Strategies For Enhancing Students Interest In The Study Education Essay

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The investigation was conducted precisely to find out the strategies for enhancing students interest in the study of mathematics in post primary schools in selected schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) in conducting this research, research questionnaire were formulated, one hundred students and ten Teachers were randomly secreted for the study questionnaire were the main instrument for the collection of the data from the data analysis it was discovered that the student interest in the study of mathematics can be enhance by proper and consistent use of instructional materials in teaching the subject employment of highly qualified teachers and guidance and counselors, and finally, inclusion of mathematics as a course in the university curriculum recommendations solving the problems that limpid the effective use of the above strategies were suggested

It is generally believed that students' attitude towards a subject determines their success in that subject. In other words, favorable attitude result to good achievement in a subject.

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A student's constant failure in a school subject and mathematics in particular can make him to believe that he can never do well on the subject thus accepting defeat. On the other hand, his successful experience can make him to develop a positive attitude towards learning the subject.

This suggests that student's attitude towards mathematics could be enhanced through effective teaching strategies. It has in fact been confirmed that effective teaching strategies can create positive attitude on the students towards school subjects Bekee (1987), Balogun and Olarewaju (1992), Akinsola (1994), Akale (1997), Olowojaiye (2000), Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve as functions including social expressions, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them (Newbill, 2005). To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one.

The responsibility for preparing teachers is assumed to begin with teacher education programs at higher education institutions. However, by the time undergraduate students enroll in an Introduction to Teaching course they have already experienced and survived many teachers and at least fourteen years of schooling. Since these students have achieved this wealth of educational opportunities; they can serve as credible resources in identifying the attitudes and actions that were implemented in prior classrooms by their effective teachers. When preservice teachers or teacher candidates are asked, "Why do you want to be a teacher?" The response is commonly, "I want to be able to make a positive difference in the lives of my students." Many teacher candidates continue to say they also want to be an effective teacher who will be remembered fondly by their former students. Some want to have a chance to be a better teacher than the teachers they personally experienced. However, many researchers (i.e., Frank, 1990; Fulton, 1989; Goodlad, 1990; Handler, 1993) state the axiom that teachers usually teach in the way they were taught. This compelling statement highlights the importance of reviewing and analyzing students' prior educational experiences for insight into the effective and ineffective attitudes and actions of teachers.

Several studies in the area of mathematics have shown that instruction, especially at the secondary school level remains overwhelmingly teacher-centered, with greater emphasis being placed on lecturing and textbook than on helping students to think critical across subject area and applying their knowledge to read-worlds situation (Butty, 2001). There is a need to adopt some of the recent reform-based instructional strategies, along with some traditional practices that have been overlooked and underutilized in secondary mathematics (National Council of Teachers' of Mathematics, 2000). Such practices include individual exploration, peer interaction, and small group work each of which emphasizes the use of multiple approaches to problem solving, active student inquiry, and the importance of linking mathematics to students' daily life (Butty, 2001). A key component in reform is the movement from traditional to reform instructional practices in mathematics is the importance of examining the effects and relationship among types of instructional practices that student receives their resulting achieving and attitudes towards mathematics. Studies related to instructional practices and academic achievement have suggested that the quality of teachers' instructional messages affects children's task involvement and subsequent learning in mathematics (Cornel, 1999, Butty, 2001). The National Council of Teachers

Teachers have the opportunity to leave an indelible impression on their students' lives. School experiences mold, shape, and, can influence how children view themselves inside and outside of school. These school memories have the potential to last a lifetime in students' minds and can play a consequential role with present and future decisions. It does not take long for students to realize that teachers make the difference between a long and boring school year and an exciting and challenging year. The effective attitudes and actions employed by teachers ultimately can make a positive difference on the lives of their students, and this belief will serve as the central focus of this paper. By examining past educational experiences, preservice teachers can discuss what they should or should not do with a class of students. In conclusion, there is potential in every student, and a teacher's attitude and actions can leave lasting impressions. Teachers need to be risk takers by being themselves and by trusting their students. They also need to create independent individuals so learning is more likely to take place. Effective teachers genuinely care, like, accept, and value their students. These teachers will demonstrate kindness, share responsibility, accept diversity, foster individual instruction, and encourage creativity. With the knowledge of these five attitudes and actions, they will have the potential to be an effective teacher who will be remembered fondly by former students.

