The Problems Faced By Science Teachers Education Essay

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The study aimed that at findings out the teaching problems faced by science teacher in Male and Female at Government Secondary Schools of District Karak. The population of the study were consisted all the Science teachers working in male and female Government Secondary Schools of District Karak. A sample of 18 (9 male, 9 female) teachers was randomly selected from the population. A self developed questionnaire was used for the collection of data. The questionnaire contained 38 items and two open ended questions. The questionnaire was responded "yes" "No" and undecided. The questionnaire covered the areas of availability of classroom, lighting arrangement, text book, note book, participation of the students, training of the teachers, language of text books, teaching methodologies, availability of science lab, the data was analyzed by using statistical method chi-square and percentage. The major findings and conclusion of the study were that (1) Classrooms, text books, note books are available to the students (2) Majority of the teachers used combination of teaching methodologies (3) Combine science lab is available in most of the schools but separate lab for physics, chemistry and biology are not available.The major recommendations of the study are (1) It is It is recommended that teacher should use variety of teaching methodologies i.e. lecture method, demonstration method, lecture cum demonstration method, and discussion method.(2) It is recommended that efforts may be made for provision of separate laboratories for physics, chemistry and biology

Keywords: Science, Teachers, Government Schools, teaching methodology, Science laboratory

INTRODUCTION

Science has affected every aspect of life and has revolutionized the society. On the other hand, scientific knowledge is increasing with a great pace, never experienced in the history of mankind. It is a recognized fact that modern citizen over it existence to science and can be called as a scientific civilization. Obviously the rule of science and technology remains the most important factor in the socio-economic of a society. It has been widely accepted that the amicable survival of a nation in the 21st century depends upon scientific development as well as scientifically literate society. The comer stone on which the edifice of development programmes of a country must be built is its expertise in science and technology and its application in agriculture and industry (Rehman etal, 1998).

The word science has its origin from a Latin word 'Scientia' meaning 'to Know'. "Science is a systematized body of knowledge". "Science is nothing but organized common sense". "Science is a heap of truth" (Yadav, 1992).

Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects our environment and us. It is an organized body of knowledge and systematic process of investigation and interpretation. This definition of science is not just restricted to a body of knowledge but it is also concerned with finding out about the world in systematic way (scientific method) and retrieval of information from appropriate sources (Shami, 2001).

Science is systematic study of all those things that can be examined, tested and verified. From its early beginnings, science has been developed into one of the greatest and most influential fields of human endeavor.

Pakistan is a developing country and is continuously striving for respectable status in the community of nation. Pakistan needs a strong base of science and technology to solve its problems of food, shelter, energy, health and security, the exploitation of natural resources and the boosting of agricultural and industrial production. Pakisan has established itself as a member of global nuclear power society (Iqbal, 2000).

Since independence in 1947, there has been growing consciousness about the role of science in the development Pakistan, to become a modern state. The first education conference 1947 set the direction of our education system. "Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in his message to the conference emphasized the importance of science education for the emerging nation. "The future of our state will and must greatly depends upon the type of education we give to our children, and the way we bring them up as the future citizens of Pakistan. (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947).

Science education at secondary level could not attract attention in terms of effort and investment. With increased emphasis on quality of primary education and renewed efforts to check high drop out rate in basic education, secondary level education now needs to be developed for comparatively heavy influx of students. The ESR's included a reform in science education at the secondary level by constructing science laboratories, provision of science equipment, revision of Science Curricula and professional development of Science and Mathematics teachers. Teaching of Science subjects in English is also part of the reform process (Shami, 2008). The educational system of any country hinges on the teacher, who occupies a pivotal position in its evolution as he has been assigned the responsibility of educating the future generation it The growing number of students and reports that are becoming available suggest that better education of teachers may be the most crucial input for the development of human resources in the country (Farooq, 1993).

Richardson (1985) Teachers play the most important and practical role in education. They are said to be the builders or architects of a nation. Teacher is the central log in the machinery of education. The quality and worth of teachers determine the quality of education. To develop an individual as a scientist, we will have to develop a suitable science curriculum, Laboratories, for our educational institutions and that will be only possible that we remove the problem faced by science teachers in secondary level.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study was focused on finding out the teaching problems faced by science teacher in Male and Female Govt Secondary Schools of District Karak.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Following were being the objectives of the study: -

1. To find out the teaching problems of male and female science teachers of Govt Secondary Schools of District Karak.

2. To offer recommendation for the removal of the problems of science teachers of Govt Secondary Schools of District Karak.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study was focus on answering the following specific research questions:

Are the classrooms available for science students?

Are the classes over crowded?

Do the science teachers have sufficient number of periods for practical?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will help us to know about the major problems faced by science teachers particularly in Govt secondary schools of District Karak. The study will act as springboard for the policy maker, curriculum developers, researchers, teacher's trainers and teachers to devise future course of action for science teachers.

DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Due to limited time and resources, the study was delimited to Government secondary schools of district Karak. The institutions in private sector were not being included in the sample.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to find out the problems faced by science teachers at secondary level in district Karak. Design of the study was descriptive in nature. The researcher had to depend upon the literature available and structured questionnaire administered to secondary school science teachers working in the government schools of District Karak.

POPULATION

The population of the study constituted all the male and female Secondary Schools science teachers in District karak. There were 58 secondary schools for Boys and 28 secondary schools for Girls in district karak.

