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The ultimate goal of double-shift schooling is to enhance access and reduce unit cost of schooling. However, since some schools only achieve those goals at the expense of educational quality, policy makers are faced with difficult choices when designing double-shift schools. Drawing on experiences in a wide range of countries, this Paper highlights the advantages and problems of double-shift systems. Comparison is made with single-shift systems. The paper is intended for both national and regional policy makers and head-teachers, teacher and others responsible for running double-shift schools and also for parents of double shift schools' students. Double shift schooling resolves some of the tensions experienced by children and parents between attending school, and the need to perform domestic and farm Labour (Pamela Kea. 2007,P-27). "The magic word efficiency that is causing such a revolution in industry is beginning to work in education. As in industry, so in education, efficiency is based on complete knowledge. Those administrative officers have not yet demanded and obtained knowledge sufficient to enable their school systems." (J. Howard Hutchinson, 2009, P.4). n second-shift schools morning group leaves the school before the next group arrives. In second-shift schools first group comes early in the morning and leaves at just after mid-day; and second group arrives at mid-day and leaves in the late afternoon. Timing of 1st shift and 2nd shift varies in winter and summer seasons.
SECOND SHIFT SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF HYDERABAD DISTRICT
IMPROVEMENT OR DISASTER
Around the world education is recognized, as an important institution for the development of political and social progress of a nation. The role played by it is an important element in the system of education. The world we live in is changing rapidly with an unimaginable acceleration and through recent technical and technological advances in travel and communications, it is thought of as shrinking and becoming a village. In this process, education places an important part. It is a powerful force in molding the individual and society itself, so education of a nation is no doubt closely linked with cultural and social needs and issues. But it cannot be detached from international scenario having specific trends and demands.
"With the advances made in the third world in the last three decades, education has been offset by population explosion, uneven economic growth, crises in world trade and monetary systems and international or regional political instability. Given these constrains and limited resources, greater emphasis is thought to be needed to improve the quality and quantity of education." (Adeeb, Shagufta and Sarwar, 1998, p.1.).
Through its contribution to life long learning, competitiveness and the pursuit of excellence education has to play a significant role in a society. "The fate of a nation is neither decided in any political arena nor on any battlefield; it is decided in the education imparting institutions." (Mughal, 1999,pp.1-2.). That is why when Pakistan came into being, 'the father of the nation, Quaid e Azem Muhammad Ali Jinnah, stressed for the development of the system of education that could lead the nation to the higher avenues of the knowledge and the system of examining the potentialities of the learners." (Frontier Education Foundation, 2006, p.1.).
Secondary education plays a very crucial role in the present educational structure. It is both a terminal stage for a bulk of students and is also a significant indicator of quality of higher and professional education. The old four tier system of education namely primary, secondary, college and university has been replaced by a three tier system of elementary, secondary and university.
"In most education systems, second shift schools are a marginal phase of the system and seen as of mediocre quality to teachers and parents" (Batra, 1998). It is sometimes argued that second shift schools are affordable to some parents, generally those who are poor, because these schools enable their children, particularly those of secondary school age, to take on employment during some portion of the day and in that way reduce the opportunity cost of schooling
This is usually on the grounds that second shift schools provide a substandard education. "What is often true is that second shift schools enroll mostly poorer students and, as a result, are seen as substandard schools." (Nhundu, 2000 and World Bank and IDB, 2000).
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of 2nd shift school is to increase the supply of school places while limiting strain on budget. Introduction of 2nd shift schools allows a single set of buildings and facilities to server more pupils. This may be especially important in urban areas, where land is scarce and buildings are expensive. The 2nd shift schooling may also have subsidiary functions.
Expansion of the number of 2nd shift schools broadens access. This helps government to achieve goals of social equity. In many societies, the children are too poor to spend the whole day in the school. They cannot afford the School fees, and they cannot afford to lose the incomes they could get from the working.
One of the main reasons for moving to a second shift arrangement is the promising savings from not having to construct more schools to provide accommodation for increased numbers of pupils.