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One should also not lose sight of some other strategies for enhancing and increasing students interest in the study of mathematics such as educational tours and concretize employment of highly qualified mathematics teachers and guidance and counselors proper use of instructional materials on teaching the subject are ways of enhancing students interest in the study of mathematics.

My interest in this study is examine the strategies to employ in enhancing students interest in the study of the subject mathematics so as to bring above attitudinal change, capacity and willingness in student contribute to the development of the society.

BACKGROUND

Through inquiry or action research, teachers examine their teaching and students' learning by engaging in a research project in their classrooms (Loucks-Horsley et al., 1998; Guskey, 2000). Inquiry involves the identification of a problem, data collection (from the research literature and classroom data), data analysis, and changes in practice followed by the collection of additional data. Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1998) claim that the model is built on the belief that the mark of a professional teacher is the ability to take 'reflective action'. According to Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1998), involvement in a development/improvement process refers to systemic school improvement processes. This involves assessing current practices and solving problems whose solution will improve student outcomes. The solution might include developing new curricula, designing programmes, or changing classroom practices. In this case, new skills or knowledge may be required and can be attained through reading, discussion, observation, training and experimentation (Kwakman, 2003; Sparks & Loucks-Horsley, 1989). Consequently, involvement in the improvement process can result in many skills, attitudes, and behaviours. The advantage of this model is that participants not only increase their specific knowledge and skills, they also enhance their ability to work collaboratively and share in decision making (Guskey, 2000).

The National Mathematical Centre Abuja was established by the Federal Government of Nigeria on January 1, 1988 although the decree (Decree No. 40) giving it a legal backing as a corporate body with perpetual succession and a common seal, was not promulgated until December 12, 1989.

The Centre was created to develop appropriate initiatives and resources of international standing for reawakening and sustaining interest in the mathematical sciences at all levels in Nigeria, and also as an adequate response to the dramatic decline in the production of teachers and specialists in the mathematical sciences at all levels.

The annual postgraduate output of mathematical scientists in Nigeria is steadily declining. Furthermore, the number of qualified senior secondary school graduates who apply for admission to read mathematical sciences in universities has drastically diminished. At all levels, the dearth of qualified teachers is a long standing problem which has now become more and more acute especially in the wake of the recent upsurge in student numbers and in the number of educational institutions.

The Centre has the onerous responsibility to contribute to the development of technological awareness at both national and international levels, and also to accelerate the pace of technological advancement by stimulating interest in the study of the mathematical sciences.

Mathematics has since been greatly extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. According to Mikhail B. Sevryuk, in January 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, "The number of papers and books included in the Mathematical Reviews database since 1940 (the first year of operation of MR) is now more than 1.9 million, and more than 75 thousand items are added to the database each year. The overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

It has been discovered that the attitude of students affects students interest in studying mathematics, it has also been discovered that there are less interest on the part of the students in the study of mathematics.

Factors that relates the problem are:

Poor and lack of use of instructional material

Lack of proper guidance and counseling of students on what the subject, mathematics is all about affects the students interest in studying mathematics.

Teacher's qualification is yet another factor that relates to the problem.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

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The major purpose of this study is to create awareness on those factors that will enhance studies interest in the study of mathematics. To examine why objectives of mathematics have not been achieved. Also to examine the availability and use of instructional material for teaching mathematics, identification of qualification of mathematics teachers, and proffer solutions.

who maintains that educational change is more successful when teachers work collaboratively. The acceptance of new ideas is encouraged through what he terms 'the primacy of personal contact' amongst teachers. Taking the argument further, the educational outcome of students can also be improved by the successful adoption of this new teaching practice. In order to stimulate more effective implementation and bring outside knowledge into the collaboration process, teachers need to be provided with curriculum materials that address topics not adequately covered in the regular textbooks and that fit into the teachers' schemes of work. To stimulate and promote the use of materials, school-based settings are said to be more appropriate because teachers can get on-the-spot support, provided that there is supportive leadership.

RESEACH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated to guide the researcher in her investigation.

Does the use of relevant instructional material affect the student interest in the study of mathematics in post primary school

Do the government /employers employ qualify teachers to teach mathematics in post primary school in AMAC to achieve the desired result.

How does lack of proper guidance and counseling of the students in the subject affect their interest in the study of mathematics?

