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The purpose of this article is to explore the five compliments of vocational education reform in Thailand, how to undertake social cognitive career theory effectively, self-determination theory's influence over career-decision making and student's career aspirations and career choices. Moreover life goals: intrinsic and extrinsic aspiration perspectives, which it the most significant focused issue to achieve student's career aspirations for the future research. The present results indicate that career decision-making self-efficacy is more strongly associated with career indecision than career decision-making autonomy In order to verify more carefully whether self-efficacy perceptions are more strongly related to career indecision than autonomy. As our focusing significant issue by Kasser, & Ryan (1993, 1996) as seen in (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and (Deci & Ryan, Questionnaires, 2008) were divided aspirations into two categories ; Intrinsic aspirations and extrinsic aspirations. Furthermore, they were describing Self-Determination Theory as a theory of work motivation and show its relevance to theories of organizational behavior. It detailed the processes through which extrinsic motivation can become autonomous, and research suggests that intrinsic motivation (based in interest) and autonomous extrinsic motivation (based in importance) are both related to performance, satisfaction, trust, and wellbeing in the workplace which it related to career aspirations. Which is a significant issue being researched to attain vocational student's career aspirations for the future.
Key-Words: - motivation, self-determination, Social cognitive career, career aspirations, aspiration index,
life goals, vocational student
There are many different approaches to understanding human characteristics which are very important and enormously complex task (Dornyei, 2005). After all, people are people. They may relate to experience in a study with different and unpredictable emotions and attitude (O'Leary, 2010), but there is evidence to illustrate how a few key basic theoretical principles help organize and increase our understanding of the motivational processes, determinants, and outcomes on a variety if the life contexts (Vallerand, Pelletier, & Koestner, 2008). In addition, motivation explains why people decide to do something, how hard they are going to pursue it and how long they are willing to sustain the activity. Motivation is process of instigating and sustaining goal-directed behavior (Pintrich & Schunk, 2002 as cite in Vallerand, Pelletier, & Koestner, 2008) This is cognitive description because it postulates that people set goals and employ cognitive process (e.g., planning and monitoring) and behavior (e.g., persistence and effort) to attain their goals.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was previously believed such as Sigmund Freud's, that the concepts of motivation were basic human instinct and the drives to be unconscious motivation (Dornyei, 2005). The middle of twentieth century was dominated by conditioning theories related to behaviorist physiology, many of these research forming habits were based on experiments with animals rather than with humans. Moreover, the1960s brought about further important changes. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, who were the famous behaviorism, humanistic psychologies were proposed the motivation into people lives. In this famous 'hierarchy of Needs' by Maslow's 1970 was conceptualized of five basic classes of needs, which were able defined as: Physiological needs, safely needs, love needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. (Dornyei, 2005)
However, in the character in motivational psychology at present is characterized by cognitive approaches. The aim points of view are on how the individual's conscious attribute, thoughts, beliefs and interpretation of events influence their behavior. It should also be noted that the currently motivation researches shown many alternative sub-theories that dominating motivational approaches. From overall picture, Brophy (1999) Ecceles and Wigfield (1995) were mentioned about the human expect success and value outcome (Expectancy-values Theory). Locke and Latham (1990) gave directions about human action is caused by purpose and for action to take place. Thus, goals have to be set and pursued by choices. Covigton (1998) focused on perceived self - worth that people are genially motivated to behave in ways that put them in a better light (Self-worth Theory) Atkinson and Raynor (1974) were expressed knowledge about achievement motivational, that is determined by positive achievement influence about the success and negative achievement incentive to avoid self failure (Achievement motivation theory) (Dornyei, 2005)
The aim of this paper for to have a complete understanding of Self-determination and career aspirations by discover the five compliments of vocational education reform in Thailand, how to undertake social cognitive career theory effectively, why self-determination theory's influence over career-decision making and student's career aspirations and career choices. Moreover life goals: intrinsic and extrinsic aspiration perspectives, which it the most significant focused issue to achieve student's career aspirations for the future research.
