Before I can describe how my understanding has evolved; it is important that I give one of my change experience. I was responsible for implementing and managing a change program within the logistical function. I was the change implementer and strategist within the change program. The scope of the change affected the engineering and logistical functions daily working. I initially thought about and planned for the negative effects on the logistical employee's motivation, commitment and perception of job security.
This transformational change was the outcome of economic factors within the far environment of the business cause by the global credit crunch, slow rate of economic growth and internally by the need to reduce cost. The garage at Harrow Weald (HD) failed to retain 2 contracts from Transport for London as the business was out bid by the competition, First bus. This resulted was a reduced work load for the Material Manager at HD. The Material Manager workload reduced from 9% in 2009 to 6% between January 2010 and May 2010.
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I made the decision along with the Head of Purchasing, with support from the Engineering Director to merge Edgware (EW) and HD store rooms because of the 5 miles distance between sites and the same bus types at their locations. The Material Manager at HD will be moving to Holloway (HT) to support HT as their current workload has increased to 25% and the Material Manager at EW will be running HD and EW store rooms. Personally this was needed to reduce cost at HD logistical function; if cost was not reduced, this might have led to redundancies. I felt I had to do something to protect my team while solving a manning issue at HT.
However, I learnt as the change continued that it was not the Material Manager's or the Trade unions (TU) unitary involvement which had the negative views caused by the uncertainty created by this change program. But the Engineering manager's of EW and HD who were worried about their logistical cover for their repair programs. There were a lot of resistance from the Engineering managers which my change program did not take in account. I did not understand the reasons at the time.
From that experience; I have learnt from reading about the range of stability Arnold et al., ibid and using the stakeholder analysis model. (The principles and practices of change Pg 16) That understanding behaviour and attitudes is vital in the change process. Using that methodology; more careful planning by using multiple change tools, frameworks and by providing information through sensitive implementation; while involving everyone affected by the changes; will help increase the success of the change.
Any change program needs to be understood fully by providing information, which will strengthen the program and implemented in a way that people can cope effectively with it. I failed to inform and involved the Engineering managers' within the change sufficiently before. I needed to show people that the change had integrity and benefits. I see treating people with humanity, honesty and respect will reduce the resisting forces, that's involves good leadership.
Change I now see; can be unsettling to everyone within the program; managers and staff, nothing must be taken for granted within change. If change is forced on people problems and resistance normally arise. I have come to realize; that I can achieve my personal change if I follow the same format. Change must be realistic, achievable and measurable (SMART).
Figure 1 How my understanding of change has evolved over the 5 weeks
This is what I took for granted; as the Engineering managers were managers, I expected them to be committed to the change. I did not focus on their needs
1.2 McKinsey 7'S Model
The McKinsey 7-S model is an approach to planned internal change devised by Peters (1970). This method collectively analyzes the interdependence between 7 variables on how the change within business must operate. I really identify with this model because it focuses on internal relationships between systems and people.
Figure 2 McKinsey 7'S Model
(The principles and practice of change Pg 11)
If I had used this model during my pervious change program, I might have notice the interdependence between the Engineering managers and their repair program. Thus with this information, I could have created a clearer shared vision and involve them within the strategies. I will be using this in the future on my stores project to research the interdependence of systems and people to reduce resistances and improve communication.
1.3 Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
This model from Lewin (1940) focuses on the individuals who resist change and do not want to change their status quo (The principles and practices of change Pg 278). According to figure 3; there are 2 types of forces within a change program. This model looks at internal and external forces; the change strategy looks to increase the change driving forces and at the same time reduce the resistance forces.
This model would have being useful in my previous experience of change; as it focuses on people's activities who are affected by the change in a negative or positive way. This is definitely a useful model for the future as it helps to formulate strategies used in reducing these resisting forces.
