Teacher and Student Experience on ICT Integration in the Teaching and Learning Process

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STUDY OF ICT SKILL FOR QUALITY TEACHING AND LEARNING

 

ABSTRACT

 

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is widely used in every sector and part of our life. ICT represents its usefulness in every sector of humankind. ICT mentions the technologies that give access to information through technologies. ICT is very similar to information technologies but it mainly focuses on communication technologies. It contains the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and another communication system. ICT is an amazing set of technological tools and resources which is used to communicate, create, store, manage and publish information. These technologies involve computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies such as radio, television, and telephony. A skill is a rational efficiency to complete a task with pre-determined outcomes often within a definite amount of time, energy or both. In other words, the skill may be the capabilities that a person possesses. Teaching and learning is the most significant method in education. Teaching may be defined as the system to help a learner to learn. The quality of education depends on the quality of teaching and learning. The rate of growth and development of a nation depends on the quality teaching and learning. Different kinds of researches proved that the use of ICT is the best instrument for the teaching and learning process. 21st century learners own the characteristics like self-conducted and lifelong learners, legendary leaders, cooperating informer, conscious and adopt information manager adopt and learned performances, caring universal citizens, humble critical thinkers etc. To develop these characteristics of 21st-century learner teacher must be used to ICT. The present paper describes the study of ICT skills for quality teaching and learning. 
 

Based on the present trend of education, the project is conceived to determine the quality parameters to teaching and learning using data mining. The research is conducted based on the survey data gathered from the students and teachers. This paper mainly finds out the various skill of teachers to ensure quality teaching and learning. In the future the proposed work will be further enhanced based on real-time data.

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES

PAGE NO

 

 

 

 

Figure 4.1: Questions Used in the Survey

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Figure 4.2: Age Range

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Figure 4.3: Location of the Respondents

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Figure 4.4: Marital Status of the Respondents

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Figure 4.5: Educational Level of the Respondents

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Figure 4.6: Job Status before Training

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Figure 4.7: Required Training for Job

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Figure 4.8: Skill Improvement after Training

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Figure 4.9: Scoring Skills before Training

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Figure 4.10: Scoring Skills after Training

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Figure 4.11: Opinion about the Impact of Training for job Market or

                     Self-Dependent

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Figure 4.12: Job status of the Trainees after Training

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Figure 4.13: Status Regarding Training is Helpful for Job

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Figure 4.14: Status About Suggesting Friends or Colleagues for Taking

                     Training to Develop

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

PAGE NO

 

 

 

 

Table 4.1.A: Descriptive Statistics of Before and After Skill of Microsoft

                     Excel of the Students

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Table 4.1.B: t-Test Result of Significance Test of Microsoft Excel

                     Training Using SPSS

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Table 4.2: Final t-Test Result of Significance Test of the Training

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

CONTENS

PAGE

 

 

Acknowledgements

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Abstract

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CHAPTER

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1 :INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Introduction

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1.2 Motivation

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1.3 Rationale of the Study

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1.4 Research Question

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1.5 Expected Output

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1.6 Report Layout

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CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND

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2.1 Introduction

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2.2 Related Works

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2.3 Research Summary

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2.4 Scope of the Problem

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2.5 Challenges

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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3.1 Introduction

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3.2 Research Subject and Instrumentation

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3.3 Data Collection Procedure

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3.4 Statistical Analysis

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3.5 Implementation Requirements

CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND

                         DISCUSSION

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4.1 Introduction

4.2 Experimental Results

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4.3 Descriptive Analysis

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4.4 Summary

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CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

                         RECOMMENDATION AND

                         IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE

                         RESEARCH

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5.1 Summary of the Study

5.2 Conclusions

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5.3 Recommendations

5.4 Implication for Further Study

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REFERENCES

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

1.1     Introduction

We have experienced the greatest social and scientific advances in the last 100 years and it is achieved only for the use of ICT. ICT has brought the whole world to our doorstep. Now ICT is working on education system. Because education is the main basis for economic development and human welfare. But the education system must be full of quality. A good quality teaching and learning process ensures a developed nations. Many governments have been preferring the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education, especially to expand access to and improve the quality of education. Because information and Communication Technology delivers recent and innovative style of learning for every student at all educational levels. ICT can introduce classrooms excluding walls when teachers are ready to understand the usefulness of this potential tool. Although in the recent time ICT is at the center of education reform efforts, not all countries are currently able to profit from this development and advances that technology can offer. Significant barriers often referred to as digital divide limit the ability of some countries to take advantage of technological development (Kozma and Anderson 2002). The developing countries are faced with challenges related to access, pedagogy or assessment when using ICTs to improve and reinforce education ( Kozma et al 2002). For this reason the government of Bangladesh has taken many projects for ensuring quality teaching and learning using ICT. This project is also designed to determine the quality parameters to teaching and learning.

