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In my paper for writing assignment on drop out, supply side and demand side are really the influent factors for concerned problem over the field of basic education regarding to higher drop -out rate of poor students. This problem has been the focus of generation to generation particularly the education problem for dropping out in Cambodia. And the key factors are supply and demand side for poor students to access school.
To make clear finding, explanation and discussion over the demand side and supply side, some ideas should be highlighted according to document and survey books provided online by Thomas Zimmermann, and I would like to raise some indicated suggestion or recommend from research found on how the government can reduce problem on drop out. It is the latter, of course, that is important for committing the appropriate policies to close education gender gaps.
Reasonable assessment in this or same frameworks (Alderman & King, 1998; Rosenzweig& Schultz, 1982) can indicate why investments in girls' human capital are often lower than boys'. On the other factors to be the same for both sexes, daughters will get less schooling than sons if the remittance rate is higher out of son's wealth, if the marginal returns to schooling in the labor market are everywhere higher for boys than girls. Effective interconnection networking enables quality of higher education.
We recommended that all the various-described above is going to determine the term "quality" in higher education. These dimensions are going to be measured in the after stages for seeing if Cambodian Higher Education replies to all the different-depicted in the literature. According to the term quality, interrelationship between both teacher and students can deal the problems shown in how well learners learn and how careful ways that teachers can take note on the progressively learning of students, moreover students can feel comfortable in accessing learning which requires quality in education. Chickering and Gamson (1987) conclude that socialize with others increase close growth in learning.
Some concerns over the learning process are that students in higher education more often complaint over the problems they face which it is hard to be solved if teachers do not try to facilitate the matter after class. Teachers are the real compromisers and they are also the agents in pushing students learning performs better.
According to Lehmkuhle is notified and have expressed in Massy's (2003) research providing experiences to educational institutions more frequently deliver developing ideas to construct quality. As for cooperation as well as vision, skillful and expertise teachers could also enhance the quality in learning and experience. And, empirical studies will be found through among skillful and expertise group of teachers,
Supply side and demand side may cause in disadvantages of girls in education
Distance is also included with expenditure that will be an adherence for students' access and dropout, who both of the components cannot give more opportunity for students to go to school and it keeps students to face the household. Parents will find fewer benefits from their children when they send children to school due to the payment and earning is not found equally which family may face the low income. So spending on the distance for children to school has the alternative choice that is enormously cost for low income family not to send children to school. This factor may be noticeable which distances to schools in country areas are highly scarce.
On the other factors finance-increasing for school can be what is going on for rural family to manage and control spending on the study material and to attain the sustainable educational access for their children, poverty leads to child labor which is other factors that keep students late to start school with workload, late entry, geography, ethnicity is subsided effectively influent on the girls education (Government of Cambodia, 1996 to 2006, p 7-13).
Gender differences in response to policy change
Gender varieties in dealing with guideline can also be increased from diversities in schooling cost functions. What is needed is for the marginal costs of schooling to be on rise at noticeable price for girls and boys. If families are valued and thus have to support education through cutting out in other first period expenditures, noticeable costs may high via abolished marginal use of consumption, which causes the value of forgone utility to rise at the margin as schooling earn more focus and expectation falls. Further, fees and other direct school costs are usually mainly greater at higher levels of schooling and often necessary because state education nominally free in many countries. As stated in Gender and education for all: The leap to equality, "gender parity" and "gender equality" in education give unexpected future needs (UNESCO 2003).
Parity is succeeded when boys and girls have the equal access in school-link to their schooling age allowance-accept the systematized providing education, reach the future education quality, and make more progress in spiracle studies (UNESCO 2003). Achieving parity is crucial for getting quality in education, insufficiently, for equality requirement could be regarded as "first stage'' of development towards equality of education in balancing "gender" (Subrahmanian n.d.). Equity is the method of giving equal footing to girls and boys. To keep balance of righteousness, methodology must be free for giving inequity that keeps girls and boys from joining on a level in education. Equity can be slightly meant for other reasons could deliver other occasions for students obtaining the successful results.
On the other aspects raised a tendency for gender that varies in policies causing school expenditure together with quality to be important in education. Gender gap also crucial that motivate and provide girls with follow up when they are absent and particularly focus on to balance the gender gap in education. Mother should have enough time to take care and send their daughters to school with the sufficient providing income from the family master.
Aspects of school quality/environment that is different for girls and boys
In most countries the mount of boy enrolment is a bit higher than girl that make less doubtful observation, and the amount of female teachers in school is lack that is the problem leads to inequality in girl education. A key factor (Glick, 2006) is that workforce attention and job opportunity is far-reaching for girls than boys, who wish to join full time over their high level learning years. In the other social aspects, the average of the daughters will have fewer years in pursuing their full-time in work force than will sons. Even where, for more remarkable issue is the unfair teachers value especially girls are the target and can be the victims of sex due to interaction between male teachers or students and the other social fearful factors that give them less chance for education.
In Egypt, dropping out rate of girl education grades 6-8 is connected with poor school learning quality in a many of scales, when having few relation for boys (Lloyd,El Tawila, Clark, & Mensch, 2003). Parents become scared of sending daughters to school due to poverty, distance, inequality of school learning program for other reasons girls can help do more household and take care of sick family member (Esther Velasco, 2001). Marriage also disrupts girls to marry at the young age for earning support from husband than depending only on the family master, the old-fashion ideas girls after marriage they cannot avoid being around the kitchen and take care of children at home. That's why this concern gives less expected motivation and encouragement to struggle for their daughter's future education. If compare with boys education, boys seem to have freely-social benefits of restriction and going out with friends more favorable than girls.