Figure 3 Force Field Analysis
Source: www.change-management-coach.com/images/force-field-analysis.jpg accessed 19-12-10
1.4 Kotter Model
To me this is the most important model I have come across; it focuses on internal and external factors and forces to bring about organizational change. However to me it seems a little complex and time consuming. However this theoretical emergent approach to change known as the Kotter Model is great way of analyzing, planning and implementing change which involves 8 steps
Figure 4 Kotter 8 step Model
Source: www. downloadsoftwarestore.com/software_images/82/34/00053482/Software__Kotter_Change_Model-screenshot.gif Accessed 19-12-10
Personally, I really like this model compared to McKinsey 7-S model and Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis, as this model focuses on the change drivers internally and externally and the reason for change. It looks at empowerment of staff and picking the right change leaders to make the change work.
The model is complex as it entails focusing on the entire organization, the impact of the change and timing is critical between steps. What is beautiful about it; it also looks at the aftermath of the change and quick wins to encourage participation and visual simulation. However change is complex and I now see using one model or framework within a change program, something or someone will be missed.
Over the last 5 weeks; I have learnt that organization does not exist in isolation, but its part of a complex 3 phases environment. These environments exhort pressure on businesses internally and externally. The organization has to "change" to meet these pressures in order to survive, adapt or seize opportunities. Thus it's essential to use multiple frameworks, good leadership and evaluations to increase the sustainability of change.
2.1 Identify the aspects of change which you expect to follow up in later work in developing your EBI
From my research; I came across "Leadership and change in small firms and entrepreneurship" http://learn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=439879 accessed 02-01-11. The concept of Entrepreneurial Leadership illustrated in figure 5; which is leading through direct involvement by creating shared values for organizational stakeholders. Through flexibility, innovations and evolving concepts of organizational frameworks that can be constantly changed. Thus change is welcome and second natured within the business.
Figure 5 Paradigm of keys to organizational excellence and leadership strategies
Source: Darling and Beebe, 2007, p. 87
At this stage; I believe this course will enables me to review my current leadership style illustrated in figure 6. I will never become a perfect leader or manager, I acknowledge this now. But I am someone who likes order and I have chosen change tools which bring order to the change complexity. Now, I am going to step out of my comfort zone with the cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to change framework and identify ways to improve my leadership skills and effectiveness by contributing to an environment that empowers my managers by encouraging innovative thoughts.
By allowing my managers to lead me to a vision within my stores project will improve our systems inside the logistical function. According to Gersick (1991) Change brings about positive and negative emotions caused by stimuli within the change, which affects our behaviour (The principles and practices of change Pg 185).
Figure 6 My development of leadership and change at workUnderstanding emotional intelligence, as defined by Goldman (1998), is often associated with key social skills which includes self-awareness, trust and empathy which are also important in the workplace. Using the Goldman's five major factors of emotional intelligence model illustrated in figure 5 which involves intrapersonal and interpersonal components. I would like to explore more in the upcoming weeks at work.
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Gersick (1991)- stimuli
Kotter (2009)- Leadership or Management
Vera and Rodriguez-Lopez (2004)- Humility
Baker (2009- Fellowship
Goldman- (1998)- Emotional Intelligence
Self discovery- Improve communication and relationships at work
My Delivery- Making it happen
Innovation and Design-
Using My Emotional Intelligence
Vision- involves fellowship and humility leadership, allowing myself to be led
My Discovery and Planning- cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to change framework
http://www.infopeople.org/training/webcasts/webcast_data/203/FiveComponentsEmotionalIntelligence.pdf accessed 02-01-10
To achieve this concept, I have to be trusted and respected within the change program, which have to demonstrate integrity by doing the right things. This concept is very fascinating and I think this is the pinnacle of me evolving; this tie into my humility and emotional aspects of leadership I am trying to explore as part of my EBI.
The concept of giving respect and providing meaning by creating a sense of worth to the change recipients will show my humility. Thus increasing the level of commitment to the change while keeping change recipients within their range of stability and (The principles and practices of change Pg 16) reducing the resisting forces.