Some of these schools are money-making machines whereby the school runs a double-shift and then it turns in to a tuition-centre in the late evening. While it becomes a goldmine for the owner, it is like subverting the mission of education to promote business. As such schools enroll children of the 'influential' and, as the owners roll in wealth, the Government departments are obliged to look the other way at all kinds of violations of law/ rules.
Statement of the Problem
This study is intended to find out the role of second shift schools in education. The comparison of the performance of students and teachers of 2nd shift schools with the morning shift. Objectives of the Study
To find out whether the arrangement of Second Shift Schools has absorbed the influx of students.
Did the absorption of teachers in Second Shift Schools have reduced unemployment?
To find out teachers-students ratio in Second Shift Schools.
To compare the results of students of Morning Shift and Evening Shift classes of the same school.
To suggest measures for the improvement of secondary school in general and that of Second Shift Schools in particular
Review of Literature
Double-shift schooling is often presented as a short-term measure to increase school provision (Linden 2001, 1). Yet, what is frequently seen as short term can all too readily be institutionalized and become the standard by which educational policy is measured, thereby neglecting issues of cost and quality. One of the main policy approaches supported by international agencies and development organizations, for reducing child labour calls for an increase in school attendance by expanding school places and building more schools (Todaro and Smith 2003, 375). "Compulsory education policies and the legal elimination of child labour are also emphasized to compel governments to work towards children's rights" (Subrahmanian 2002, 402).
In second-shift schools morning group leaves the school before the next group arrives. In second-shift schools first group comes early in the morning and leaves at just after mid-day; and second group arrives at mid-day and leaves in the late afternoon. Generally in Pakistan and Specifically in Sindh, following timing is scheduled.
First Shift - 7:30 to 1:15
Second Shift - 1:30 to 5:30
Timing of 1st shift and 2nd shift varies in winter and summer seasons.
"Double-shift schools seek to maximize the use of available resources and to provide education to a greater number of pupils without multiplying investment. By making more intensive use of building and other facilities, planners can expand access to larger number of children." (Mark Bray, 2008, P.1).
There is less cognitive attainment in second shift schooling. There is an important lack of good evidence about the cognitive attainment in 2nd shift schools. So far available evidence and pre-research findings shows that there is no consistent significant cognitive drawback to pupils in 2nd shift schools.
Mark Bray, (2008, p.25) defined the economic costs of double shift system as "Double-shift systems can provide major economic benefits." They are:
More efficient use of building and other facilities
More efficient use of scarce teacher (if staff are allowed to teacher in more than one session)
Saving in teacher training and teacher housing (if the shift system allows reduction in the total number of teachers)
Release of teacher for other work in the economy( if the system reduce the number of classroom hours in each shift and if the teachers decide to take on other work)
Release of pupils for productive work in the economy.
The beneficial aspects of double shift schooling are couched in terms of the increases in the numbers who can attend school and in terms of its impact on the increased labour contributions of both children and teachers, all of which can be achieved at minimal cost. Yet, nothing is said of the "physical costs for children who do both" (Subrahmanian 2002, 403).
Double shift schooling resolves some of the tensions experienced by children and parents between attending school, and the need to perform domestic and farm Labour (Pamela Kea. 2007,P-27). "The magic word efficiency that is causing such a revolution in industry is beginning to work in education. As in industry, so in education, efficiency is based on complete knowledge. Those administrative officers have not yet demanded and obtained knowledge sufficient to enable their school systems." (J. Howard Hutchinson, 2009, P.4).
Nowadays there is a greater importance attached to educating the grandchild. All see that importance. Children should go to school. Children should also know how their school fees are paid. It is important to take children to the farm, so they know about the work parents do to sponsor their education. In the past it was during the rainy season holiday that children would help their parents on the farm. Now, with double shift, they can help during the week when they are not at school. If a child knows how his / her parent struggles to pay for his or her education this is how a child becomes responsible. She / he must do and see to feel for the parents. (Pamela Kea. 2007, P-23)
One of the main reasons for moving to a second shift arrangement is the possible savings from not having to build more schools to accommodate increased numbers of pupils. Therefore second shift schools are frequently seen as a provisional measure where financial resources parents are constrained.
