This report covers the benefit of sending children to pre-school before kindergarten. Literature review is used to explore the research existing in this field. It will help us to understand what effect pre-school has on children. Such programs are also discussed in the paper which is conducting training for preschoolers for their development. This paper not only covers that academic aspect but also sheds light on the benefits preschool education has on social and emotional aspects of children's life. After collecting this information, it will be collaborated with the findings of this research paper using different research technique. In the end, the paper will be concluded along with some suggestions.
In this competitive world it is very important to train the children in such a way that they are not left behind. Study shows that with pre-school training, children show much developed skills of learning when they enter kindergarten. If a child is being read to at home, visits museums, learns how to play a game and reads along someone then it is more likely that his/her learning abilities are polished and ready for kindergarten (Stube & Patrick, 2010). Pre-school is a planned program for children before they start their formal education. It deals with the learning ability of a child. Children are trained in such a way that their learning abilities are enhanced. Specified techniques are used to improve the language skills and analytical skills. it also has a positive effect on the behavioral aspect of a child's personality.
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Bridges (2008) found out from the research that involving parents is very critical for the success of pre-school training. Also, involvement of community can be very vital in the accomplishment of a successful preschool training center. Margetts (2007) likewise says that in a multicultural community, parents and community itself plays a very important role. This research also highlights diverse methods of implementing preschool programs in Australia and United States of America or any other diverse country. It I believed that a universal pre-school system can benefit everyone and provide equal opportunity to every student. But Bridges (2008) argues that it is a waste of resources because families who cannot afford will not have full access and unless it is designed to the top-notch quality it will result in a disaster.
Teachers play a vital role in the development of a pre-school child. It is essential to understand the culture, background and customs of the child. Training of the teacher is very essential. Not everyone can handle pre-school children. They need to be taught in a certain way so it has the greatest effect on the development of the child. Children should also be encouraged to ask as many questions as possible. It increases their cognitive skills (Persky & Golubchick, 1991). There are institutes as well as home care can be considered a part of pre-school training. The things that the child studies at the age of three form the basis of his/her academic life in the coming years. However, every child does not get equal pre-school training. Thus, results in different cognitive abilities regarding education. Pre-school education also helps the parents to determine any learning disabilities that might exist and can eliminate the chances of going to special education by effective pre-school education. This paper focuses on such benefits pre-school training has on the children before they join kindergarten.
Children who attend pre-school show higher math skills, language skills and have less behavioral problem (Bridges, 2008). Bridges (2008) also indicate that not all children have access to the pre-school and pre-kindergarten program. However, she argues that pre-school education is not a valid tool to measure the academic achievements made later in life. The researches earlier failed to consider the involvement of parents in the pre-school training. Research shows that pre-school is a sound investment not only in terms of children's development but also academically, socially and economically. Early education not only develops the skills but also enhance the ability to score well, less retention of grades and fewer chances of placement in a special education program. Also, research show that thee children have less tendency to create criminal or justice problems (Barnett & Hustedt, 2003).
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There was a great argument among government and parents about preschool education. Parents were of the view that children should be taught at home rather than preschool institutes by government. The role of government should be to reduce the tax for parents and leave the pre-kindergarten training to the parents. These programs can be expensive. However there is a need for these institutions that should provide preschool education to every child by devising a program which is cost effective and provides high quality (Bracey & Stellar, 2003). The study shows that the children who get preschool education have much developed cognitive and social skills. The research was conducted on children with different backgrounds, ethnic groups and had different native languages. Even then, the results showed that the children with pre-kindergarten education showed a lot of added skills, they were more confident and had quick ability to learn different things (Gormley, Gayer, Phillips, & Dawson, 2005).
Anderson, et. all (2003) stated that the most important skills required for children to develop in early age are knowledge, recognizing relations, self-regulation and develop specific skills. Early education results in developed social-emotional functioning of the children. They also said that it is essential or the preschool programs to promote the social skills. When children get social competencies in early age it enables them to contribute more in social service and also improves their relationship with parents. However, there is no evidence of such programs showing improvement in health of the children. ReadinessÂ andÂ EarlyÂ Activities forÂ ChildrenÂ fromÂ theÂ Heart (REACH) is a program designed to improve the children's readiness for school and improve their skills. It is a step taken by California State University along with Long BeachÂ UnifiedÂ SchoolÂ to enhance the social-emotional state of children along with more developed literacy. This is an example of how much these types of programs are important and beneficial that good organizations are willing to invest in them so that the children of their society can benefit (Stanley, 2004).
All three and four year children are entitled to free education in England. The study shows that the children of age three are more suitable for preschool education. They learn more quickly about understanding the world and its physical beings. After three years, there is a negative effect on the learning ability of communication, language, mathematics and creativity (Hopkin, Stokes, & Wilkinson , 2009). Another research shows that 91% of children can be identified as good or poor reader if they had preschool training. The variables used to measure the ability to read were memory of remembering letters and sentences, speed of naming an object and orthographic test (Badian, 1994).
