Oxford Dictionary (Published on 2006 Ninth Edition) defined Academy as "a place where people study or are trained in a particular field." Therefore, it focuses on a small and specific area or field of studies wherein the students can develop and gain knowledge of their chosen field through the environment itself.
2.1.1 Akademi Laut Malaysia (ALAM) is an academic institution situated in the state of Melaka which focuses on training of aspiring sea going officers from different countries namely India, Philippines, China, Yemen, Pakistan, Indonesia and Bangladesh.
2.1.2 As excerpted from the academy's own webpage (www.alam.edu.my, retrieved 2012), The academy is dedicated to be a recognized leader of maritime training excellence in the region. ALAM has one of the most promising specialized system of education. A well-proportioned system of professional regimentation with a demanding college environment, practical training and competent skill development. "Structured to facilitate and equip students with competence beyond compliance and working in collaboration with both local and international maritime-related organizations and institutions. ALAM creates a path heading towards a satisfying and assured career in the Malaysian and global maritime industry." (www.alam.edu.my,2012)
2.1.3 ALAM Training programmes
Akademi Laut Malaysia ( ALAM ) is the main or major marine institution in Malaysia that provides program for training cadets under the Malaysian law. The programme of training in ALAM depends on the courses as following below :
Modular & Offshore training
Simulator based training
2.2 The Training
"Training is defined as a planned process to expand the sense of attitude, knowledge or behavioural skills through learning experience to achieve effectiveness in performing an activity or range of activities. To be able to develop abilities of the individual and give satisfaction on the current and future manpower needs of the organization in the work situation are its main purposes. The phrase "learning experience" emphasizes that there is no clear division in between training and education, and the importance of integration." (Glossary of Training Terms, 3rd Edition 1991, pg. 62)
After the Completion of a year in academic studies, cadets are required to complete a minimum of one (1) year sea time, which all subsequent trainings shall be recorded . And once again return for another year of academic studies. In the scope of these Three years, cadets are expected to learn and comply with International requirements contained within STCW, SOLAS. Assessments such as written and Oral Exams are made whether these cadets are qualified to be Watch keeping Officers.
2.2.1 Sea Phase Training
Sea Phase training is defined as the practical training of cadets onboard the vessel.
STCW 20120 Manila Amendments, Chapter II Section A-II/1, Paragraph 6/ onboard training, "Evrey candidate for certification as officer in charge of a navigational watch of ships of 500 gross tonnage or more whose sea going services, in accordance with paragraph 2.2 of regulation II/1
In ALAM, 2nd year cadets are required to undergo sea phase training which will expose them to the real job experience and will give them the chance to apply what they have learned during their 1st year in the academy. Every cadets have their sponsors (mostly are shipping companies) which will provide them their specific or assigned vessels for their shipboard practical.
2.2.2 Requirements to Shipboard Training
The requirements for shipboard training is defined by the Malaysian Maritime department with special reference to the Standard Training and Certificate for Watch Keeping Officers (STCW). Malaysia Maritime academy is providing each cadet a training guide the so-called Training and Assessment Record Book (TARB).
TARB (Training and assessment Record Book) - is The Training record book Issued by the Malaysian Marine Department (MarDep) to Akademi Laut Malaysia (ALAM) cadets to keep track , assess and record all trainings activities and work done by cadets. It is the one use by cadets as their learning guide during their one year practical onboard merchant vessels.
STCW (Standard Training and Certificate for Watch keeping Officer) -
STCW Code 1978 is an international convention which provide an international qualification standard for personnel on seagoing merchant ships whether for management and operational level. The convention was adopted in 1978 by conference at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London and later on in1984, entered into force. This convention impose authoritatively the minimum standards with relation to the training, certification and watch keeping for seafarers which nations are compel to meet or exceed.
STCW Code 2010: Manila Amendment is the latest alteration or addition to the STCW 1978 Convention. According to www.safety4sea.com, 29/11/2011, retrieved year 2012 "STCW Amendments incorporate a 5 year phase in period for existing seafarers and at the same time require all real life amendments such as the work and rest hours to be implemented as of 1st of January 2012."
Under STCW Code 2010 : Manila Amendments, Chapter 1 Section A-1/6, Par. 5, " Any person responsible for the supervision of the in-service training of a seafarer intended to be used in qualifying for the certification under the convention shall have a full understanding of a training programme and the specific objectives for each type of training being conducted."
2.2.3 The Importance Of Shipboard Training
"The progress of shipboard training for cadets is to develop with a planned training. The Master usually delegate his responsibility to his Chief Officer who assumes commitment for organization a proper training program. On board ship training is concerned with performance rather than with subject manner; person learn to perform the task required on the job in the actual job setting under the guidance of the Chief Officer and assistance from other navigating officers". ( Tan Keat Siang, April 1st 1998)
"Learning process occurs as the result of interaction between the dealing with Chief Officer and cadets through feedback whether positive or negative. On board training when carefully planned is an organized method of training, designed to help the cadets, through Chief Officer's instruction, learn skills while actually working in an assigned job."( Tan Keat Siang, April 1st 1998 )
2.2.4 Benefits of Training Onboard
One of the most important benefits of shipboard practical is that cadet is able to learn things through practical exercises by doing various jobs onboard ships. The exposure of cadets to the working environment is able to help cadets realize and understand the job requirements onboard merchant vessels. They are able to show their capabilities, gain confidence, and test effectiveness and productivity upon training onboard.