Vocational education reform in Thailand
In developing a country's competitiveness, the development of the middle-level manpower is one of the main issues to be considered. Thailand realizes the importance of this matter and emphasizes the need to increase vocational and training of the country in the National Education Bill which is going to be in force in the very near future (Bhumirat, 2005)
Vocational Education was systematically initiated in Thailand in 1898 in which the increment of interests in arts and crafts took its rises. This type of education was recognized as special education meaning special skills program. Then, The Department of Vocational Education was promoted to be the Office of the Vocational Education Commission by the 2003. (Vocational Education Commission of Thailand)
The office of the Vocational Education Commission vision is providing access in technical and vocational education for the general public, management the knowledge takes into account the labor markets demand and promoting of self-employment in accordance with social and economic development of the country. The missions are produce and develop vocational manpower in all levels for the general public, Set up and standardize vocational education management and administration and promote research innovation and technology transfer for the career guidance and the capacity of competitiveness. Â
The current strength situations of vocational education in Thailand are more than 800 vocational education institutions (public/ private) all over the country. And the number of private vocational institutions is quite high, about 345. This shows their interest in participating in vocational education. The colleges in office of the Vocational Education Commission have quantity to 404 places all over country including in the urban and suburban city. Formal vocational and technical education is conducted at three levels: upper secondary (leading to the Lower Certificate of Vocational Education), post secondary (leading to a Diploma or Vocational Associate Degree) and university level (leading to a Degree). There are currently over 1 million students enrolled in the various vocational study pathways. Eight fields of study are undertaken as majors: trade and industry, agriculture, home economics, fisheries, business and tourism, arts and crafts, textiles and commerce. (Vocational Education Commission of Thailand)
The weakness of current situation is about the lack of unity in terms of policy guidelines. The country does not have a master plan for human resource development. Therefore, the provision of vocational education is more supply-driven. The most crucial problem is quality of the output. Because from the employer reflect graduates have weaknesses in both theory and practice.
The issues of curriculum and the process of training must be addressed. The vocational education need to produce new technology and also generate new jobs. Most teachers do not have direct experience in the industry because the lack of cooperation between vocational institutions and the industry. Conditionally upon the economic crisis in Thailand has made it very difficult to improve vocational education, particularly on large investments. The state policy is not sustained due to the frequent change of governments.
Based on the existing HRD programs, it is expected that Thailand would have a shortage in human resources in many industrial areas for the next 10-15 years. Administrative system should promote unity in policy guidelines and variety in management such as networking between educational institutions. Bhumirat (2005)
The preparation of individuals to have adaptive skills to be a lifelong process to help individuals to upgrade themselves and be able to change career if the economic environment would change in the future. The curriculum would be more general than specialized or merging between general education and vocational education. The knowledge and skills that would be required of the new generation include technology, the environment, the understanding of foreign languages and cultures, entrepreneurial capacity, and the skills.
Finally, the provision must be based on partnership of government, industry and society. This partnership must create a coherent legislative framework to enable a national approach for revolutionize. (Bhumirat, 2005)
The study going on occupation ranking of vocational school and high school seniors can reflect the employment markets of developing as well as of industrialized countries. The study focused on find out of better reflect women's position in the employment market.
Hoffmann and Scott, 1993 as cited in Atagi (2002) according to Bhumirat (2005) recommended about future study of career aspirations suggests that educators that what different of student in vocational school or upper secondary school, and senior high school profession career aspiration. It also challenges educators to continue to seek better curriculum and career opportunity programs to overcome the institutional that may interfere with students' aspirations.
How Social Cognitive Career Theory effective?
Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is the Integrative theory of academic and career-related interests, preference, performance, and satisfaction of student. Social Cognitive Career Theory was extends Albert Bandura universal Social Cognitive Theory to academic and career behavior. Bandra'1996 and Brewer' 1974) perspective on people are more likely to act based on their beliefs.