How does the inclusion of mathematics as a course of study in university curriculum enhance study interest in the study of mathematics

SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

The study will help to bring above positive change in the attitude of students in the study of the subject this positive change is motivating the students in the study of mathematics which will enhance performance in the post primary school and bring about ;positive change in the growth and development of the society. Literature shows that the continuing growth and professional development of teachers may be substantially enhanced by opportunities to collaborate with others (Fullan, 2001; Joyce & Showers,1995; Nias, 1998; Showers & Joyce, 1996). The opportunity to take advantage of the expertise of others, and be recognized for their own, can provide teachers with important reinforcement and incentives for continuing growth and development. Fullan (2001) contend, breaks up the isolation of the classroom and allows teachers a rewarding career with daily satisfaction. Instead of grasping for a single dramatic event or the special achievements of a few children, as their main source of pride, teachers are more able to detect and celebrate a pattern of accomplishments within and across classrooms Another perceived benefit of collegial practice in schools has been introduced by Fullan (2001), who maintains that educational change is more successful when teachers work collaboratively. The acceptance of new ideas is encouraged through what he terms 'the primacy of personal contact' amongst teachers. Taking the argument further, the educational outcome of students can also be improved by the successful adoption of this new teaching practice.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

This study will be limited to strategies for enhancing student's interest in the study of mathematics in post primary school in some selected school in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Definitions of attitude towards mathematics are numerous as researchers' and thinkers' conceptions, ideas and perspectives vary. According to a point of view, the attitude towards mathematics is just a positive or negative emotional disposition towards mathematics (Zan & Martino, 2007 Hart (1989), considering attitudes towards mathematics from a multidimensional point define an individual's attitude towards mathematics as a more complex way by the emotions that he/she associates with mathematics, his/her beliefs towards mathematics, which could be either positive or negative and how he/she behaves towards mathematics. Research on attitude in mathematics education has been motivated by the belief that 'something' called "attitude" plays a crucial role in learning mathematics but the goal of highlighting a connection between positive attitude and mathematics achievement has not been reached conclusively(Zan & Martino, 2007).It is therefore imperative to continue to search for linkages between instructional methods that could facilitate the development of more positive attitude towards the learning of mathematics. Hence this research.

Mathematics curriculum in planners with benefit from the findings of the study as it will give them the opportunity to plan the curriculum in such a way that the syllabus will contents capable of stimulating the interest of the students stakeholders in education parents and teachers in general, policy makers in education etc. will benefit from the finding of this study if put in to practice will tend improve the standard of education generally.

Mathematics: (Functioning as singular) a group of related sciences, including algebra, geometry and calculus, concerned with the study of numbers, quantity, shape and space and there interrelationship by using a specialized notation.

Enhancing: Increasing the qualities of somebody or to make something to look better.

Strategies: Plans or policies designed for the purpose of increasing student's interest in the study of mathematics

Interest: State of wanting to learn

Values: Model or professional stranded of behavior

Attitude: Ways of thinking or behaving.

Develop: critical thinking skills and inquiring attitudes

Evaluate: Students preparation and check on home work

Achievement: To assess achievement of instructional goals and objectives

Stimulate: To stimulate students to pursue knowledge on their own.

Motivate: To motivate student to become actively involved in lessons.

Asking Question: Helps teachers keep student actively involved in lesson.

Knowledge: For teaching and how it relates to student achievement

Ability: To understand and use subject - matter knowledge to carry out the tasks of teaching.

Skills: For example, teachers of mathematics not only need to calculate correctly but also need to know how to use pictures and diagrams to represent mathematics concepts.

Measure: As a predictor of student achievement

Teaching: Contributes to gains in students mathematics achievement

Standards: Tests from the resources possessed by students, Teachers, Schools and other.

Quality: Measuring quality of teachers through performance on test of basic verbal or mathematics ability.

Assessment: Of Teachers knowledge

Curriculum: Knowledge involves awareness of how topics are arranged both within a school year and overtime and ways of always using curriculum resources.

Instructional: Improvement initiative.

Survey: Student achievement data from students and teachers.

Time: Devoted on mathematics instruction on a given period of time

Content: Covered on the day, the instructional practices used to teach that content.

It is therefore imperative for teachers to appreciate and inculcate in students positive attitude towards mathematics by using improved and appropriate instructional strategy. It is believed that the lack of specific directives has one way or the other hindered learning achievement among students. Teachers often state behavioral objectives in their lesson notes when preparing to teach and give students questions to practice after teaching. They however, fail to realize that behavioral objective and study question could better be utilized to stimulate the learners for possible better learning outcomes.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter reviewed literature under the following subheading.

