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ICT stand for Information Communication Technology is widely spread and essential to play in changing and modernizing educational systems as well as the way of learning. As we know, it is part of many aspects of our daily lives. ICT includes any product that will store, restore, operate, or receive information in a digital form. The computing industry (the Internet, hardware, software); telecommunications (cellular phones, teleconferencing); electronic display (calculator); and other services (including radio, video, television and so on) are just some example of the ICT tools. Studies in ICT include design, physics, information systems and so on. At the same time, many businesses use ICT because it is fast access, storage requirement, allow more than one person access the data at a time, better security, fewer staff etc. In the other hand, ICT is expensive to buy and we may need to be trained before using it as well as the computers may fail to work.
Moreover, there are some differences between countries and between schools within countries. In some countries, ICT used into the curriculum, and establish high levels of power. It also appropriate ICT use to support teaching and learning world wide. Schools are in the early phase of using ICT in other country. ICT is characterised as an important way of the learning process and some developments of e-learning. ICT enabled learning but not necessary help to improve in the learning and teaching world.
Broadly, there have three major types of ICT. It induced studies that can be identified.
1. ICT has tried by many students of integration into education that consists of infrastructure, such as the pupil-computer ratio, an average number of computers per school and levels of connectivity. There are almost all secondary schools had access to the Internet. Based on the report of European, it shows that ICT performs in schools is continuously increasing.
2. A few studies have taken some time to analysis it to the next level: to existence the benefit of ICT in educational world and also the home use of ICT for educational aims. Here is the example from the research that ICT use in schools is still quite low overall, despite the investment: "In most EU countries ICT is not used very frequently using by students at school. But the students had the opportunities to use ICT everywhere." (Pelgrum, 2004).
3. The third level is about the cause and effect: the impact of ICT on learning and teaching. As the authors of the most recent study that they point out the impact of the ICT: "it is difficult to identify a causal relationship between computers and educational outcomes" (Machin, 2006). There is some evidence to prove that investment in ICT impacts on learning and on teaching. However, there are even fewer studies find that there is no evidence of a positive relationship between computers and educational outcomes.
On the other hand, there are theories and studies to describe the implications of ICT for education: education that using ICT which can brings new capabilities to learning. For example, ICT has the potential enabling teachers and students to create an environment that provide an unlimited teaching and learning.
As a result, ICT in education can also be broadly categorized in the following way as a subject (computer studies), a tool to support traditional subjects (computer- based learning, presentation, research) and as an administrative tool (education management information systems/EMIS).
Great Impact on teaching, learning and attainment
For education, the purpose of ICT is generally to familiarise students and teachers with the use and workings of computers, related social and ethnical issues. It is generally believed that ICT can empower both teachers and learners. It promotes change the development in 21st century. ICT is not only transform teaching but also learning processes. The transformation gets to increase learning gains for students that provide learner an opportunity to develop creativity, communication skills, and other thinking skills. Besides, smart solutions for the future including laptop learning, e-learning, smart classrooms, didactic equipment and stimulations is the key on education today. An entire learning environment is needed in which students, teachers, administrators, and parents can easily communicate and collaborate with each other, share secure information around the clock, and, ultimately, access a world of knowledge beyond classroom walls.
Follow the picture above, we can see that ICT is very useful to the society especially to the students in colleges. According to ICT adviser Harriet Price, it is benefit that an ICT-rich educational experience brings to the students. She says that technology is an important part of student's everyday lives. She makes sure that the necessary software and hardware is available for students to use, while also helping them develop their own ICT skills. As we know, more than half of the students in the groups have a computer or laptop at home as well as access in College that they can search for information regardless of time and place.
ICT making all schools "smart". That means everyone get different information and knowledge from ICT. As we know, computers are provided in every area in the schools, colleges or labs. Students get the chance to do assignments or group projects by using it. It also increases students' knowledge at the same time. Besides, students who have laptop themselves can bring it with them. Training is provided in any colleges as well as to make students to learn more independent in their work. ICT provides quick and easy way in the research to train the society especially for the students today. It has a great impact for the students to have an easy for research and information compare to the earlier period. ICT is saving our time in doing the work. When we have to do our work and search information or example for our assignment in the earlier time, we have to go to library to collect those staff. It is not only to waste our time but also limited in the information we get.
On the other hand, we can have our self-test before the exam coming. Besides buying the books for exercise, we can get the question from the internet. It makes students more comfortable to have a test. Moreover, group assignment always assigned by the teachers or lecturer. ICT are like a learning centre that could help to share ideas and understanding to the students. It also teaches us the grammar and improves our English by ourselves. For example, we know that working in pairs was the most useful practice, by using ICT that students can experience with collaborative learning.
