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The national curriculum of the school reflects the objective of National Philosophy of Education in the ways of producing insan model. This is because the National Philosophy of Education is a guide and a basis for our Malaysian education system which is being conducted in Malaysia with rational opinions among the schools. This NPE encompasses several aspects such as analysis and implications towards our education system.
Analysis of NPE emphasises on teachers which teachers are need to study and interpret its contents in various factors such as religious, social, political, economy and so on. Moreover, teachers have to understand carefully one by one the aims of the programs which are to fulfil nation's aspiration to produce good quality students. Analysis of NPE consists of number of elements which is really crucial to be implemented for both teacher and students. The first element of NPE is education is an on-going effort that acquires the transferring knowledge skills and noble values. Secondly is about the development of individual potentials which emphasise on talents and potentials that should be nurtured and developed since in the schools. Last but not least, elements about producing knowledgeable Malaysian citizens who are balanced with harmonic being. It can be achieved through JERIS (physically, emotionally, spiritually, emotionally and socially) by giving full love for knowledge and be open-minded. Other elements like holistic and integrated development, belief and obedience to god and produce competent Malaysian citizens are als included in NPE.
Oxford dictionary defines curriculum as the subjects that are being taught to comprise a course of study in a schools or colleges. In spite of, curriculum covers all the experiences includes tasks that were taken from young age until a person get old. In Malaysia primary education context, primary curriculum had faced many changes in order to accomplish the mission and goals of national curriculum aspirations. Old Primary School Curriculum (KLSR), New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR), Integrated Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) and Standard Primary School Curriculum (KSSR) are the great examples of these changes.
Old Primary School Curriculum (KLSR) was designed since Independence Day. In 1961, Education Act 1961 became as a base of education system and Laporan Rahman Talib was established by former Minister of Education Abdul RahmanTalib in KLSR (Siti Atiqah Ali, 2010). Laporan Razak year 1956 was established to review back the policy of national education. The reason of establishing this curriculum is to strengthen unity and eradicate illiteracy. Moreover, clear objective of this KLSR is to ensure that all students pass Bahasa Melayu by providing a systematic education. However, KLSR was repealed in 1982 because of the weakness. This happens due to the subjects which were not related with other subjects, emphasis on achieving excellence materials and pedagogy was not emphasised the understanding of behaviourism.
In 1982, New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) was conducted in 305 schools around Malaysia as trial basis for implementation of new curriculum. The main goal of KBSR is to ensure the development of potential, integrated and balanced according to JERIS (physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and social). Thus, KBSR fully implemented in all schools in 1983 and 3M skills such as reading, writing and arithmetic were fully developed including the solving problems. New Primary School Curriculum was changed to Integrated Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) in 1993 (Hamidah Atan, 2009). The basic change was take place in curriculum and school culture. For instance, local studies were replaced with Man and His Environment subject. The purpose of this subject is to provide students with knowledge, skills and values. Whereas, school culture was included about school environment, patriotism and integration. Meanwhile, development of KBSR was grounded under four principles and they were integrated approach, one education for all, holistic development of the individual and life-long learning. Nevertheless, weaknesses of KBSR are excessive focus to get A in examination and not to impart knowledge, values â€‹â€‹and skills.
Biggest transformation take place in the curriculum entitled Standard Primary School Curriculum (KSSR) in 2011 which incrementally in 500 schools. This is a way to coordinate the development and the current demand for human capital on more quality time in line and sophisticated to make KBSR as a base of KSSR. Main objective of implementation KSSR is to enhance students' 4M skills in studies such as reading, writing, arithmetic and reasoning and emphasize more on modelling curriculum to produce quality students. For example, lower primary schools for English subject have four modules on listening and speaking, reading, writing and language arts. Science and Mathematics is the subject which teachers concentrate more. KSSR can describes as a beginning process of forming a holistic changes to the existing school curriculum involves changing the form, organization, content, pedagogy, time allocation, assessment methods, materials and management of school curriculum. Curriculum is actually a guide for teachers to achieve goals and mission that have been stated in education policy in Malaysia. Changes in curriculum happen until now as a way to enhance the ability and skills of students to achieve in certain levels and to produce quality students for nation.
Primary curriculum is playing a role in organising activities for students in schools according to NPE's elements.It are very important for all schools to organise activities according to NPE. The purpose of organising such activities is to implement the eight elements of NPE for both teacher and students. Implementation of eight elements is crucial in order to get the perfection and standardisation of curriculum among all schools in Malaysia and the production of activities are conduct in integrated manner. Hereby, it is to prepare students to face real life challenges when they complete their school life. Experiences that students gain from school will be a good guide for them to face challenges at outside the world.