Methodology of the Study
This study was conducted on the 2nd Shift School at secondary level from (class IX to class X) in District Hyderabad for the five years 2003 to 2008. For the research there are various methods but here we have used primary and secondary sources and after selecting suitable sources data was classified and tabulated and finally used statistical methods and made graph to represent the data in the shape of figures.
The population comprised of the Morning and 2nd shift school teachers, students and the parents of the students in District Hyderabad.
A random sample of this study was 14 school teachers 200 students from 14 random selected school (both morning and evening shift schools) and 100 parents in Hyderabad District.
Tree instruments were developed for this study. The respondents rated their level of agreement to the questions using Yes & No responses. The questionnaires were designed to examine the efficacy of the 2nd shift schools through the perceptions of the respondents drawn from, teachers, students, and parents.
The data collected in the form of results secured by the sample groups of students of Morning and 2nd shift schools from the years 2003 to 2008. Secondly, the data collected in the form of responses on the questionnaires filled in by the teachers, students, and parents.
Procedure of Statistical Analysis
It was a co-relational study. The purpose of the study was to see the correlation among the results secured by the sample group of students' form of Morning and 2nd shift schools from the years 2003 to 2008. The correlation was further examined in the responses collected through questionnaires filled in by the teachers, students, and parents.
The following procedures and methods were applied to analyze the correlation to determine the Effectiveness of the Boards' Examinations in Physics.
a) Statistical Analysis Of Data From Boards' Results
The data were analyzed to check the effectiveness of the Boards (Hyderabad and Karachi) through the results in the subject of Physics. The following two different statistical procedures were applied:
Testing Two Population Means
The procedures were further defined as given below:
Testing Two Population Means
By the help of these tests, the effectiveness of the Boards' was evaluated as reflected in the results achieved in the subject of Physics by the sample in X, XI, XII, Entry Test and B.Sc. to see if the performance had improved deteriorated or remained uniform.
A sample of 50 students from each Board, who appeared in the Matriculation Examination in 1997 through B.I.S.E, Hyderabad and B.S.E, Karachi was taken. The performance of those students in Matriculation Examination in the subject of Physics was analyzed in relation to their performance rendered in the same subject in the subsequent classes of XI, XII, Entry Test and B.Sc (Hons.) in the years 1998 1999 and 2000 respectively.
The performance in the subject of Physics of the sample group in Matriculation Examinations was regarded as the criteria against which the performance in the other classes in the subject of Physics was assessed, through the procedure known as "Testing Two Population Means", a separate analysis was made of the performance in Physics in
XI against the performance in X
XII against the performance in X
Entry Test against the performance in X
and in B.Sc (Hons.) P-I, II, and III against the performance in X
For instance two populations were taken here have X and XI students and Î¼1 was used to designate the population mean of X students and Î¼2 was used as were the population mean of XI students. Then Null Hypothesis was formulated as:
Ho: There was no significant difference on the average in the performance of the students of X and XI.
Ho : Î¼1 - Î¼2 = 0 or Î¼D = d0=0
Where Ho is the symbol used to designate Null Hypothesis and if this hypothesis was rejected, the alternate hypothesis was accepted:
H1: there was a significant difference on the average in the performance of the students in X and XI.
H1: Î¼1 - Î¼2 â€¡ 0
Here two cases arise; either
H1: Î¼1 > Î¼2
H1: Î¼1 < Î¼2
Which was tested again, i.e., either
the performance in X was better than XI
the performance in XI is better than X
After defining the Null and Alternate Hypothesis, the next step was to select the Level of Significance
SELECTING THE LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE. The levels of risk were willing and taken, when accepting or rejecting the Null Hypothesis depended upon the level of significance to be set. It meant deciding upon the size of the risk to be taken or how stringent the test was made.
Statisticians set arbitrary limits of .05 or .01, which meant that a significance level of .05 for rejecting the Null Hypothesis was not as stringent as a significance level of .01. The level of significance was usually set out in the specifications of the test. The level of significance set showed how carefully it was done to judge the Null Hypothesis. If the limit was .05, that means that if there was only a 5 per cent or less chance of being wrong, then it had to be accepted as decisive.