1.2     Motivation

Present era is the time of computer technology. The introduction of the Internet has brought a lot of changes in the way people communicate around the world. Bangladesh is becoming digital to continuing with time. The government has taken several initiatives to fulfill the dreams of Digital Bangladesh. One such initiative is to ensure quality teaching and learning. To ensure quality teaching and learning, Government provided so many ICT tools in educational institution and made ICT subject compulsory. But if quality teaching and learning is not ensured, then the purpose of the government will be fail. In this research we would like to find out that the quality teaching or learning can be ensured or not.

 

1.3     Rationale of the Study

Education is the background of a nation. No socio-economic, political and cultural development is possible without education. ICT education is very vital and quality human resources development is essential for the country. It is reflected in the present drives of Digital Bangladesh.

1.4     Research Question

Question of this work are:

      What is the level of teacher and student experience on ICT integration in the teaching and learning process?

      In which ways do teachers and students integrate ICTs in the teaching and learning process?

1.5     Expected Outcome

Expected outcome of the project is to evaluate the education system to ensure quality teaching and learning. Through this process it will be observed whether the student get proper learning from the project and also whether the project help learner to cope up with the developed country in ICT sector.

1.6    Report Layout

The following description is given to understand which chapter represents which topics and besides, their relevant discussions.

      Chapter 1 – The primary guideline and reason for this thesis is described in this chapter. It covers introduction, motivation, rationale of the study, research questions and expected outcome of the study.

      Chapter 2 – In this section, background and related works are described briefly. Moreover, research summary, scope of the problem and challenges are also discussed.

      Chapter 3 – Research Methodology of the study is viewed in this chapter. It contains data collection procedure, data analysis and experimentation requirements.

      Chapter 4 – In this chapter, experimental results and discussion are shown. Besides, a brief summary on how we analysis the result is also given.

     Chapter 5 – Conclusion and recommendation of research result are discussed here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

Background

2.1 Introduction

Education is one of the foundation for economic development and enhancement of human welfare. The global economic competition grows inflexible, education plays a vital source of comparative advantage as it is connected to economic growth and the technique for countries to attract investment and hence jobs.

Information and Communication Technology can be a major factor to ubiquitous access to education, equity in education, intonation of quality teaching and learning, more efficient educational management system and teacher’s career development.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has identified, ICT is now omnipresent in the current world. The OECD has delineated that, in the twenty-one countries for which data was available, employment in the ICT industry represent 6.6% of total business employment [1]. This referred that more than 16 million people employed in the industry.

More recent and even more dramatic indicator of the growth in IC, the increasing pervade of ICT in all the aspects of the modern life has led to the concept of a ‘knowledge base society’. In 2002, Information Society Commission (ISC) recommended that the fundamental skills should, as far as possible become a key component of conventional education.

2.2 Related Works

Harvey Mellar, Maria Kambouri, Kit Logan, Sally Betts, Barbara Nance, Viv mention in their paper that use more ICT tools in the classroom and alongside they focused on developed the teacher approaches to teach using ICT. They reported mobile technologies (tablets, PDAs, mobile phones) were found to be particularly motivating, and enabled greater flexibility in teaching, with teacher taking advantage of the mobility of the technology to move outside the classroom. Increased ICT skills and confidence were positively correlated with the amount of time learners spent using technology within the classroom. More specifically learner use of the internet, PowerPoint and word processing were found to be positively correlated with gains in ICT skills [2].

Shaheeda Jaffer, Dick Ng’ambi, Laura Czerniewicz, University of Cape Town, South Africa reported in their paper that the argues that a central role of educational technology is to provide additional strategies that can be used to address the serious environmental and educational challenges faced by educators and students in higher education. In developing countries where higher education is fraught with serious challenges at multiple levels, there is increasing pressure to ensure that technological possibilities are viewed in the context of educational needs [3].

Main functions of ICT such as ICT works as like a change agent in learning procedure, impact of ICT on place in two major way ‘when’ and ‘where’ to study improve quality teaching and learning, enhancing educational system and the role of ICT in higher education. This paper also point out few barriers that works behind the ICT and that barrier are lack of teacher confidence, lack of teacher competence, resistance to change and negative attitude, lack of time, lack of effective training, lack of accessibility and lack of technical support[4].