According to Schunk (2008) statement that Social Cognitive Theory is a difference perspective on motivation that relevant to learning; directed considerable attention to the relation between motivation and leaning. Follow a line of investigation in this field has acknowledged many cognitive processes that motivate students, as like goals, social comparison, and self-efficacy.
Cognitive theories call attention to that motivation can help direct attention and influence how information is processed. Social Cognitive Theory contends that motivation affects observational learning a solution from of human learning and operates goal setting, self-efficacy and outcome expectations (Bandura, 1996, 1997 cite in Shunk, 2008)
The contributions of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) were base on 25 years of research and applied experiences by Lent B., (2007). This can be viewed conceptual and controlling the profession improvement interventions. Lent, Brown, & Hackett, (2000) were provided frame of SCCT that inclusive of academic interest, preference, and performance e be able to examine how career and academic interests mature, how career choices are developed and how these choices are turn to action. Gibbons & Shoffner (2004) were perspective on SCCT is accomplished reflection a focus on three primary tenets: self efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals, according to Lent et.al,(1994) (as cited in Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 2000) Self-efficacy refers to the beliefs of people have about their ability to successfully complete the steps required for a given task (Gibbons & Shoffner, 2004).
These beliefs regularly changing based on interactions with other people, environment, and one's own behavior. Lent et.al, 1996 as cited in Lent, Brown, & Hackett, (2000) expressed in relation to individual self-efficacy improvement on or after personal performance, learning by example, social interactions and how they feel in situation. Outcome expectations are beliefs related to the consequences of performing a specific behavior. Lent et.al, (1994, 1996) (as cited in Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 2000) pointed of view on extrinsic reinforcement, self-directed consequences and basic task understanding all can be tied to outcome expectations. These expectations are often influenced by self-efficacy, especially when outcomes are based on the quality of a person's performance.
Finally, goals are the key role in Social Cognitive Theory that refers to success and outcome of actions. Shunk (2008) assumed that, goals gives people "tunnel vision" to focus on the task demands and to persist at the task over time. According to Gibbons & Shoffner (2004) also examined that, A goal is defined as the decision to begin a particular activity or future plan. Please note that goal can have in achievement setting. Follow from Ford (1992) (as cited in Elliot & Dweck, 2007) defined "goal" as desired and states that people try to achieve through the cognitive, affective, and bio-chemical regulation of their manners.
By looking in goals patterns or orientations, we seen two major of goal are ego-involved goal (performance goal). Which it reflected from question such as "Will I look smart? In prior researched SCCT was paying attention on the psychological and social effects of race and gender, rather than the physical aspects, The relevance of these factors to career is related to the environment and personal relations that gender or race may create. Race and gender may limit or expand exposure to various careers, or may persuade how a person view the possibility of achievement related to particular interest. Bias and role socialization are also relevant to this concern Lent & Brown' 1996 (as cited in Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 2000).
Lent, Brown, & Hackett, (2000) suggested about career barriers highlight new directions for research on contextual influence on career choice behavior. In particular, it Will relevant to assess barriers in relation to specific developmental tasks and choices options, differentiate proximal and distal aspects of the environment, consider the relation of barriers to other conceptually relevant variables, ensure that barriers correspond appropriately with outcome criteria in term of such dimensions as content and time frame, and complement study of barriers with that of positive environmental conditions or supports.
Lent, Lopez Jr, Lopez, & Sheu, (2008) were extended the investigation of social cognitive choice model (Lent et.al. as cited in Lent, Lopez Jr, Lopez, & Sheu, 2008). In the direction of a unifying Social Cognitive Theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance to the information across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in a variety of computing disciplines. They accomplished measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals, and social support and barriers with related to computing majors. This investigated found the SCCT model yielded adequate fit to data adequate fit to the data across each of grouping variables, they also recommended future research on career and academic interest for science and engineering majors.
According from this inspiration, we were implicated that self-efficacy outcome expectation and goals are significant variables that influence aspirations. This implication aspire the inquiry to us, Are those social cognitive career variables related with career aspirations? What student outcome expectations on their career choices?