Attaining parity in registration contains a specific skill and is basic to gender equality. Otherwise, paying attention on access as the first issue for girls can be carelessly thought of the essential for both quality and gender, with the wrong consideration that what needs should be provided to students in the classroom and what the differences should be balanced between girls and boys. Some of the more attractive incentive is to provide beneficial registration, such as giving food and finance to support the living condition of parents and they are to send their children to school, diagnose only, not the basic effects of inequality. To ensure the equal quality in learning to learners, A USAID-auspicious program in Mali, for example, earn more education demand in quality and equality of education are complicatedly connected (UNESCO 2004).
Poor or mistreated children, who seem to have low educated parents will face less chance to get and join learning at home, are more reliant on teachers center than are students center. As noticed, the lack of clearly explained lesson will often make the most mistreated children leave school unreasonably. Research has indicated that girls are willing to be responsible for quality learning than boys and they need the quality in teachers.
Equal right to education
Boys and girls need to have equal right for education according to the norms of society and research found that school learning program will give more understanding in social work and also provide the balance of gender in developing interconnection between boys and girls in uniting the human being society. Increasing the education levels for girls is frequently supposed as an prioritized factor for rehabilitant countries (World Bank 2001, Schultz 2002).Education should be conducted with gender equivalence to reflect the thoughtful equality in the learning process and help the girl have life skill to make a living and girls tend to work and learn better if the chore is less burdened (DeJaeghere, 2004). School access is the chance for boys and girls to compare their innate talent through having systematized and out of systematized education with exchanging programs from school curriculum and give them the same training to learn and know about gender prejudice. Teachers should be trained more on the gender education to measure the literacy rate.
Teachers should be aware of a particular interest on the girls education especially give them technical learning method and enthusiasm in learning environment by doing more research than boys and connect the theory learned to the real practice. To make sure, girls and boys obtain the balance attraction and involvement in learning opportunity.
Disability can be the problem for students' enrolment
In developing countries, school access is hard to be found for some disable students which is set out of school enrolment due to their disability that may be the concern of other influent sides in learning with other students and they should be more over paid attention by the inclusive school in providing quality in education. Now teacher become realized and found the same quality in learning between disable students, however, parent feel less positive with their children's learning as they just pay attention only on the appearance, after they feed and educate their disable children they can see very diverse result of talent, adversity and trails of how their children learn if they can keep eye on from their children innate ability.
Cambodia government plan on influent reduction in girl education Campaign
Noticeable point over the girl influent reduction campaign in girl education, there is still contrasting policy in which girls in some countries take much longer time to work somehow in far-reaching world in local work. Otherwise, studies on the girl education are prevented owing to their work chore. According to the government campaign on influent reduction has many practical strategies to provide the girls access in school learning program by creating a local communities to disseminate about the benefits on the girls education to low-educated parents, build more schools in living communities to ease the distance between where the girls work and live, provide more expected labor market equally to girls future jobs, control the registration of girls in school which socially isolated group should be aware of and increase the salary for labor market in the future, decrease the payment for girls attention at school (Glick, 2002).
Labor market policies should be well-explained to enlighten some parents who expect the future labor market of girl education would be lower than boy education because of working time that can misunderstand parents in doing business with girl education.
Balancing results occur when the situation of boys and girls, having access to goods and resources, and having ability to share to, join, and credit from economic, social, cultural, and political activities are the same. This refers to job opportunities, the time needed to secure hiring after leaving full-time education, and the profit of girls and boys with the same qualifications and experience are equivalent. The four dimensions of gender, equality, rights and labor market are related, but that relationship is complicated and not highlighted linear.
Parity in registration and scarce gender equality in schooling can, and often do, have at the same time with inequalities outside of systematized education. Of course, several explorers have identified that educational success for girls does not automatically change into higher economic status or seldom political attention as adults (SERNAM 2004). Meanwhile, developing opportunities for girls in the labor market can give them the financial means to access their children to school. Attaining equality after learners complete their studies and enter the labor market requires interventions that go over the education management. .
Even though important learning conducted on concerning methodology with existing research, several policies can be known in the education with benefits of sending girls to school. All the above finding gives enough evidence to conclude girls' education of being prohibited more than boys' by the distance to school, low future job income, high payment on school, lack of nearby schools, no communities or media to educate low-educated parents on girls schooling. The investment on the girls upgraded the future possibility of schools are therefore seem to be the negative benefit of girls' attention and achievement, moreover such a policy cannot be the clear aim of girls. And more often it can be set as that girls' schooling is more seriously thought than boys' in exchanging the school cost and avoid ethnic prejudice. In this case is more frequently found demand side and supply side the real hindrance for education of girls.
There still have some other suggestion that the demand for girls' education is more burdened than boys' to develop in school quality, equal right, environment and gender difference to obtain fully-natural talent through education policy which may have gender tendency even on girls schooling access.
Quality, dropout, and other attainment can be notified success of an education policy to maintain the equal right and access for both boys and girls to reflect inequity gender in education. As the Gender Equality in Education only noticed that, solving problem campaign of reduction in girl education is not enough to provide boys and girls the same opportunity and benefit from their education. Sending children to school is providing them the future wealth and job with related, high quality education for all.