Historical back ground objective of mathematics in national policy

Misconceptions about mathematics

Teachers qualification for teaching in enhancing students merest and performance in school subject and teaching method.

The use of instructional materials in enhancing students interest and performance in school subjects and teaching methods.

Problems associated with the study of mathematics in school

Appraisal of literature review.

CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK OF MATHEMATICS

There is no generally accepted definition of mathematics. This is because of the larger content of the subject.

Literally mathematics is a group related sciences including algebra geometry and calculus concerned with the study of numbers quantify shape and space and their interrelationships by using specialized nation.

Algebra is a branch of mathematics that uses mathematics statement to describe relationships between things that vary over time.

Geometry is the attempts to understand and classify spaces in various mathematics contexts.

Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives integral and infinities.

In everyday life, we frequently reach conclusion based on anecdotal evidence. This habit also guides our work in the more abstract realm of mathematic, but mathematics requires us to adopt a greater level of skepticism e.g. no matter how many are never a proof of a claim that covers an infinite numbers of instances.

The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Enhancing Students' performance in Mathematics

Guidance and Counseling was introduced into the Nigerian Educational system in the 1950s when a group Reverend sisters from St. Theresa College Oke-Edo in Ibadan felt the need to guide sixty girls that were leaving school in 1956, their action led to the creation of the Ibadan careers Council as more and more schools becomes interested in the programme, this council culminated into the formation of the Nigerian careers council and more schools in the country, joined. It was as a result of these initiative that made the then Federal to government to create a unit within the Federal University Education and appointed an officer to be in charge of Guidance and Counseling to cater for all schools throughout the federation.

Oladele (2000), observed that the aim of the careers council then was among other things:-

Training of teachers to serve as vocational counselors.

Aiding the students in choosing a vocation wisely and in the placement process; and

Making smooth transition from school to suitable work.

He further asserted that, the central purpose of the council was to establish and maintain a sound vocationally guidance services in our secondary schools, hereby school learners educational ambitions could be properly channeled to suit their ability, aptitude and interest to the choice of careers.

It should however be noted that with all these efforts no concrete arrangement was made for Teacher Education policy in the of the country then, to introduce Guidance and Counseling as a course in study for the would be teachers for as Oladele (2000) asserted, that the major activity of the council was the annual workshop on vocational Guidance, which was usually hold at the university of Ibadan under the auspices of the institute of education. All members schools sent as least a representatives, usually the careers master or mistress to participate. Some educationist were invited to conduct the workshop. Training was given in the use of psychologist and test, compiling cumulative records and techniques of interviewing in guidance and counseling.

It is therefore imperative for teachers to appreciate and inculcate in students positive attitude towards mathematics by using improved and appropriate instructional strategy. It is believed that the lack of specific directives has one way or the other hindered learning achievement among students. A teacher is the initiation, the maintenance or the promotion for student's study behavior (Zhong Cui & Zhang 2001)

Guidance and Counseling as seen by Nayak (2004), in the systematic professional process of helping the individual through education and interpretative procedures to gain a better understanding of his own characteristics and potentialities and to relate himself more satisfactorily to social requirements and opportunities in accord with social and moral values. Since Guidance and Counseling is process through education of helping the individual, then that education must make provision to equip the teacher with the necessary tools of achieving the desired objectives. Our schools are now faced with myriad of problems ranging from drug addiction, truancy, cultism, examination malpractice due to poor study habits, inadequate knowledge about proper subject combination, problems of course combination which tallies with one intellectual abilities etc, such issues can only be handled when there is a qualified and full time counselor who received a special training in dealing with human behaviour.

However, behavioral objective when properly formulated and communicated to students could function to remedy the problem of effective teaching and learning of Mathematics. Since behavioral objective or related study question projects specific learning outcome, the knowledge of behavioral objective or a study question related to it can be useful in indicating to the learner what is actually required of them instead of wondering over the learning materials and as a result relevant learning achievement and attitude are promoted. He argued that behavioral objectives and inserted questions are very much similar in that both show students what they should be able to do as a result of learning process.

Guidance services in schools have, for a very long time, been left in the hands of school teachers who are already over-loaded, and without training in the area of guidance and counseling. Recent developments in African education, especially the opportunity for free and universal education, have resulted in a new scale of problems in schools and the nations at large. Many children go to school without knowing what they are supposed to do, and leave school without any idea of what type of jobs or careers they should follow. In addition, they have little understanding of themselves and their socio-economic and political environment.