Self-determination theory influence
The reflections on self-determination (SDT) from over the past 25 years were recommended to future research that is reasonably bright (Vallerand, Pelletier, & Koestner, 2008) It noticeably presented the great heuristic power from the three basic theoretical principle give a hand to understand motivational progression, determinates and outcome in variety of life context. It is an approach to human motivation that highlights importance of three elementary; psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
The interested functional support to this study in terms of supporting people's psychological needs on three basic needs must be satisfied in order to experience a sense of well-being. White (1959) and de-Charms (1968) as cited in Ryan & Deci (2000) proposed that the competence and autonomy needs are the basis for intrinsic motivation's and performance. Notice, this is a relationship between people's basic needs and their motivations.
In term of autonomy, Deci (1971) (as cited in Vallerand, Pelletier, & Koestner, 2008; Deci & Ryan, 2000) originate that, autonomy offering people extrinsic rewards for behavior that is intrinsically motivated undermined the intrinsic motivation as they grow less interested in it. Initially intrinsically motivated behavior becomes controlled by external rewards, which undermines their autonomy. Further research by Amabile, DeJong & Lepper (1976) found other external factors like deadlines, which restrict and control, also decrease intrinsic motivation. Situations that give autonomy as opposed to taking it away also have a similar link to motivation. Studies looking at choice have found that increasing a participant's options and choices increases their intrinsic motivation to said activities. (Zuckerman Porac Lathin, Smith and Deci, 1978) cited in (Vallerand, Pelletier, & Koestner, 2008)
The competence, Deci (1971) (as cited in Vallerand, Pelletier, & Koestner, 2008; Deci & Ryan, 2000) commented it is giving people positive feedback on a task increases people's intrinsic motivation to do it, meaning that this was because the positive feedback was fulfilling peoples need for competence. Vallerand & Reid (1984) found negative feedback has the opposite effect decreasing intrinsic motivation by taking away from peoples need for competence. The competence implies that individuals seek to be effective in their communications with the environment. According to SDT, perceptions of competence will not enhance optimal functioning unless accompanied by a sense of autonomy. The need for autonomy implies that individuals strive to experience choice in the initiation, maintenance and regulation of human behavior. In particular, terms perceived competence and perceived autonomy to refer to the fulfillment of these psychological needs. (Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003)
And then, relatedness Frodi, Bridges and Grolnick (1985), and Guay (2000) as cited in (Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003) said that need for relatedness supports intrinsic motivation in a less key way. In the study for career aspiration found that relatedness (i.e., need to have positive and significant relationships) is weakly related to career indecision.
By reviewed of many numbers of self-determination theory research, we found that grope of American researcher from University of Rochester New York City United state of America are the most organized well-known foundation of research in self-determination. The influential researcher are Edward Deci, Richard Ryan, Tim Kasser, Frédéric Guay, Kennon M. Sheldon and many more who have done a plenty of research aim for approach to human motivation and personality. (Deci & Ryan, publications, 2008)
The theory believes that needs are innate but can be developed in a social context. Some people will develop stronger needs than others, creating individual differences. However, individual differences within the theory focus on concepts resulting from the degree which needs have been satisfied or not satisfied.
According to Deci & Ryan (2000) discussed the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with not as good as motivation.
Gange & Deci (2005) studied about cognitive evaluation theory, which explains the effects of extrinsic motivators on intrinsic motivation, received some initial attention in the organizational literature. They found that differentiating extrinsic motivation into types that differ in their degree of autonomy led to self-determination theory, which has received widespread attention in the education, health care, and sport domains. They were describing self-determination theory as a theory of work motivation and show its relevance to theories of organizational behavior.