A. INTERVIEW AND DEDUCT THE IDEALISTIC BELIEVE OF A HEADMASTER'S AND A SENIOR ASSISTANT'S ROUTINE REGARDING 5 ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT IN THE SCHOOL TO VISUALIZE / INSISTS THE OBJECTIVE OF NPE.
Ministry of Education states that activities which are being carried out in the schools must fulfil the elements of NPE in order to produce well-being students. According to the survey that I had conducted at Tamil medium primary school (SJK T Dengkil, Selangor), the headmaster mentioned that his school is organising activities which gives the of NPE's elements. These activities will be conducted according to primary school curriculum development for little one from age 7 until 12 years. There are two types of activities which are being conducting, one is school based activities and another one is class based activities especially for language subjects.
One of the best example is Majlis Cemerlang UPSR (Ujian Peperiksaan Sekolah Rendah ). This program will be held on January every year for students who achieved more than 3A's in UPSR. This activity is headed by the headmaster of the school and teachers will be the coordinators of this program. The main aim of this program is to reward students who contribute excellence results for the school and this will be a source of motivation for other students to achieve a better result for upcoming years by being a role-model. Other than that, the headmaster also will give a talk on KSSR and also about the band systems for parents who enrol their children in year 1. This activity has hit the NPE's elements especially of producing knowledgeable and competent students for nation with high moral standards. Even, program like this should be organised in every schools as inspiration even though the schools do not have allocation from government to conduct such program like this.
Second activity will be Sport's Day. February will be a busiest month for all teachers and students for the preparation for the Sport day. Training sessions will be conducting every evening in order to train students to get the perfections on the activities which already plan by teachers. Four big groups will be formed for students during the actual day and each student need to contribute at least 1point for their group. Activities like 100 meter race, 200 meter race, shot put and others will take place on sport day. On the actual day, president of PIBG (Persatuan Ibu Bapa Guru) and parents are invite to give supports for students to do better performances. Medals will be given for students who win for each and every activity. The implications from this sport day are to produce students with high discipline level and balanced according to JERIS (physically, emotionally, spirituality, intellectually and socially). Moreover, this activity will be a platform for students to nurture their hidden talents and to continue their achievement further. The selected students will represent the school to participate in the higher level competitions like MSSD (Majlis Sukan Sekolah Daerah) which organise by Ministry of Education.
On every May, the school will organise a program named Program Maju diri for school prefects and librarians to train the value of leadership among students. Train the school leaders by implementing self discipline in them and develop well-mannered person together to contribute good reputation of the schools. Activities like jungle trekking teach them the co-operation values among them without concerning about the race, skin colour and the status of a student. Thus, they will understand more about leadership and will realise that being a leader is not easy because they need to face lot of challenges and obstacles in their real life. Even, this program prepares students to be future leader of Malaysia in future. This prevents students from involving unhealthy activities which will damage their life as a valuable citizen. NPE elements like developing potentials of a person who are responsible and capable to achieve the level of personal well-being is really coinciding the scope of this program.
Next activity is Perkhemahan Badan Beruniform which will be held during school holiday on May. This camping will be organize by senior assistant of co-curriculum for 3 days and 2 night at school and students will be selected from each uniformed bodies for participation. Different level of activities will be conducted to test students' ability and their engagement with other students to bond a good relationship with other students. This program is really useful for students because they can learn more about the purposes of joining such program like this and may share their experiences with other students. So, other students will have the interest to join the program on other time. NPE will be used as a base for this program in order producing generation of students with high vision by creating awareness and understanding of the organizational principles which allow students to learn through this program.
Lastly, school based activity which conducts by the school is Science Fair. The activity really interesting when found out about the students' achievement that had made last year. October will be the month of Science where the science teachers struggle hard to prepare experiments for each class according to levels such as lower and upper primary. In addition, the purpose of conducting school level Science fair is to give exposure on Science world and make up students' mind that Science is really fun to learn by doing the experiments and it is not difficult if learn in a proper way. Teachers in this school will guide students to conduct the experiments and rewards will be given for the most interesting and successful experiments. Parents are invited because to give encouragement to students and to give clear picture about students who are being as a Science class minded. On November, the school will take part in National Science Fair which will be held in Kuala Lumpur and these students will get a chance to engage with other students which come from all over Malaysia as participator and learn more from there. According to the headmaster, last year this school won third place for the best and attractive experiment. From here can conclude that, this school is preparing students as a future scientist by producing knowledgeable and competent Malaysian citizens according to NPE.