The motive of the research aims to bring together the findings and major points from a review of significant part of the available literature related with ICTs for Education and ICTs in Education. This review find out to identify and evaluate relevant approach in national and international research and initiatives related to measuring the effective use of ICT for education with consider to the teaching learning process[5].

Another paper states that the key problems arose from student’s lack of management skills arose from students’ lack of time management skills and from insufficiencies in the usability of the technology. Besides this problems this paper also sort out some other lacking such as lack of experience in ICT, loneliness and lack of practical usability of ICT [6].

Abdulkafi Albirini reported in his paper that the findings suggest that teachers have positive attitudes toward ICT in education by investigated the relationship between computer attitudes and five independent variables. And they reported the five variables are: computer attributes, cultural perceptions, computer competence, computer access, and personal characteristics [7].

2.3 Research Summary

We can summarize our research such as, any developing country like Bangladesh ICT based quality teaching and learning is needed. The study findings may be used to facilitate the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning system by both teachers and students. In this research, focused exclusively on proper utilization of ICTs in teaching and learning activities.

2.4 Scope of the Problem

In depth literature review reveals that ICT based quality teaching and learning has been applied in several countries though till date nothing special has been done in Bangladesh. Therefore, there is a huge scope to study of ICT skill for quality teaching and learning in order to cope up with present world and the success of our future generation.

 2.5 Challenges

The key challenges for the research are as follows:

-          To collect data from teachers where participants took part.

-          To set up the survey questions where that was the sensitive part for our research.

-          There was not enough data about the trainees to find them for collecting their feedbacks.

CHAPTER 3

Research Methodology

3.1  Introduction

The section covers research methodology used in this study. It aims at calculating an estimated score for teacher by analyzing teacher data considering various important parameters. These important parameters mostly emphasize on teacher skills, the use of technology, ICT based activities and materials used for teaching and obstacles to the use of ICT in teaching and learning records to ensure a perfect calculation. The data is then analyzed by using classification techniques to calculate teacher’s level.

Figure 3.1.1 shows the work flow of this study.

                                         Figure 3.1.1: Work flow of the study

3.2  Research Subject and Instrumentation

 

In this section, research subject and instrumentation are described elaborately. Our research subject is “Study of ICT Skill for Quality Teaching and Learning”. The primary goal of the research is to interact with the teacher and student at the tertiary level to identify the answers of the research questions. The primary means is based on survey and personal interview to gather data.

3.3  Data Collection Procedure

  1. Dataset preparation

The dataset used in this study is collected from the database. Finally, a survey was conducted using “Google Form”. “Google Form” was selected from other services since there is no limit to the number of responses and it provides a helpful data analytics tool and also gives the freedom of developing different types of questionnaires. The survey design has been done by research related question, through which we have made a right decision. Our dataset is collected from the teacher of different universities via online survey using Google form. Initially, the dataset has 77 documents.

  1. Data description

In this section, the resultant features are shown after pre-processing and these features are ready to be used by using data mining process. The dataset has four attribute and they are- teacher name, experience, skill score, and class.

3.4  Statistical Analysis

In this section, data are analyzed statistically. To understand actually who are involve in the survey we have decided to study their personal background first so why we included question (2-5) are the demography part in the survey at the initial section. Where question no 5 are included to know in which area they are expert to teach. Then question no 6, 7, 8 and 9 were designed to evaluate the ICT skill for quality teaching and learning.

Figure 4.2: The Range of Age of Teacher

Our research on the ICT based quality teaching & learning. So here the age of the trainee’s is plays a vital role. Teachers from various level of age are different mentality to teach. Here the trainee’s age divided into 4 different groups. We were set the age range under 30, from 30 to 39, 40 to 49 and 50 or more to know which age of group of teacher is more proficiently teach using ICT. From the above mentioned graph we can see that we get maximum responses from age group under 30 years. There are 52.6% of the respondents have age range is under 30 years, 30.8% is between 30-39 years, 10.3% is between 40-49 years and 6.4% is the 50 or more years.

 

Figure 4.3: Gender of the Teacher

Since the data collect from the teacher, we have to know the gender of teacher. Because we want to see that which gender of teacher use more ICT to teach. Here we can get majority of the teacher are male about 66.7% and the female teacher are 33.3% who were filled up the survey form.

Figure 4.4: Teaching Experience of the Teacher

In the above 4.4 figure we found that 0-5 years’ experience teacher amount about 25, 5-10 years about 10 and 10-15 about 7. Teaching experience is the key fact in quality teaching so why we include this geographical question in our survey form.