ICT empowers students to engage in the learning process and giving them an interest in their personal education. By integrating ICT into the classroom, students have the ability to learn more effectively, collaborate with each other, and explore the world around them. Anytime, anywhere access to internet-based tools is necessary to encourage learning inside the classroom and beyond. Today, by using ICT brings many benefits to the young generation especially for the students. For example, some of the students who working part time also has some time to do their College work. In addition, most of the times the students like to use word processing from the processor itself. It is quick and easy to edit their work and improve their presentation by using ICT at a time. Somehow, web is the only way to have quick and easy way to search the information on any topic. ICT is the one to make us easy access a world of knowledge.
With a range of ICT equipment, the benefit for students is that a higher quality lessons through greater collaboration between teachers in planning and preparing the resources. It is more focused teaching, tailored to students' strengths and weaknesses as well as through better analysis of attainment data. By using ICT, it improved the behavior management through better tracking of students. It is not only gain in understanding but also analytical skills which including improvements in reading comprehension as well as increase the knowledge. Moreover, ICT unknowingly help students improve in their development of writing skills such as spelling, punctuation, editing and grammar, it will become more fluency and originality.
Based on the research of Software and Information Industry Association 2000, students who used educational technology in colleges are more successful because they have more active to learn and increase their self-esteem. ICT then enhances and extends the possibilities of learning across the curriculum. Thus, ICT provide more opportunities to show their hard work to an audiences or teachers as well as it is 24 hours.
Most students reported that ICT was positively helping them with homework and many pupils indicated that access to internet resources was particularly important. Students also reported that writing was the most common use for ICT outside the colleges and schools, followed by researching. ICT would be important to their future career or to employment. Students get to gain confidence because they could do things and show things they had not been able to do before, that students could explore more and share more ideas with others.
In fact, ICT also gives educators the opportunity to transform the way learning happens, and enable student development. ICT present a range of tools that teachers or lecturers use to present and display as part of their teaching and help educators interact with students as well as engage them in a more meaningful way. These technological tools can be determinate designed for education way that it can be software or hardware used in the contexts such as word processors and spreadsheets. The computer tools help the students and teachers manipulate complex data-sets. This then provides context for effective discussion that help to develop subject understanding. ICT is benefit for teachers to sharing of resources, expertise and advice. It is also easier planning and preparation of lessons and designing materials to the students. Sometimes, ICT helps teachers to access to up-to-date students and school data, in any time and anywhere. Enhancement of professional image projected to colleagues is easier to get by teachers in using ICT.
From a teaching point of view, teachers used these devices to deliver to a whole class, could use the digital content effectively that was available to them. Teachers also reported that ICT offered them enhanced resources to support learning through teaching. The levels of interaction, the immediacy and the ability to refresh work, were all indicated as ways in which ICT could enhance the range of teaching approaches taken. In some colleges, teachers were expecting more of the students used ICT- whether this was due to the higher pace in lessons, work being done more quickly.
Negative impact on teaching, learning and attainment
On the other hand, there is some negative effect of the ICT on education way. In college, computer is not enough for teachers to make the best use of ICT in the classroom. Based on the research of Sandhoitz, it will take a lot of time in the classroom even up to a year with the support of experienced team. Teachers sometime always depend on the information that searched by the web. It may make a mistake. Information from the web or internet that mostly came or wrote from personal's opinion. It is not all facts by the way. Teacher who depend more on the ICT do not perform well as a teacher.
Students, however, feel lazy to attend the class if they can easily get the study material from the web. It will change their behavior to become more irresponsible. Let's say lecturer give an assignment to the students, they may not understand if they never attend that class. The technological reliability was important and yet the students could respond negatively to a resource, both of teaching and technology. Across the school or colleges, students might not value ICT that spent too much time on presentation needs and copying without reading and understanding. At the same time, students will search the information from the web and caught by "cutting and pasting". Through the behavior like this, it will cause their result and their reliability by other. By then the students will access the internet for other things, for example, facebook, MSN, Yahoo, Twitter and others. While the lecturer having the lesson in front, they will not pay more attention to the lecturer. The cause of the result will affect them to retake the whole semester. Money will become the issue right now.
Then, it had created severe problem to the students. To those who always play computer and using the instant message that they will choose online communication rather than having real life conversation with the teachers. For example, when they having flu and will not be attending the class or lesson, they might e-mail the lecturer rather than call the teachers. When the problem deteriorates, students will become unusual when they meet outsiders. Furthermore, the students sitting in front of the computer for a long time may cause health problem. Health problem such as stress and eyes strain can effect a student in their education way. By then ICT also created more illegal act such as pornography. Those students who affected by the pornography may cause the effect on their education. The students will waste time by using ICT better than study on their work. Overall, the evidence on the impact on attainment of learning through ICT remains inconsistent, however.
Great impact on practitioners and schools
The introduction of ICT into schools has had an impact on teachers in terms of their overall workload that including planning, lesson preparation as well as on the ways in which these are coordinated and managed within the school and wider educational context. The availability of ICT itself has sufficient to enhance learning and teaching. Teachers have to be confident in their own ICT capacity and understand the potential benefits of using ICT in a planned.