The new seafarers learn through doing the job, experiencing the same problems that will face in the profession. Cadets are permitted to work at their own speed, thereby gaining confidence and a sense of productiveness. If they learn in the actual work environment, an understanding of the job and opportunity to correct errors before they become established is assured.
One of the potential benefits to be gained from a training regime which describes the outcomes required to undertake the various functions onboard, is flexibility. For cadets, the breaking down of the complex job of the watchkeeper into smaller elements allows flexibility of learning and timing and also provides the opportunity for skills gained onboard for truly multi-skilled officers in the future. Training Future Watchkeepers, 20th March 1998, pp. 5.
2.2.5 Effectiveness and Advantages of Training Onboard
To share and help the new cadets incorporate faster into organization
To give more details about the system training onboard
Give the cadets description in performance the new job
Help the new cadets to assimilated more quickly into the organization
Give the cadets a sense of satisfaction in performing the new job
( Zairul Azizi B Zamri, April 4 2005 )
2.3 What makes a cadet a successful ship's officer?
In all aspects of life, in order for a person to be successful he must possess something that is unique with him and must also be able to cope up with new things, therefore for a cadet to be successful officer he should have the behavior of eagerness to learn new things and must possess discipline.
"A successful ship's officer requires particular personal qualities in order to cope with the demands of the profession. He or she will spend several month at a time away from home living in close proximity with other crew members. The ability to cope with the stresses of separation whilst exercising tolerance towards others on the ship is therefore essential". (Training schemes for Officer Cadets, Southampton Solent University, 2011/2012 )
"Young officers must be able to accept a higher level of responsibility than would be expected at a similar age in most other professions and possess the leadership qualities necessary to direct the work of others, often under difficult circumstances. Self-reliance, self discipline, initiative and the ability to work as a part of a team are also required as are the commercial awareness and management skills demanded by a competitive modern industry."(Training schemes for Officer Cadets, Southampton Solent University, 2011/2012 )
2.4 The Academic Performance
Academic Performance -As per wiki answers "academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers." (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_meant_by_academic_performance,2012)
Academic achievementÂ orÂ (academic) performanceÂ is the outcome ofÂ educationÂ - the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured byÂ examinationsÂ orÂ continuous assessmentÂ but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important -Â procedural knowledgeÂ such asÂ skillsÂ orÂ declarative knowledgeÂ such asÂ facts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_achievement )
As per (STCW 2010 Manila Amendments Chapter 1 Section A-1/1), "Standard of Competence means a level of proficiency to be achieved for the proper performance of functions onboard ship in accordance with the internationally agreed criteria as set forth herein and incorporating prescribe standards or level of knowledge, understanding or demonstrated skill".
2.4.1 Assessment on the Academic Performance
Assessment is a test of one's performance after a certain time of studies and trainings. This is usually done intermediately and end of every semester.
In ALAM, there is a so-called lecturer's assessment which is conducted 3 times in each semester. All the marks accumulated including final examination concludes the final mark of the present semester. On the other hand, shipboard practical assessment is being done by the ship's senior officers in a monthly basis. Also, ALAM initiated an oral examination to cadets who have just finished their sea phase training prior joining senior year in the academy.
Written and Oral examinations - "the assessment of an individual's performance, in order to identify a training need or effectiveness of training carried out. The appraisal can be by report, by the standard achieved in carrying out a particular task by ranking comparatively to others." (Glossary of Training Terms, Crown Publishing 1981 pg. 49).
STCW Code 2010: Manila Amendments, Chapter1 Section A-1/6, Training and Assessment, Paragraph 1&1.1, "Each party (in this case the Malaysia Marine Department ) shall ensure that all training and assessment of seafarers for certification under the Convention is structured according to the written programmes, including such methods and media of delivery, procedures and course materials as are necessary to achieve the prescribed standard of competence."
2.5 The Cadets
Cadets is defined as a student in training for service as a commissioned officers. (www.definitions.net/definition/cadet/)
In most academy training for future deck officers are divided into 3 stages or 3 years. These are the following:
1st Year Cadets - this the first or primary year of cadetship wherein students will be introduced to different subject such as principles and practical of navigation, chartwork, ship stability, cargo work and seamanship theory. In this stage, learning of the principles are most likely the main priority. Also, preparation for shipboard practical is being tackled here.
2nd Year cadets - the second stage of the training is the practical part which cadets are required to proceed onboard and have their on the job training and learning experience which is to be guided by the designated and competent officers.
3rd Year Cadets - The last stage of cadetship which focuses on the revision and improvisation of what they have learned during their first year and what they have experienced on their second year. This also focuses on the preparation for their Competency examination as Watchkeeping Officer.