Guidance and Counseling courses need to be introduced in our educational system whereby the would be teacher is introduced to the subject from year 1 to his study up to the end and various areas of the subjects exposed to him, so that in the end all qualified teachers can comfortably perform in the areas of helping individual students resolve their personal social and academic problems. The course should also cease to be and elective course. It should be made compulsory for all education students.

The intensive guidance and counseling programmme to be introduced in our educational system should aim at the following;-

To help in the total development of the student

to help in the proper choice of course

To help in the choice of careers

To help the students in vocational development

To develop readiness for choices and changes to face new challenges

To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help in the efficient use of manpower

To motivate the youth for self employment

To help teachers establish proper identity

To identify and motivate the students from weaker sections of society

To help the students in their period of turmoil and confusion

To identify and help students in need of special help

to ensure the proper utilization of time spent outside the classroom

To help in tackling problems arising out of students explosion

To make up for the deference of home

To minimize the incidence of indiscipline

The above aims cannot be handled by a teacher who has no specialized training in guidance and counseling thus the need to entrench it intensively in the teacher education programme and introduce a degree specially on the subject of the undergraduate levels in most of our universities.

Guidance counselors, therefore, need to be equipped with skills required to design comprehensive guidance programmes, provide counseling service, and use assessment procedures with a gender perspective. Emphasis should be on the gender sensitization of trainers of guidance counselors, as well as provide them with the knowledge and skills which they can use in training their trainees on how to address gender stereotypes, that may influence the decisions that young people may make with respect to careers and other roles in society. Due to a lack of training in gender analysis, many providers of guidance services have continued to provide services, and/or organize activities, that continue to maintain and reinforce the existing gender stereotypes. In Africa, the guidance movement is relatively new in the education system. In many countries, guidance services are still on a trial-and-error basis. The place of such services in African education systems is not yet well established. However, there is now a greater awareness of the need for guidance services in schools

TEACHERS QUALIFICATION AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS

The inclusion of mathematics in the curriculum of Nigeria primary and Secondary School and even the Tertiary Institutions is a welcome development of educating the citizens of our country having pointed out some factors responsible for the problem that led to this research, solutions has also been suggested such as holding guidance talk fir students in school to remove all negative attitude that hinders their interest in the study of mathematics. Employment of well qualified teachers and continuous upgrading of their knowledge through seminars workshop and other in service training. The use of relevant instructional materials and appropriate teaching method for the particular topic they are familiar with, the curriculum should be such that will use the societies resources in teaching will be eliminated and move concretize learning should be encouraged to promote retention, assimilation and love for the subject. Zan, R., & Martino,P.D.(2007).

It is a common knowledge that there is a positive correlation between teachers qualification and students performance in school subjects. In order words the higher a teacher the higher he will be performing in teaching. In the area of mathematics most teachers that teach the subject are graduates of statistics. Again many conservative teachers due to lack of opportunities to attend staff development conference and seminars find it difficult to adopt and adapt the new changes in the teaching of the subject. Teachers ask questions for several reasons (from Morgan and Saxton, 1991):

1. The act of asking questions helps teachers keep students actively involved in lessons;

2. while answering questions, students have the opportunity to openly express their ideas and thoughts;

3. questioning students enables other students to hear different explanations of the material by their peers;

4. asking questions helps teachers to pace their lessons and moderate student behavior; and 5 questioning students helps teachers to evaluate student learning and revise their lessons as necessary.

Classroom questioning is an extensively researched topic. The high incidence of questioning as a teaching strategy, and its consequent potential for influencing student learning, have led many investigators to examine relationships between questioning methods and student achievement and behavior (Cotton, 2001)

Cotton (2001) suggested a variety of purposes for classroom questioning that include:

• To develop interest and motivate students to become actively involved in lessons

• To evaluate students' preparation and check on homework or seatwork completion

• To develop critical thinking skills and inquiring attitudes

• To review and summarize previous lessons

• To nurture insights by exposing new relationships Akinsola & Olowojaiye

THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN ENHANCING STUDENTS INTEREST IN THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICS.

