The Relationship between Students’ Self Confidence and Learning Achievements in Descriptive Writing

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RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Title: The Relationship between Students’ Self Confidence and Learning Achievements in Descriptive Writing of the Tenth Grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta, 2013/2014 Academic Year.

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  1. The Background of The Research

Language is a medium used by people to communicate with others. Lock states that language is a medium of human to communicate that including of words either spoken or written.[1] Through the language, people can easily share their ideas, opinions, and feelings to others, either in spoken or written expression.

English is the language that is used by almost people in the world. Rose assumed that international experts calculated that about 400 million people use English as a second language.[2] Therefore, English is the most dominant language used by people in the world.

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In Indonesia, one of the goals in teaching English is developing students’ communication skill by using English covering four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These four language skills have to be mastered by the students. In other words, learning English is aimed to make students to be able to use English in communication.

Among the four skills, writing is viewed as the most difficult skill to be learned. According to Gorrel and Laird, “Writing requires thinking, and thinking is always complicated and hard.”[3] Therefore, it is clear that writing needs hard thinking in producing words, sentences, paragraphs and arranging them into a good sequence.

In fact, the difficulties of writing also happened when the writer was doing training (PPL) in 41 Senior High School Jakarta. There are some factors that make writing becomes difficult for students. The psychology of the students can also influence the result of their learning achievement in writing.

From the explanation above, the writer is interested in doing research to analyze the relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievements in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta. Therefore, the result of the research can be informed to the teacher as references in his/her teaching, what should be done in the future.

  1. The Scope of the Research

In this research, the writer limits the analysis into the relationship between self-confidence and learning achievement’s students in writing especially in descriptive writing. The writer wants to make the questioner and written task form at tenth grade students of SMAN 41 Jakarta.

  1. The Problem of the Research

Based on the explanation above, the writer formulates the problem as follows “Is there any significant relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievement in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta?”

  1. The Objective of the Research

The objectives of this research is to find out the empirical data weather there is the significant relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievement in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta.

  1. Theoretical Framework
  1. Self-Confidence
  1. The Understanding of Self-Confidence

Self-confidence is important for everyone, especially for students. According to Rakhmat, self-confidence is belief about ability himself/herself.[4] The key terms are belief, and himself/herself. Belief means the person has a faith about their ability. Himself/herself means being independent. It means self-confidence is something that is owned by people, and it makes them to believe their own ability.

Rodgers in Koswara added self-confidence is the ability to make decisions and judgments without depending on others (independent).[5] The key terms is without depending on others. It means self-confidence is able to make decisions by their own selves.

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Hakim states, “Kepercayaan diri adalah suatu keyakinan seseorang terhadap segala aspek kelebihan yang dimilikinya dan keyakinan tersebut membuatnya merasa mampu untuk bisa mencapai berbagai tujuan di dalam hidupnya.”[6] In other words self-confidence is someone’s belief about all aspects that owned by themselves, and that belief makes them for being able to achieve something in their live. The key term is someone’s belief. Someone’s belief refers to someone who believes about their knowledge which then makes them to feel like they can do anything. It can be inferred that self-confidence is something that has someone about their competence which then makes them to feel like they can do anything.

From those statements above, it can be concluded that self-confidence is something that someone has already had, and it seems like they can do anything while they have it without relying on others.

  1. The Characteristics of Self-Confidence

Fatimah suggests some characteristics of self-confidence, there are:[7]

  1. Believe in the ability or competence of self, then not need praise, recognition, acceptance or respect from others.
  2. Not to be motivated to show the conformist attitude in order to be accepted by others.
  3. Dare to accept and face the rejection of others, dare to be yourself.
  4. Have a good self-control.
  5. Have a positive outlook about themselves, other people, and situations outside of them.
  6. Have a realistic expectations of themselves, so that when the expectations was realized, they were still able to see the positive side of themselves and the situation.

Moreover, the characteristics of individuals who have self-confidence according to Hakim, they are:[8]

  1. Poised in doing something.
  2. Have the potential and ability of adequate.
  3. Be able to neutralize the tensions that arise in certain situations.
  4. Be able to adapt and communicate.
  5. Have the mental and physical condition of supporting the appearance.
  6. Have the sufficient intelligence.
  7. Have the sufficient level of formal education.
  8. Have the skills and other skills that support the life.
  9. Have the ability to socialize.
  10. Have the background of good family education.
  11. Have the life experience that forges mental and tenacity on variety of situations.
  12. Have the positive attitude in the face of problems.

