Head of Psychology Department

17.10.2012

45: Ibid

46: Ibid

47: Interview with Head of Dramatic socity Associate Professor Nasir Iqbal 17.10.2012

48: Interview with Vice Principal of Professor Kalimullah 15. 10. 2012

49: Edwardes College Prospectus, 2012, p .41

50: Interview with first Year Head Lecturer Yasir Hussain 18.10.2012

51: : Interview with second Year Head Assistant Professor Mohammad Naeem 18.10.2012

52: Interview with Associate Professor Naveed Ali, Head of Computer Science Department and Director Studies Edwardes college , 11.10.2012

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