B. EXPLAIN TEACHERS TEACHING ACTIVITIES THAT BEING FOCUSED / CARRIED OUT IN THE CLASSROOM TO ACTUALIZE THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM IN THE PORGRESS OF MOULDING THE STDUNET'S BEHAVIOUR AND BELIEVES.
Successful learning process can achieve when the teachers put efforts to make engagement between learning and syllabus. It only can be done through classroom activities and it is really significant for the development of students in the classrooms. Lesson plan is the guide for teachers to prepare activities for students and put varieties in order to create fun learning environment.
The most interesting classroom activity which carries out by teachers is by playing game within the students for example online interactive game. Students get the chance to play games by themselves so that they can explore the needs of a game which related to the content that teachers are going to teach. For example, ESL games mostly use for English language subject. Students can move further according to their level like lower level to medium level and higher level. This type of game will offer opportunities for students to improve their English language skills in a fun and interactive way. Other than that, game like word of the day create reading environment in the classrooms. This is because students need to bring a newspaper cut during lesson time and search for words that they do not know. After this, students need to search for the meaning and construct a sentence according to the word. Students who collect more words will be the winner and will receive gift from the teachers. This type of activity gives encouragement for students to read a lot to find words and day by day they will practice their own reading independently. Teachers and students are putting their on-going effort for excellent for producing knowledgeable Malaysian which has stated in NPE.
Moreover, role play or well known also stimulations can develop students' communication skills. Teachers give guidance for students to develop characteristic according to the story. For instance, do roles play about Snow White and Seven Dwarf. Role play is one way of extending the range of purposes especially when students brainstorm to get ideas to develop the sequences of the story. Role play areas often arise from the theme that being undertaken by the class through participation. Students get wider experiences to support their engagement with others students while using signs, props, menus and so on. According to Browne (2009) this imaginative play area will be a valuable source of literacy activities by creating understanding about the theme of story. The schools teacher also states that this role play activity may build student's confident level and bring them out from the feel of afraid when they need to talk in front of other members. High moral standards can be created among students to mould good behaviours and produce personal well-being as stated in NPE.
Bee's activity also being conducting in the classroom in different way such as spelling bee, speaking bee and others. The purpose of conducting such activity in the classroom is to ensure students to use their thinking skills during the lesson time. Even, students are able to increase their spelling and vocabularies level which can be used during examination time. The teacher said that this activity usually will be conducted in language classes like English and Malay. Teachers will come out with a list of vocabularies and ask students to memorize those words for the spelling bee which will be held every Tuesday for English classes and every Friday for Malay language classes. Students can create own initiative to modify their language proficiency that will be useful when they are complete their primary school level. In matter of NPE, teachers are in mission of producing students for the betterment of family, society and nation. Producing knowledgeable Malaysian students in an integrated manner is conscious.
Next activity is named as Lady Bird. This activity specially creates for students who known as slow learners. This is one way of grabbing slow learners' attention to study smart and give confidents that they also can be a good learner like the rest by making them to read. The way of conducting this activity is students will provide a text with number of question which goes on with the level like from easy to average and too hard. Students need to search for key words on the text and highlight those key words to get answer for each question. Students like faster learner will be tutor for the slow learners so that they can easily be guided among their friends. After this session, slow learners are able to read within two months and showed an increase in every school test. This has been proven when this school produce a very least number of slow learners and even this will contribute in producing literacy nation for Malaysia.
Last but not least, this school also has come out a with an activity called as self-access learning where the students need to do self learning in the classroom during independent learning period. Students need to read story books, find moral values which contain in those stories and need to present in the classroom during language subject. This is more to storytelling session which enables teachers to examine student's pronunciation on certain words. Students also can make this activity as a platform to build their confident level to face other friends and also to speak out. Believe in god and on-going effort with high moral standards and responsibility really hit this activity according to NPE.
In conclusion, the implication of NPE is really unique in producing a well-being of Malaysian for this nation. While, the implications of NPE on school culture are to ensure that teachers and students follow closely together, realize to give success for the aims and aspirations and basic consideration for reformation of planning education routines and activities. Finally, NPE is very important either for teachers or students to have a very quality education level for all Malaysian's students and teachers are being as aspiration source for their students in the schools. Thus, values like honesty, dedicatedly; responsible and ambitious are needed to produce a capable achiever for this nation. The activities which has stated above is one way for moulding.