In advance, using ICT is to support teacher development for e-learning. Like students, teachers learn in different ways and they need to be able to access support when they needed. The provision of improved connectivity, among other developments, has allowed teachers to take advantage of online access to resources. As a result of access to resources at a time, teachers have greater control over the planning and preparation. By then teachers have expressed concern about knowing which resources are worthwhile and more research on the impact and availability of online resources. Such case studies provide evidence of changes in the ways in which teachers are approaching their role within the classroom. It is a better understanding of how teachers interact with the online environment.
Then, there is an impact of ICT in the classroom on the teacher's role. While gaining confidence and competence in the use of the technologies is to support e-learning, evidence is on the impact of using ICT on other aspects of the teacher's role. Some forms of learning through ICT, the use of shared resources and collaborative learning, where the teachers facilitates rather than direct learning, might be difficult for some to accept.
It is an impact of ICT on administration and overall workload. Once teachers have brought the technicalities involved with classroom- related hardware and software resources, they can enhance their teaching. This can be used to create additional teaching resources. Use of ICT for assessment purposes can also release valuable teacher time. Within schools, those specific technological developments such as connectivity via broadband access to internet will regard to the personalization of the learning experience. A key strand to embed ICT in schools has been and that of networking within schools and also across the education sector. Broadly speaking, schools recognize that systems can improve effectiveness and reduce costs. Across schools, using ICT to manage data was found to promote teaching and learning by facilitating more effective timetabling. The most effective tools were found to be school- devised systems and the use of Excel spreadsheets. As we know, school data was in forming the setting and in compiling reports to parents.
Improved access to ICT, schools networks for teaching and planning were also identified as potential strategies. Use of ICT in schools tended to be raising the quality of the work produced by teachers such as presentations and reports, rather than saving time. ICT was also the key factor to improving efficiency, along with staff by using the software and hardware.
Furthermore, teachers also perceived benefits in managing, storing and other work such as preparing reports with the time saved. Looking ahead, ICT would make teachers more effective in their work over 12 months. In order to be in the use of ICT to support learning and teaching, schools need to be 'e-confident'. That means displaying a number of characteristics at a level.
Thus, the internet has increased significantly the range of resources to support and stimulate learning and teaching across the curriculum and at all levels. It has also provided the means by which access to range of services, including libraries and careers services, can be brought together in one place. As ICT becomes part of the everyday life of the schools, there is a need to ensure the participation in the learning opportunities provided. Here, teachers can identify their own professional development needs and find solutions.
In today's interconnected world, information and communication technology (ICT) is widely used by our nation and it affects our lives every day. ICT gives great impact in education for the learners and teachers. ICT has become a key driver in education way. ICT has been identified by a range of important wider benefits of ICT on learning. The positive impact of ICT on students' skills and teamwork are included.
ICT also help student and teacher with activities that provided in the websites. That kind of activities gives ideas to the teachers in their teaching, so that students enjoy the class. Students learn more independently at the same time. They will take more responsibility for learning process. As seen, ICT can benefit both strong and weak students with their special needs. By the way, they especially improved the performance in students' English and on writing skills.
ICT is a part of socially system integrating meaningful communication within an education system. We can use it for analyzing the processes, meanings and functions of ICT in education. ICT also provided the research for us when we have to do the assignments. ICT is also one of the tools that have easy communication to other in foreign country. It saves the cost and time.
Schools use ICT to make both students and teachers an easy way to their work. Different information and opinion can get from the web-sites. In addition, ICT provides wide array of information and effective lessons. That is also easy for students to do their work by using word processing. It makes our projects or assignments more neat and tidy. From the education system point of view, e-" could mean "enhanced" education rather than "electronic" education. Consequently, ICT has a great impact to the society especially on education.
On the other hand, ICT also has a bad impact on education system. Teachers will more depend on the ICT and not giving their knowledge to the students. The information and knowledge are not necessary correct from the web-sites. We have to more careful when having the research from the web. Teachers, however, will not increase their vision.
Moreover, it will cause the effect on the students. Students may not be interested in the way teachers teach. They will more focus on the web such as Facebook, MSN, and Twitter. It unknowingly influences their result in the class. It also changes their behavior to the teachers in school.
Students who generally communicate with friends by the ICT will caused a problem in communicate face to face to other. It is not only has an impact on character but also their attitude. Somehow, it will become more rebellious when influence by the illegal staff. Today, we can seen that have many teenagers use two or three phones. It will cause them not to pay attention in the lesson time.
In a conclusion, ICT can be both advantages and disadvantages on education sector. We have to careful by using it. Internet, TV, radio and others are the ICT that provide the news and information to us. We can increase our vision when we have it. But, when we too focus on these staff, we may cause health problem by using it. We have to be wise in using it.