Determining the Test Distribution to Use Once the level of significance was selected it then became necessary to determine the appropriate probability distribution to be used for the particular test. (Donald H. Sanders. 1987)
Here the T-Statistics was used to estimate the value of parameter. i.e:
×¢= n-1 : Degrees of Freedom
d = score of physics in X- score of physics in XI
n = sample size = 50
d0 = 0 = > µ1 - µ2 = 0
Sd = n Î£ di2 - (Î£ di )2
n( n - 1 )
The critical region defined here was:
t'< - t a/2,×¢ and t' > t a/2,×¢
t'< - t.025,49 and t' > t.025,49
Defining the Rejection or Critical Regions. Once the appropriate test distribution was determined, it was then possible to specify in standard units what a significant difference was. If the sampling distribution was normally distributed, the level of significance could be expressed in standard units using the t table. Suppose in a test it was stated that the desirable risk of erroneous rejection of the null hypothesis was a = .o5. it meant that 0.025 chance of erroneous rejection existed in each tail of the sampling distribution. If the true difference was equal to the assumed difference. Then in that case an a value of 0.05 represented the total risk of error. Figure indicated how the normal curve was partitioned. With 0.025 in each tail the remaining area in each half of the sampling distribution was .4750 (.500 025). It is shown in the form of a graph below:
Difference No significant difference difference
Therefore, after the level of significance was stated and the appropriate test distribution was determined, the next step in the procedure was to determine the rejection or critical regions of the sampling distribution, which were represented in standard units. If the calculated value t' falls into a critical region, the null hypothesis was rejected and if it did not fall into a rejection region, of course, there was no statistical reason to doubt the hypothesis. However, a word of caution concerning conclusions about the validity of a null hypothesis were appropriate here. Theoretically, a test never proved that a hypothesis was true. Rather, a test merely provided statistical evidence for not rejecting hypothesis. The only standard of truth was the population mean, and since the true value of the mean was unknown, the assumption could never be proved. Thus, when it was said that a hypothesis was accepted, it essentially meant that there was no statistically sufficient reason for rejection of the assumption. It is reflected in the graph below:
(do not reject H0)
(reject H0) (reject H0)
Stating the Decision Rule After the hypotheses was stated, selected the level of significance, determined the test distribution to use, and defined the rejection regions; the final step was a formal statement of the rules on which a conclusion was made about the null hypothesis. A decision rule should clearly state the appropriate conclusion based on sample results. The general format of a decision rule (only one of the following was needed) was: (Donald H. Sanders. 1987).
To accept Ho if the calculated value of t¢ fell into a acceptance region.
Reject Ho if the calculated value of t¢ fell into a rejection region.
In other words if the value of the Statistic t' was greater than ta/2 or if it was less than - ta/2 then the Null Hypothesis was rejected and to accepted the Alternate Hypothesis that there was a significant difference between the performance of the students in X & XI in the subject of physics. Here two cases arose either the performance in X was better than their performance in XI or their performance in XI is better than performance in X .To test this statistics it was checked again if t' < - ta/2 or t' > ta/2.
If t' < - ta/2 it would be concluded that Î¼1 - Î¼2 < o meaning that their performance in XI was better than that in X or if t' > ta/2 it was concluded that Î¼1 - Î¼2 > o meaning that their performance in X was better than that in XI
Null And Alternate Hypothesis:
Ho: There is no significant difference on the average in the performance of the students in X and XI.
Ho : Î¼1 - Î¼2 = 0 or Î¼D = d0=0
Where Ho is the symbol used to designate Null Hypothesis and if this hypothesis is rejected, the alternate hypothesis would be accepted.
H1: there was a significant difference on the average in the performance of students in X and XI.
H1: Î¼1 - Î¼2 â€¡ 0
Here two cases arose; either
H1: Î¼1 > Î¼2
H1: Î¼1 < Î¼2
Which would be tested again, i.e., either
the performance in X was better than XI
the performance in XI was better than X