In addition to using the above strategies at the actual classroom setting the use of instructional material becomes imperative. In the teaching of mathematics, there has been a huge gap between the intended curriculum, implemented curriculum and attained curriculum (Marsh & Willis, 2002). The intended curriculum is reflected in curriculum guides, course outlines, syllabuses, and textbooks adopted at the education system level. The implemented curriculum or enacted curriculum focuses on the classroom level, the level at which the intended curriculum is taught by the teacher. It talks about what form of mathematics is taught and how it is taught. The attained curriculum discusses what students have learned.

In dealing with the most appropriate instructional materials based on the following criteria.

The material should be relevant to the mathematics content being taught

It should be presented in a way that captures and arouses the interest of the students

The instructional; material should be appropriate to the age and ability of the students

The material should be simple in such a way that the learners can manipulate them easily after construction

The instructional material should not be such that can disrupt the attention of the students from learning during the lesson

When using the material the teacher should ensure that all the students can see, hear, feel it PGDE course work (2006)

It is in recognition of the overriding importance materials in teaching school subject that it was stated in the national educational research and development council(NERDC) shall ensure the operation of information and communication technology (ICT) network and encourages teachers to participate and develop innovative instructional materials.

APPRAISAL OF LITERATURE REVIEW

IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATION

For experimental group II (SQBIS), study questions were presented to students at the beginning of instruction and were used exactly the same way that behavioral objectives were used for group I (BOBIS). The control group III (CON) neither has the benefits of objectives nor study questions; instruction was purely the conventional type. At the end of instruction, the pretest instrument, that is, SAQ, was used as post-test to all groups to measure the attitude that has taken place, thus marking the end of the experiment.

Evidence abounds that the conventional teaching method which is the traditional method commonly used in schools, is inadequate for improved students attitude towards Mathematics. This suggested the need to shift from the conventional method of teaching and embrace some other instructional strategies that have been found to have facilitative effect in promoting students' positive attitude towards Mathematics. The results of this study reveals that BOBIS and are potent to bring about the desirable attitude towards the subject, both strategies influence attitude in a similar manner and exhibited superiority over the conventional method. It is therefore suggested that the teacher can use either strategy or a combination of both to increase positive attitude towards mathematics especially as the study questions are questions related to the behavioral objectives of the lesson topics. Akinsola & Olowojaiye 2008.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEACH MENTHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the following, research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the study, instrument for data collection and method of data analysis.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The study adopted a descriptive research survey. it was a survey research in which a group or items are studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative sample of the total population and generalization is made according to Nworgu (1991).

POPULATION FOR THE STUDY

The sample population for the study was 100 students and it was carried out in five (5) different schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC)

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

The sample size consisted of the teachers and One Hundred Junior Secondary School Students drawn from (5) five secondary school. The teachers were selected by stratified sample technique by virtue of their being mathematic teachers in the schools. The students were selected for the study by means of simple random sampling techniques.

The schools were selected for the study based on criteria of age, location, (rural - semi rural and urban) and student's population.

Schools selected for the study and the sample size per school are:

Names of School

No of Teachers sample for the Study

No of Students Sample for the Study

Total Sample Size Per School

Junior Secondary School Wuse Zone 6

2

20

22

Kings of Kings Academy FHA Lugbe

1

20

21

Government Secondary School Garki Area 10

3

20

23

Government Secondary School Gosa

2

20

23

Blessed &precious College FHA Lugbe

2

20

21

Total

10

100

110

The population was gotten from the student population.

INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The questionnaire was for teachers and students on mathematics in Junior Secondary Schools in selected Schools in AMAC.

The questionnaire items were divided into five sections in line with the research questions.

The respondents were scored according to the respondent's choice from options which indicate how the respondent perceived the questions. Options were assigned values as follows: Strongly Agree (SA-4) Agree (SA-3), Disagree (D-2) and strongly Disagree(SD-1). The question was accompanied with a covering letter addressed to the respondents on the research as written by the researcher.

VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

The instrument, as adopted and modified by the research to suit the purpose of this study was validated by the project supervisor.

The corrections and suggestions made by the expert were incorporates into final copy of the questionnaire by the researcher.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

The researcher used mean in analyzing data. Four point rating scale was employed to measure the degree of agreement or disagreement to the questionnaire items. The following scales and values were used.

Strongly Agree (SA) = 4

Agree (A) = 3

Disagree (D) = 2

Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1

Total = 10

The cut-off point for regarding an item as agree or disagree will be determined as following using the mean.