From those characteristics above, the students or individuals that have self-confidence are believe in the competence of self, dare to be yourself, have a good self-control, poised in doing something, be able to adapt and communicate, have the sufficient intelligence, have the ability to socialize, and have the positive attitude in the face of problems.

  1. Learning Achievement
  1. The Understanding of Learning

According to Arthur in Syaiful defines that learning is a modification of behavior through experience and training.[9] The key term is modification of behavior. It means learning is a process that can change the behavior of someone through training and practicing.

The second statement from Brown, “learning is acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction[10]”. It means learning is a process to get the knowledge by someone through study, experience, or instruction.

The third definition comes from Good and Brophy in Purwanto, “Learning is the development of new associations as a result of experience.”[11] The key words are the development, and result of experience. The development refers to the process of the increasing knowledge from not knowing anything to know anything. Result of experience refers to something that the students face when they get the knowledge while they receive it. It can be inferred that learning is the process of getting the new knowledge when they study.

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From those definitions above, it can be concluded that learning is a process to get the knowledge or skill by studying or practicing. Moreover, it can change someone’s behavior.

  1. The Understanding of Achievement

Soeito stated that achievement can be formulated as a relatively change of behavior as a result of experience in the past.[12] The key term is change of behavior. Change of behavior means the behavior of someone to be better. It can be summarized that achievement is something that can make the behavior of someone to be better as a result of their experienced.

Travers added that achievement is the result of what an individual has learned from some educational experiences.[13] The key term is the result. The result means something which has been reached as an efforts. It can be summarized that achievement is something which has been reached as an efforts.

Djamarah defined that achievement is the result of an activity that has been done, created, either individually or in a group.[14] The key term is has been done. Has been done means after the learning process. It can be inferred that achievement is the good result of an activity that has already done after the learning process by someone or in a group.

From those definition above the writer concluded that achievement is something that individual earned after giving effort during the activity and it can also change the individual’s behavior.

  1. The Understanding of Learning Achievement

By determining the previous description about learning and achievement. The writer concludes that learning achievement is something that individual earned after giving effort during the learning process, and it can also change the individual’s behavior.

  1. Writing
  1. The Understanding of Writing

Writing is one kind of media that is used to communicate which is visible. Abrams states, “Writing is a visual form of communication, either printed in hard-copy or in electronic form.”[15] The key term is visual form; it means the writing is something that can be seen by the reader.

Gould states, “…writing is not speech; it is careful arrangement of words on a page which has its own idioms and format and does not transcribe the informalities of speech performance.” The key terms are on a page, and format. On a page means the ideas that laid on a surface of paper. Format means the rules in writing. Therefore, it means writing are ideas that put on a page of paper which has the rules in writing.

From two definitions above, it can be inferred from the first statement that writing is something which visible to the reader. While the second statement from Gould completes the first statement, writing is not speech which is arrangement of words on a page of paper that has the rules in making writing.

The third statement comes from Yule; he states that “…writing as the symbolic representation of language through the use of graphic signs.”[16] The key terms are symbolic representation, and graphic signs. Symbolic representation means symbols which has the meaning. Graphic signs means the writing that made by people on a papers or any surface. It means writing is one of kinds of media which translated into meaningful symbol or letters on papers or any surface can be written upon.

From the statements above, the writer concluded that the writing is ideas whose forms are using symbols. They are put on a page of paper that can be seen and have clear formats.

  1. Types of Writing

According to Wishon and Burks there are four types of writing; there are Narration, Description, Expository, and Argumentation.

  1. Narration

Narration is the form of writing used to relate the story of acts or events. Narration places occurrences in time and tells what happened according to natural time sequence. Types of narration include novels, short stories and news stories, as well as a large part of our everyday social interchange in the form of letters and conversation.

  1. Description

Description reproduces the way things look, smell, taste, feel, or sound; it is may also evoke mood, such as happiness, loneliness or fear. It is used to visual image of people, places, even of units of time-days, times of day of the seasons. It may be used also to describe more than the outward appearance of people. It may tell about their traits character or personality.