One of the major reasons against the development of preschools in United States is the thinking that these types of schools or institutes would only depict that the families have failed to raise and develop their child's personality (Bracey & Stellar, 2003). Government did not produce high quality day-care center due to this resistance to government's initiative which in return solidifies the belief of parents that preschool institutes provide low-quality of care. Thus only middle and upper class families can take advantage of the private programs offered by different organizations (Bracey & Stellar, 2003).
Teachers are the most important aspect of preschool training. It is essential for them to understand the culture, language, background and customs of the child. Training of the teacher is very essential for the development of every child in the program. Children need to be taught in a certain way with specific tools and techniques. Teachers need to make themself available for every child and attend their questions. Children should also be encouraged to ask as many questions as possible. It increases their cognitive skills (Persky & Golubchick, 1991). Apart for trained teachers, environment of the classroom also plays equally important role in the development and education of pre-school children.
Objective of Study
Pre-school education is a very important aspect of child's development. Many people are becoming aware of its importance but there are still some people with the belief that it is no more than a taxation scam by the government. This research studies the benefits pre-school education has on children before they start going to kindergarten.
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Qualitative approach is used to analyses the effects and benefits of pre-school education. Case studies, research papers and other literature are used. Main sources used are following:
Different books on the subject of preschool or early education are used to explore the benefits and effects of preschool education.
Articles for educational journals are used in order to study previous researches done on this subject. This is an important source which provides researches different opinions and case studies. Hence, resulting in better analysis by viewing the picture from both sides
Analysis of this data is done by comparing the literature review and different researches which cover several aspects of the topic. By analyzing these researches, conclusion has been given.
Most of the research shows that for the social, emotional and academic development of children, it is very important that the children get preschool education. However there are also arguments that the preschool education by government is only a strategy to incur taxations and fees. But, most parents and teachers agree that the preschool education plays a vital role in the personality development of the children. In some countries like England, it is mandatory for children to attend pre-school and pre-kindergarten institutes because they believe that without this the children will show lack of communication, language and creative skills. Parents also play a very significant role in the preschool teaching. Reading to the children at an early age improves the reading ability of children. If parents take their children to places like zoo and museum, it enhances their ability to develop the knowledge of physical beings in the world.
In order to achieve the desired results of preschool education, the program needs to be carefully developed. The teachers have to be trained in such a way that they can delegate individual attention to each child. The program should include visual and audio learning techniques. In England, it is also under discussion to start preschool education for the two year olds'. This shows the importance of preschool education to a great extent. Environment of class room determines the capability of the institute and staff. Learning environment should be developed. Extracurricular activities like music and physical education retains the interest of children, at this level of training, children always learn more from paly as compared to strict academic curriculum. Parents and community play equal role in the development of preschool training program and the development of children of that program (Persky & Golubchick, 1991).
Research shows that the children who belong to underprivileged background get the greatest benefits from pre-school tarring. Children form upper and middle class have the means to learn at home and visit places which play equally important role as pre-school training center. However, underprivileged children do not get a chance to explore their abilities in such a way. Illiterate parents could also be a hurdle in fully developing the abilities of the child. Thus, the preschool training programs aid these children to have equal opportunity as any other child in the community. These children show great development when they join preschool training. this enables them to gain courage and self-confidence and compete with the best of their abilities in the future.
Hence we can say that preschool education benefits every child of the community. With an effective program, it can assist the parents to develop the abilities and skills of their children. By creating favorable environment for children in a preschool class room, the future academic life of these children can be improved. Parents have to play an equal role with th preschools and support the government to launch such programs. The success of preschool training is dependent on all the members of the community and administration of preschools. Teachers need to be trained for better education of these children.
Preschool education has a lot of benefits which plays a vital role in the life of children. It not only increases their academic skills but also enhances the social and emotional attributes. It is important for children to get preschool education so that they can compete in the ever increasing competition. Parents and teachers both need to play their role in the development of a child. At the age of three, it should be made mandatory for every child to attend pre-school training. it will enhance their personality, social interaction and emotional stability. There are many factors that paly important role in good pre-school trading such as trained staff, fully equipped class-rooms and learning environment. The curriculum of preschool training should include effective curriculum, tools and techniques of kindergarten, supporting activities like music and physical education and most importantly involvement of parents and community.
Efforts need to be made in order to eliminate the negative thinking about preschool training. Training and awareness of mothers can be very useful in order to establish a positive image. Families need to be guided by seminars or television awareness programs. There should be an extensive campaign for the promotion of preschool education. Government need to take initiative and establish high quality preschool training institute to regain parent's confidence. This should also be made mandatory and free, if possible, for every child; because, healthy and intelligent children will turn into a healthy and developed nation.
In order to develop a high quality preschool program, efforts are required form the government, educational board, parents and community. All have to work together in order to give children a better future. This program not only develops the personality, it also identifies if there are any disabilities present in children. Especially, reading disabilities can be caught at an early stage and can be treated. The children form underprivileged background benefit the most form these programs. It provides a sound platform for them to develop their abilities at an early stage and not stand out as an outcaste. Effectiveness of such programs is more dependent child-centered and person-centered approach than any other method. Also, preschools with high parental involvement, moderate intensity of training, social engagement of children and long durations resulted in higher benefit in academic performance and class-room engagement.