Mean x= sum of all scores divided

Total number of score= 4+3+2+1 = 10 = 2.50

4 4

3.8 DECISION RULE

Any item that has the mean rating to 2.50 and above will be regarding as agreeing while any with mean below 2.50 will be termed as disagreeing.

3.9 INSTRUMENT RELIABILITY

The instrument reliability in the above population is that know much differences in the population sample size from the five (5) different schools.

SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

This chapter through good research gives a clear picture of the work. This is where data is being validated and results are gotten.

CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS OF DATA, PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1. Introduction:

This chapter presents the analysis of data and finding emanating from the analysis. The purpose of data analysis is to reduce data into an intelligible and interpretable form so that the relations of research problems can be studied tested and conclusions drawn (Devos, 1998).

4.3. Presentation of Data and Discussion

the questions below are in the form in which they were used with the students and the analysis and discussion are as well provided.

Do you like mathematics and is mathematics boring, and I learn things quickly in mathematics?

Below are the results, analysis, presentation and discussions on items 1,2, 3

Item 1:

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Do you like Mathematics?

Strongly Agree 60

Agree 30

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

Mathematics is boring?

Strongly Agree 40

Agree 50

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

3. I learn things quickly in mathematics?

Strongly Agree 30

Agree 10

Disagree -

Strongly Disagree 60

Total

300

100

Table 1:

From the above table, it was discovered that 60% of the total sample indicated that they liked they like mathematics, 50% indicated that mathematics is boring while about 60% also said that they liked learning things quickly in mathematics

Item 2

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

4. I enjoy learning mathematics?

Strongly Agree 20

Agree 50

Disagree 30

Strongly Disagree -

5. I usually do well in mathematic?

Strongly Agree 40

Agree 50

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

6. I need mathematics to learn other school subject?

Strongly Agree 50

Agree 40

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

Total

300

100

Table 2:

Meanwhile 20% of the student following the above table indicated that they enjoy learning mathematics and 25% said they usually do well in mathematic. While 50% indicated that they need mathematics to learn other school subject?

Item 3:

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

I think learning mathematics will help me in my daily life?

Strongly Agree 30

Agree 50

Disagree 20

Strongly Disagree -

8. Interpreting data in tables, charts or graph helps me understand the subject?

Strongly Agree 50

Agree 25

Disagree 25

Strongly Disagree -

Total

200

100

Table 3:

From the above table, 75% of the respondents wrote that the environment was conducive and equipped for learning while 25% said that I think learning mathematics will help me in my daily life?

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1

9. Efforts has influence on liking mathematics

Strongly Agree 60

Agree 30

Disagree 5

Strongly Disagree 5

10. The efforts made no differences on liking Mathematics

Strongly Agree 50

Agree 40

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

Total

200

100

Table 4:

Girls often wrote that the more efforts they put into work in Mathematics class, the more they like Mathematics 120 (75% females, 45% males) while 40% of the students said that efforts had no effect on differences in their feeling towards Mathematics that is efforts made no difference.

Are teachers' personality and behaviours an important school-related determinant of liking or disliking Mathematics, from the point of view of each student? In item 1 on the questionnaire, the response fall into categories 1 and (2), below are the results:

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Things the teachers did: Helping solving problems, explaining difficult concepts (males) and giving students independent

Strongly Agree 125

Agree 62.5

Disagree 2

Strongly Disagree -

Teachers personalities:

General relationship and attitudes towards students (females)

Strongly Agree 75

Agree 37.5

Disagree -

Strongly Disagree -

Total

200

100

Table 5:

in response to the above question, almost all the male students 62.5% responded that things the teachers did especially helping with solving problems, explaining difficult concepts and giving students independent has influence on their attitudes toward Mathematics while less positive students equally as a result of teachers personality and activities . The rest students about 37.5% (females) mentioned teachers' personality characteristics more than boys and they were equally divided between positive and negative influences.

11.

Is there statistically gender difference with respect to students' attitudes toward Mathematics?

In item 9, about 75% students (males) indicated that they felt comfortable studying with girls, 34% (girls) wrote that they felt uncomfortable studying Mathematics with boys, 16% of boys wrote that they were worried during mathematics class studying with girls. Meanwhile, 25% of girls wrote that studying with boys helped them to solve more problems and developed their interests in Mathematics.

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Table 6

In response item Working problems on my own helps me to understand the subject? or not, 32.5% Working together in a small group helps me understand the subject? while 30% indicated that Having quiz or test makes them understand the subject?

Item 7:

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Working problems on my own helps me to understand the subject?