I do not see myself as a brilliant change agent; but I do understand how change can make people feel uneasy and the level of uncertainty that can be created from my past experience of change. In achieving successful organizational change, I must able to inspire and turn negatives into positives by finding innovative ways of doing things while working with the change recipients. Even if the change has bad news, being honest and open will help build trust through positioning; which will enable my reputation for future change programs to be viewed with honesty, confidence and respect.
Over the 5 weeks I come to understand that organizing and communicating the possibilities of what can be achieve from the change is management and while giving meaning to change is leadership. Trust through positioning implies having predictability, accountability and reliability this provides the foundation for the change integrity. Now the question is how I would show this within my EBI and does this make any sense.
2.2 Give a brief summary of the scouting work (including key inquiries) you have undertaken on the options and opportunities for your EBI
-Current organisational change program
- Exploring differing leadership and management theories and concepts. Then putting them into practice
- 6 months to complete
- Work related
universities to study my MBA
- My personal goal
- Will have to involve friends and family
Searching for a new job in China to further
-My personal and situational goal
Relevance, feasibility and ranking of EBIs which were identified during scouting
Relevance to my organisation1
75% - sure
Probably very relevant
Probably very achievable
Researching universities to study my MBA
May be relevant, but can't quite tell
I'm pessimistic about my ability to do this
Searching for a new job in China to further
Not very relevant to my organisation at first glance
I'm uncertain about whether it can be done
After the TMA 2; I spoke with my mentor about possible EBI's. We were both in agreement that the stores reorganisation project is a perfect inquiry for my EBI; as there are elements of change and leadership focusing on the emotional characteristic of humility within the project and the project deals with changes which I personally would like to develop, as I am too task- oriented.
This will encourage me to reflect on my daily experiences, identify what I would like to learn about from the course materials and the Tutor group forums. In addition try to engage with the course materials and themes in the light of my experiences. This is essential for me to develop as a good leader and manager and I will be able to use this knowledge and notes, I have acquired via this process to advance to my EBI.
Although the entire aspects of my EBI is still unclear with the problems of linking leadership and change together is still a little ambiguous. I still have some doubts of which EBI to choose and what area of leadership and change to focus on. In addition, if I am actually making a journey into a better leader or manager, but I am learning new theories and framework to deal with my day to day work problems.
Additionally, the stores reorganisation is a very important project for me and my logistical team. I am trying to standardise the warehouses layout throughout 10 sites. The local material managers are already not happy with some of my ideas, but I need to "win" them over with the new warehouse layout which will test my own leadership skills, by "letting go of my order and control" and letting them lead me to a shared vision of the change. Thus, I might use my stores reorganisation project as one giant inquiry for my EBI.
I have also spoken with my line manager; to check the feasibility of the stores project; he is happy for me to use the project as part of my studies. However, he added that the stores project was already complex without adding another dimension of things to do. I never thought about the stores project with this perspective, therefore, the following questions will need to be addressed: is it too complex to conduct an EBI with such an important work project? Can I test and report on any actual growth within my understanding of things I have learnt? His perspective has added a new dimension on my possible EBI's and created a level of uncertainty.
1.1 My change experience and change issues- 568 words
1.2 McKinsey 7'S Model- 117 words
1.3 Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis-113 words
1.4 Kotter Model- 248 words
Total: 1089 Words
2.1 Identify the aspects of change- 529 words
2.2 Give a brief summary of the scouting work- 544 words
Total: 1073 words
Part 1+ Part 2 = 2119 words
Stocktaking - Week 16
What do you feel about the course so far? How have you found it? (You may find it helpful to look at some possible responses on page 8 of Study Guide 2.)
What are the three most important things you have picked up so far?
What have been the three most important things so far?
Have you shared your work on B204 with colleagues at work? What do they think about what you are doing?
After the scouting and the study you have done, how do you now feel about the EBI you will have to do?
Do you feel you are in control of your learning on the course - or are you just being driven along by the work and the schedules? What are the reasons for your answer?
What things are you hoping to build on as your move into Phase 2?
Looking forward, what things are you now feeling most anxious about?
What are your real hopes and concerns about the next stages of the course?
What issues have really struck you most?
Any other thoughts