Introduction & Definition…
Speed bumps and speed humps are widely used across the United Kingdom, gradually speed humps are increasing year by year. Although there is a significant difference between the two, in the UK the phase speed humps tend to be used more frequently. Speed humps were introduced to the United Kingdom during the 1980's to reduce the number of severe road traffic accidents. In 1998 it was found that, where humps had been used, an ‘average reduction of approximately 24% through traffic was recorded. Speed humps can only be built on roads that have a speed limit of 30mph or less and have street lighting'.
The construction of humps is regulated by the Department For Transport (DFT). DFT state that ‘their aim is transport that works for everyone.' Which means a system of transportation which balances the needs of the economy, the environment and society, but how true is this? In this report the aim is to demonstrate and illustrate how speed humps effect motor vehicles and the public, also if there are regulations for speed humps on the roads and if regulations are meet, this will be done by carrying out a number research on how vehicles are effect and where they get affected.
Speed bumps are usually in a tarmac form, a typical speed hump size, ranges from two to six inches high and one to three feet from the front to the back. Speed humps are usually no less than four inches high and ten to twelve feet from front to back.
In the UK three types of speed humps tend to be used. First being a table hump, Fig one illustrates a picture of a table hump. Table hump can be seen main roads with a central raised ground which is long and broad, table humps may include apedestrian crossing or a junction at times. A typical length for a speed table would be about 22 feet from front to back.
Fig two demonstrates a cushion hump in a residential street; this hump raises only a portion of road. Speed Cushions is a very popular design as they only extending over part of the carriageway width. These humps can be seen in pairs or triples in residential streets as they can decrease the amount of forces and noise on a vehicle as the hump is split across the road. Cushion humps can accommodate a long flat surface and sloping ramps from street level to the table.
The picture above demonstrates a typical speed Hump which is seen around the United Kingdom. These humps are usually round-topped.
Aims and Deliverables…
The aim of this project is design an effective and efficient speed hump for use in the United Kingdom. The design must be futuristic in its approach and incorporated within the Department of Transport regulations.
Firstly, reviewing the speed humps currently in operation within the United Kingdom, my project aims to indentify the advantage and disadvantages of the entire design. The aim of my project also includes a comprehensive review of vehicle damage in the United Kingdom due to speed humps and the effects each type of hump has motor vehicles.
The speed hump must be able to maintain or increase traffic charming measures while offering motorist a smoother drive over the hump at the requested speed limit. This speed hump must aid Small and large vehicles i.e. Cars, Buses, Lories and present less compression on the suspension. Hand calculations will be carried out to determine the average height and angle on the three types of speed humps. Once the data is collected, the data will be compared with the regulations, in order to make sure that speed hump regulations are meet. If these figures comply with regulation, I then plan investigating why and how speed humps damage vehicles and uncomfortable for the disabled.
Based on the knowledge attained from my research my deliverables are purely theoretically based on my findings, analysis and experiments carried out. However these concepts are formed from existing technologies and in some cases futuristic technologies in the developing stage, but have proven without reasonable doubt that they are capable of conforming to performance. Real time data will be collated from various types of humps, data collected will also aid in the redesigning of the hump if necessary. Concepts will be developed using solid works, as well as analytical analysis to compare both current and existing designs, resulting in a successful project.
Analysis of tasks…
Gaining a complete understanding of speed humps currently used in the UK is very important for the success of my project. This knowledge and understanding will enable me to identify areas where improvement is needed; therefore the task that aids me in accumulating this knowledge are key tasks. These tasks are considered keys to the success of the project as progress will be hindered if these are not completed on time. Looking at the different types of humps will allow me to gather information about the design of humps at use in cities around the world and therefore drawing a comparison in terms of effectiveness, between the designs used in the UK.
Gathering information about the amount of vehicles passing an intersection at both peak times and off peak times is very important. The figures gathered will facilitate in the comparison of the design currently in place against the predicted figures gathered from calculations carried out for the theoretical design. The comparison of the figures gathered from both designs will determined the success of the project, therefore ‘collecting data' is another key task that must be executed well and on time in order for the deliverables to be delivered on schedule and bring the project to a successful conclusion.
10/12/2009 (completion of general research): - The Initial check point is set at 10/12/2009 which marks the completion on the initial research, which means that the project can make an actual start in terms of planning and the direction of the project.
10/12/2009 (submission of preliminary report): - This marks the submission of the preliminary report which in itself marks a significant stage of the project which is the first assessment point, where a specified amount of the work must be submitted.
04/03/2010 (completion of the review of congestion): - This stage of the project makes a very important stage of the project, as it marks the completion of the two stage of the project. The stage of gathering information about speed hump and information about the effects is very important as any proposed concept will be based on the information gathered from these two stages. Without the full completion of these two stages the final part of the project cannot be completed. This date also marks the beginning of the data collection, analysis and proposing the final concept.
Information from this stage will also be used for the preparation of the project seminar, which is the second assessment point of the project.
19/04/2010 (completion of proposing the concept): - This is the stage of the project where the majority of the events or task set for the project is completed except for one, which is the concept proposal. Before the proposal can take place all the events prior to the proposal stage must be completed for this reason this milestone is of great significance to the success of the project.
Progress To Date…
The project is currently seven weeks into its twenty one weeks life span and although this is just one third of the overall time allocated, significant progress has been made. The progressed of the project is determined by set milestones, at this stage of the project I'm currently building up to the second set milestone. All tasks have been completed on time and to a very high standard.
Progress to date includes the completion of the general research, which was completed on time. To date, the majority the task that is necessary to meet the dead line of the next milestone is completed except for two, which is ‘design aspects and possible Cad designs'.
Discussion & Conclusion…
Currently the project is going according to plan and allocated task are being completed with accordance with Gantt chart. The times allocated for each individual task has proven to be very adequate as completed tasks have been have all been completed on time. The information gathered to date has also been very helpful in understanding how the current system functions at different times throughout the day. This has enabled me quite early on to recognize areas where improvement could be made and areas where improvements must be made.
Being able to simulate the forces and compression of the speed hump acting on a vehicle is based on real figures gathered from real life situation is a very important part of the project and is essential for the achievement of a success for the project. As on occasions I've been working ahead of schedule.
- Highways (Road Humps) Regulations 1996 (SI 1996/1483)
- Highways (Road Humps) Regulations 1990 (SI 1990/703, 1990/1500)