Strongly Agree 60

Agree 30

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

Working together in a small group helps me understand the subject

Strongly Agree 30

Agree 60

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

Having quiz or test makes them understand the subject?

Strongly Agree 60

Agree 30

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree -

No reward yet I felt happy

Strongly Agree 40

Agree 20

Disagree 35

Strongly Disagree 5

Total

200

100

Table 7:

Meanwhile, about 60% of the respondents Working problems on my own helps me to understand the subject 30% said Working together in a small group helps me understand the subject. w Having quiz or test makes them understand the subject? while 20% indicated that they received nothing yet they felt happy.

Item 8:

S/N

Response

No. of Respondents

Percentage

16. Mathematics is more difficult for me than any other subject?

Strongly Agree 10

Agree 50

Disagree 40

Strongly Disagree -

17. There is nothing creative about mathematics; it's just memorizing formulas and

things?

Strongly Agree 20

Agree 50

Disagree 30

Strongly Disagree -

18. My classmates tend to feel comfortable with mathematics?

Strongly Agree 20

Agree 45

Disagree 35

Strongly Disagree -

Total

300

100

Table 8:

Students from the above table 50% responded that Mathematics is more difficult for me than any other subject? about 25% said There is nothing creative about mathematics; it's just memorizing formulas and things? while 45%. My classmates tend to feel comfortable with mathematics?

Item 10:

The responses to the questions are summarized in the table above. It can be referred to the general table.

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0. Introduction:

This is the portion of the study, which ties up the research objectives, significance of the study and the research questions together. This provides the summary of the study, the conclusions with respect to the findings and lists of recommendation based on the findings in the study. The conclusions are about the connection between the findings of the present study and published literature. In recommendations, an overview of ideas and suggestion for further research is provided. Also, included in this chapter are suggestions that could be used to build on the present study in Nigerian secondary schools.

5.1. Discussion

While the results of this study are limited to the population from which same was drawn several important conclusions can be made.

Firstly, in this present study, it was clear that students used as sample preferred classroom activities which stressed active involvement and experiences. The students indicated that this was the factor they liked best about mathematics classes.

In support of other studies concerning the effect of the teacher, they mentioned the teacher, in both personality and interrelationships with students, teachers solving difficult problems explaining several concepts as a crucial variable in attitude formation.

Interestingly, a high proportion of females in the sample thought that the more home work the more they liked Mathematics. One can speculate why males did not respond in a similar way. Perhaps the difference is accounted for in the greater maturing of females at this age.

5.2. Conclusions

This present study was aimed at studying the factors which influence the students' attitudes towards learning Mathematics in Junior Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council FCT, Abuja.

Following this, the finding suggests that the assessment of Mathematics attitudes needs to differentiate enjoyment from usefulness and indicates the importance of students' investment through effort in developing positive attitudes towards Mathematics.

It is importance and encouraging to note the relative unimportance of rewards in the form grades that students associated with liking Mathematics. Although it was somewhat surprising to find how students thought their parents influenced their attitudes development in Mathematics.

Teacher personality, relations and interactions with students' classroom activities, rewards, assignments and students work are all directly controlled by the teachers. Thus, the teacher must assume a large part of both the responsibility and challenge of development of positive attitude of students towards Mathematics.

The result from this study suggest the need for the teachers to develop positive relations with the students, to stress classroom activities which involve active learning - teaching process and students - participation, and to engage students meaningfully in the subject, so that a fruitful and satisfying result is assured.

5.3. Finding

Consistent with finding in this study, the present study also established positive relationships. Others studies reported that however, that students attitudes towards Mathematics were influenced by other variables such as students learning styles. Similarly, with respect to gender differences, the present study's findings were consistent with those variables, but there is no statistically significance gender established.

5.4. Recommendations

In view of the finding of this study carried out, the following are the major recommendations:

i. Since the present study was limited to Junior Secondary Schools, similar studies could be carried out to cover both Secondary Schools as well as other sectors of education. This present study might be a pointer in such directions;

ii. It was also discovered that, there is need to develop a love for Mathematics through the setting up "Mathematics Club" in every secondary school. Its aims should be as follows:

a. to develop a love for Mathematics;

b. to help students develop positive attitude towards Mathematics;

c. to learn the "History of Mathematics" by sharing its slow and painful development from ancient time to the present;

d. to further stress its importance to students who will go on to higher institution of learning for mathematics related courses.