  1. Exposition

Exposition is used in giving information, making explanation, and interpreting meanings. It includes editorials, essays, informative and instructional material. Used in combination with narrative, exposition supports and illustrates. Used apart of narrative, it stands alone as an essay. Used alone or with narrative, exposition may be developed in a number of ways.

  1. Argumentation

Argumentation is used in persuading and convincing. It is closely related to exposition and is often found combined with it. Argumentation is used to make a case or to prove or disapprove a statement of proposition.[17]

From those types, the writer would focus on descriptive writing.

  1. Descriptive Writing
  1. The Understanding of Description

Oshima and Hogue stated, “Descriptive writing appeals to the senses, so it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and/or sound.”[18] The key words are tells something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and sound. It means telling the readers about the characteristics and physical appearances of something. In other words, descriptive writing is telling the readers about something in particular by mentioning the characteristic and physical appearance.

Similar with Oshima and Hogue, Wishon states, “Description gives sense impressions the feel, sound, taste, smell, and look of things.”[19] The key terms are gives impressions the feel, sound, taste, smell, and look of things. It means description telling the impressions of how something looks like. In other words description is describing of how something looks like.

Trimmer assumed, “Description is a strategy for presenting a verbal portrait of person, place, or thing.”[20] The key terms are presenting a person, place, and thing. It means description is a composition that presents about person, place, or thing to others people. It can be inferred that writing is presenting about person, place, and thing.

From those definitions above, the writer concluded that description is a way to describe the person, place, and thing about their physical appearances and characteristics that can be looked, felt, smelled, sound, and tasted.

  1. The Generic Structure Of Description

According to Doddy et al, the generic structures of description are:

  1. Identification: Identifies phenomenon to describe. It means in this paragraph to describe about physical appearances.
  2. Description: Describe parts, qualities, characters. It means in this paragraph to describe about characteristic of the object and the detail information.[21]
  1. Research Methodology
  1. The Time and Location of the Research

The research will be conducted in SMAN 41 Jakarta, 2013/2014 Academic Year on ________ 2014.

  1. The Population and Sample of the Research

The population respondents will be taken from the students in tenth grade at SMAN 41 Jakarta, 2013 / 2014 Academic Year. The writer will take 60 students from two classes at SMAN 41 Jakarta which is chosen randomly.

  1. The Method of the Research

The method of the research is a correlation method. To know the significant relationship between students’ self-confidence and learning achievements in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta.

  1. The Variable of the Research

There are two variables of the research, they are:

Independent variable (X): Self-confidence.

Dependent variable (Y): Learning achievement in descriptive writing of the tenth grade of SMAN 41 Jakarta.

  1. The Instrument of the Research

In this research, the writer will use a questioner to know the students’ self-confidence. Then, the writer will ask to the students to make the descriptive writing.

  1. The Technique of Data Analysis

The data analysis of this research, the writer uses the quantitative research method; the writer processes and analyzes the data by using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. The formulas as follows:[22]

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Notes:

r: Pearson r (the coefficient of correlation).

N: Population.

X: the individual scores get from the writing task.

Y: the individual scores get from the equivalent task.

∑X: total scores get from the writing task.

∑Y: total scores get from the equivalent task.

∑XY: total scores of X multiplied by Y.

∑X2: total scores of quadrate X.

∑Y2: total scores of quadrate Y.

  1. The Procedure of the Research

In this research, the writer will be done steps in doing the research:

  1. Asking for permission to the chief of English Department in HAMKA University to do the research.
  2. Asking for permission letter to the HAMKA University to be given to SMAN 41 Jakarta.
  3. Asking for permission to the headmaster and the English teacher of SMAN 41 Jakarta to do research.
  4. Arranging the time to do research.
  5. Preparing the questioner of self-confidence and writing task for instrument of testing writing.
  6. Asking the students to answer the questioner and make the descriptive writing.
  7. Collecting the data.
  8. Analyzing the data.
  9. Making conclusion of the research
  10. Making a report of the research result.
  1. Bibliography

Abrams, Zsuzsanna. http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods/modules/writing/01/, viewed on January 3, 2014

Azar , Betty Schrampfer. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar (Guide for Correcting Writing Error).New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching 4. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

_______. 2000. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching: Fifth Edition.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Djamarah. 1994. Prestasi Belajar dan Kompetensi Guru. (Surabaya: Usaha Nasional.