SAMPLE

A sample of 18 teachers was randomly selected from the population. The description of the sample science teachers as under;

Male

9

Female

9

Total

18

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

For the collection of data Questionnaire is more efficient in that it requires less time, less expensive and permits collection of data from much large sample (Best and Kahn, 1992) There were 38 items in the questionnaire and two were open ended questions. The Questionnaire was developed in the light of the objectives of the study and was responded on the basis of 'yes' 'No' and 'undecided' for obtaining the information from the sample secondary school science teachers.

Data Collection

The researcher distributed the questionnaires himself to the respondent and through other and collected and received the responses. Researcher received all the responses, so the response percentage was 100 percent.

Data Analysis

The data received from the respondents were collected, tabulated and analyzed in the light of the objectives of the study. Data collected on the above mentioned three point Questionnaire were analyzed by using the statistical techniques of percentage and Chi Square at 0.05 level of significance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This section deals with the analysis and interpretation of data. The data collected through research instruments were tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study by using chi-square.

Questionnaire for Head Teachers

Table 1: Frequency distribution of Head Teachers

Items

Responses

Yes

No

UD

Total

2

Availability of classrooms for science students

Responses

13

5

0

18

14.3*

Percentage

72

28

0

100

Over crowdedness of classrooms

Responses

11

7

0

18

10.3*

Percentage

62

38

0

100

Availability of lighting arrangement in classrooms

Responses

12

6

0

18

12*

Percentage

66

34

0

100

Facing problems regarding the availability of text book

Responses

5

13

0

18

14.3*

Percentage

28

72

0

100

Facing problem regarding the availability of the note book

Responses

6

12

0

18

12*

Percentage

34

66

0

100

Participation of students in teaching learning process in science Subjects

Responses

13

5

0

18

14.4*

Percentage

72

28

0

100

Sufficient number of periods for teaching theory in science subjects.

Responses

15

2

1

18

20.3*

Percentage

83

11

6

100

Sufficient number of periods for practical in science subjects.

Responses

9

8

1

18

6.3*

Percentage

50

44

6

100

Availability of audio visual aids for teaching science subjects

Responses

4

13

1

18

12.9*

Percentage

22

72

6

100

* Significant

df= 2 Table value of 2 at 0.05 = 5.991

The above table 1 shows that value at 2 degree of freedom the 2 value at 0.05 = 5.991 which is greater than the table value the chi square (2) value. The table indicate that the calculated value of 2 (14.332, 10.3*, 12*, 20.3*, 6.3* and 12.9*) is greater than the table value of 2 (5.991), therefore there is significant difference in the responses of the respondents. Since more responses are in category, "yes" so it is concluded that the respondents feel that classrooms are available for science students, classes are over crowded, proper lighting arrangement is available in the classroom, students do not have problem regarding the availability of the text book, student do not have problem regarding the availability of the note book, students as a whole take participate actively in teaching learning process in science subjects,. the science teachers have sufficient number of periods for teaching theory in science subjects, science teachers have sufficient number of periods for practical science subjects and the respondents feel that audio visual aids are not available for teaching science subjects.

DISCUSSION

The focus of study was to explain the problems faced by the science teachers of secondary level in distract karak. A Sample of 18 schools was selected and a questionnaire containing 38 items was administered to the respondents for data collection. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondent's opined positively about the availability of classrooms, lighting arrangements, textbook, books. However a reasonable number of respondents opined negatively. This means that sum of schools are deprived of this facility.

The study also reveled that sum of the schools were of the opinion that student class participation level and regularity in completing home work is not satisfactory. This unsatisfactory may be related to lack of combination of variety of lacking methodology i.e. lecture method, demonstration method and cooperative learning method.

Another finding of the study is majority of the schools do posses combine science laboratory and separate laboratory for physics, chemistry and biology is not provided .the apparatus available in the laboratories are not in working condition. This means that science teachers and students do not pay proper attention to the use and care of apparatus. Principles of the schools can also held responsible for putting the apparatus in order but allocating sum funds for the repair of apparatus. The study reveled that most of the schools do not have required science teachers. This problem can tackled from two directions one is to take up a case with a higher authorities for the provisions of science teachers 2nd is that `other teacher who have study it science at intermediate level can also be employed on teaching science subjects

.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of interpretation and finding of data following conclusion were drawn

Majority of the respondents felt that classrooms are available for the science students, but the classes are over crowded.

Majority of the respondents felt that lighting arrangement in the classrooms is proper.

Majority of the respondents felt that the student do not face problem regarding the availability of science text book and note book.

Majority of the respondents felt that the students take participation in teaching learning process in science subjects.

Majority of the respondents felt that number of period for theory is sufficient but number of period for practical is not sufficient for practical.

Majority of the respondents felt that the audio visual aids are not provided to the teachers.

Majority of the respondents felt that the teacher do not use audio visual aids regularly.

RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of analysis of data, findings and conclusions the following recommendations are offered.

It is recommended that teacher should use variety of teaching methodologies i.e. lecture method, demonstration method, lecture cum demonstration method, and discussion method.

It is recommended that science teachers are overloaded. Their work load should be rationalized.

It is recommended that allocation of period for theory and practical may be rationalized.

It is recommended that efforts may be made for provision of separate laboratories for physics, chemistry and biology.

It is recommended that refresher courses may conduct for science teachers.

It is recommended that teacher may be motivated to use audio visual training aids regularly.

It is recommended that provision should be made for the required number of science teachers may be ensured.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

Mr.Muhammad Naeem Butt is working as Lecturer in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.. He did his M.Phil in Education from Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan nb840@yahoo.com

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is presently working as Professor of Education in Department of Education, Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.

Miss. Safia Noor is presently working as principal Govt. Girls High School, Charsada, Pakistan. She did her M.Phil in education.

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