Figure 4.5: Teacher Skills

As our main focused on ICT skill for quality study so we designed our question set in major 4 section. In this teacher skill section we tried to know the skill of the teacher in using ICT tools for their teaching. And after analyzing we found that teacher are always use the word processing, use spreadsheet and organize computer file in subfolder for teaching purpose., teacher always use the Gmail address in communication with the student but the never use Twitter and WhatsApp to communicate with student. They sometimes use the Facebook and do programming.


Figure 4.5: Use of Technology

In this section of questionnaire, we focused on the use of technology in teaching for make it more effective. We set few critical question to know the teacher mentality for adapting technology. We

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4

Experimental Results and Discussion

4.1 Introduction (done)

In this chapter, presents the results of data collected from the field and discussed with the reference to the aim of the study. The findings have been displayed with the respect to each of the specific research questions that indicate to the study.

4.2 Survey Design and Data Collection (done)

To collect the data from teacher a google site was developed through which 9 questions were posted in 5 major section. Where the first part of the section is demographic part and rest section is the prime concern. The section of our survey are follow:

  • Demography part
  • Teacher skills
  • Use of technology
  • ICT based activities and materials used for teaching
  • Obstacles to the use of ICT in teaching and learning

4.3 Descriptive Analysis

CHAPTER 5

Discussion and Conclusion

5.1 Summery of the Study

The main objective of this study was to understand the teacher skill in ICT for quality teaching and learning and for this reason, we studied different factors. The dataset used in our research was collected by survey from the teachers of different universities. We conducted interview with many the teachers to know their skill about ICT in purpose of teaching and learning. After analyzing the data, we reached a decision that our teachers are not enough skilled in ICT. Without better skill of teacher, student can’t get quality teaching and excluding quality teaching, we will never be able to declare ourselves as a developed nation. 

 

 

5.3 Recommendation

The Bangladesh government has taken various initiatives to make more effective education system. One such initiative of the government is the ICT based teaching and learning which will help to realize the dream of building Digital Bangladesh. At the end of the study it is seen that the mean of teacher skill is 3.615 that indicates the skill level of our teacher in ICT is above average. As the teacher skill is directly connected to quality teaching and learning so the teacher skill is the key to make a nation qualified. Our teacher are not enough skill in ICT so Government need to step in training and encourage the teacher to use ICT in teaching., ei paper e amra teacher er ict er opor skill ta tule dorsi, In future scope for research j kivabe teacher and student k integrate kore teacher and student er skill ta k aro barano jai. Jodi teacher eer skill ta above 4.0 means good then our education system will be more effective and more realiable.

5.4 Implication for Further Studyss

Based on further acquisition of data set, further exploration will be performed for real time data mining and apply enhanced algorithm to make it more effective and efficient. Future research with the huge data set association rules will be developed to explore interesting patterns which can be able to improve the skill of both teacher and student. In future this research can be enhanced into an intelligent system

APPENDIX A

Analysis & Assessment of Skill Using Data Mining

Questionnaire

 

The questions of our survey is given below


. A

REFERENCES

 

 [1]. ICT Investment and Economic Growth in the 1990s: Is the United States a Unique Case? A Comparative Study of Nine OECD Countries.

[2]. Using ICT EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING Harvey Mellar, Maria Kambouri, Kit Logan, Sally Betts, Barbara Nance and Viv Moriarty.

[3]. The role of ICTs in higher education in South Africa: one strategy for addressing teaching and learning challenges Shaheeda Jaffer, University of Cape Town, South Africa Dick Ng’ambi, University of Cape Town, South Africa Laura Czerniewicz, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

[4]. International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET) ISSN: 2278–0882 EATHD-2015 Conference Proceeding, 14-15 March, 2015 Using ICT in Empowering Teachers for Quality Education Dr. (Mrs.) Navdeep Kaur Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.

[5]. An Effective use of ICT for Education and Learning by Drawing on Worldwide Knowledge, Research, and Experience: ICT as a Change Agent for Education (A LITERATURE REVIEW) Syed Noor-Ul-Amin Ph.D Research Scholar Department Of Education, University Of Kashmir.

[6]. From strategic planning to meaningful learning: diverse perspectives on the development of web‐based teaching and learning in higher education Erika Löfström Anne Nevgi First published: 05 June 2006.

[7]. Teachers attitudes toward information and communication technologies: the case of Syrian EFL teachers Abdulkafi Albirini * Department of Educational Policy and Leadership, Technologies of Instruction and Media Program, 203 Jennings Hall, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA Received 18 August 2004; accepted 29 October 2004.

 

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