Doddy, Achmad. et al. 2008. Developing English Competencies: For Senior High School (SMA/MA) Grade X. Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

Fatimah. 2006. Psikologi Perkembangan: Perkembangan Peserta Didik. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.

Gorrel, Robert M. and Charlton Laird. 1962. Modern English Hand Book. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs N.J

Hakim , Thursan. 2002. Mengatasi Rasa Tidak Percaya Diri. Jakarta : Purwa Suara.

Koswara. 1989. Teori Motivasi dan Penelitiannya. Bandung: PT Angkasa.

Lock, Graham. 1997. Functional English Grammar; An Introduction for Second Language Teacher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Oshima, Alice and Ann Hogue. 1997. Introduction to Academic Writing: Second Edition. New York: Longman.

Purwanto, M. Ngalim. 1996. Psikologi Perkembangan. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Rakhmat. 2008. Psikologi Komunikasi: edisi revisi. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Rose, Richard. The Internet Goes EFL (English as a Second Language), retrieved 30 May 2013. From www.cspp.strath.ac.uk/InetBrooking.pdf

Sagala , Syaiful. 2003. Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran. Bandung: PT Alfabeta.

Soeito. 1974. Psikologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Sumarsono, Sigit. 2013. Statistika Terapan: Dengan Alur Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa. Jakarta: UHAMKA.

Travers, John P. 1970. Fundamentals of Educational Psychology. Scrantom, Pensylvania: International Textbook Company.

Wishon, George E. and Julia M. Burks. 1968. Let’s Write English: Complete Book. New York: Litton Educational Publishing

Yule, George. 2010. The Study of Language: Fourth Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.


[1] Graham Lock. Functional English Grammar; An Introduction for Second Language Teacher.(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1997), p. 219

[2] Richard Rose. The Internet Goes EFL (English as a Second Language), retrieved 30 May 2013. From www.cspp.strath.ac.uk/InetBrooking.pdf

[3] Robert M. Gorrel and Charlton Laird, Modern English Hand Book, (New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs N.J, 1962), p. 1

[4] Rakhmat, Psikologi Komunikasi, edisi revisi, (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 2008), P.46

[5] Koswara, E, Teori Motivasi dan Penelitiannya, (Bandung: PT Angkasa, 1989), P. 23

[6] Thursan, Hakim, Mengatasi Rasa Tidak Percaya Diri, (Jakarta : Purwa Suara, 2002), P.6

[7] Fatimah, Psikologi Perkembangan: Perkembangan Peserta Didik, (Bandung: Pustaka Setia, 2006), P. 42

[8] Hakim, Op. Cit., P.20

[9] Syaiful Sagala, Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran, (Bandung: PT Alfabeta, 2003), P. 12

[10] H. Douglas Brown, Principle of Language Learning and Teaching: fifth edition, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000), P.7

[11] M. Ngalim Purwanto, Psikologi Perkembangan, (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 1996), P. 85

[12] Soeito, Psikologi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1974), P.5

[13] Travers, John P, Fundamentals of Educational Psychology, (Scrantom, Pensylvania: International Textbook Company, 1970), P.447

[14] Djamarah, Prestasi Belajar dan Kompetensi Guru, (Surabaya: Usaha Nasional, 1994), P.19

[15] Zsuzsanna Abrams,http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods/modules/writing/01/, viewed on January 3, 2014

[16] George Yule, The Study of Language: Fourth Edition, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 212

[17] George E. Wishon and Julia M. Burks, Let’s Write English: Complete Book, (New York: Litton Educational Publishing, 1968), pp. 321-377

[18] Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing: Second Edition, (New York: Longman, 1997) P.50

[19] George E. Wishon and Julia M. Burks, Op. Cit., P.322

[20] Trimmer/Sommers, Writing With a Purpose: Mc Crimmon Short Edition, (…..

[21] Achmad Doddy et al, Developing English Competencies: For Senior High School (SMA/MA) Grade X. (Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008) P. 128

[22] Sigit sumarsono, Statistika Terapan: Dengan Alur Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa, (Jakarta: UHAMKA, 2013), P.114