Student's career aspirations and career choices
A negative relation between self-efficacy in career decision making and career indecision (Betz & Luzzo, 1996; Betz & Voyten, 1997) as cited in (Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003). More specifically, students who have strong self-efficacy expectations about their career choice process have. Autonomy and control orientations were positively related to self-exploration and beliefs in relation to the instrumentality of career decision-making exploration (Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003). The present results indicate that career decision-making self-efficacy is more strongly associated with career indecision than career decision-making autonomy In order to verify more rigorously whether self-efficacy perceptions are more strongly related to career indecision than autonomy.
Gender differences in career decision making (Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003) research had found that Parents' and peers' behaviors strongly influence career decision making. The promotion of perceptions of self-efficacy and autonomy can reduce career indecision. And autonomy supportive ways may help students develop their autonomy and self-efficacy to support their career decision making. The less autonomy supportive and the more controlling are parents and peers, the less positive are students' perceptions of self-efficacy and autonomy toward career decision-making activities. In turn, the less positive student's perceptions are, the higher their levels of career indecision. Thus, they focused on gender differences that women perceived their parents and peers as more autonomy supportive and less controlling than did men. In addition, women perceived greater autonomy and self-efficacy but less career indecision than did men.
Whiston (1996) (as cited in Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003) studied had found that only women's career indecisiveness was negatively correlated to the quantity of control as well as organization within the family (i.e., this relation was no significant for men) and that both women's and men's career decision-making self-efficacy is positively related to the degree to which families encourage and support independence and participation in a variety of activities. According to research on gender differences has typically shown that women present higher levels of autonomy than do men (Vallerand, 1997; Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997).
However, the research does not usually report gender differences on career decision-making self-efficacy and career indecision (e.g., Betz & Voyten, 1997; Sweeney & Schill, 1998). Many of studied have linked career indecision to interpersonal and intrapersonal processes without paying attention to how interpersonal and intrapersonal factors are related to career indecision (Guay, Senecal, Gauthier, & Fernet, 2003).
Life goals: intrinsic and extrinsic aspiration perspectives
What are your life goals? This is the question refer to your own aspirations? When we talk about goals, we can talk about short term goal as like goal to have good grade in this subject, but long term goals, future goals, life goals or aspirations are drive people use to guide their activities with powerful process for thinking about your ideal future. After people have their own aspirations they will motivate their self to turn this vision of the future into reality. (Latham, G. & Edwin Locke, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2000) proposed getting goals motivates outcomes by narrow attention and direct efforts to goal-relevant operations and lead to more effort. The individual becomes more prone to work through setbacks if pursuing a goal develops cognitive tactics to change their behavior.
As our focusing significant issue by Kasser, & Ryan (1993, 1996) as seen in (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and (Deci & Ryan, Questionnaires, 2008) were divided aspirations into two categories ; Intrinsic aspirations and extrinsic aspirations. This line of work was begun by Kasser and Ryan (1993, 1996). The researched propose Instrument to measure people life goals level, as "Aspiration Index"
Aspiration Index refers to people's life goals are intrinsic aspirations contain life goals like relationship generatively and personal development (viz. meaningful relationships, personal growth, and community contributions) versus extrinsic aspirations (viz. wealth, fame, and image). There are seven categories of aspirations with five specific items contained by each category. The seven categories include: the extrinsic aspirations of wealth, fame, and image; the intrinsic aspirations of meaningful relationships, personal growth, and community contributions; and the aspiration of good health which turned out not to be clearly either extrinsic or intrinsic. Participants' rate: the importance to themselves of each aspiration, their beliefs about the likelihood of attaining each, and the degree to which they have already attained each (Kasser & Ryan, 1993; 1996). (as shown in Deci & Ryan, Questionnaires, 2008)
Prior research by this aspirations index has revealed that Sheldon and Kasser (1998) cited in (Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon, & Deci, 2004) found in a longitudinal study that well-being was enhanced by attainment of intrinsic goals, whereas success at extrinsic goals provided little benefit. Initial evidence suggests that controlling, uninvolved parenting is associated with the development of strong relative extrinsic aspiration, whereas autonomy-supportive, involved parenting is associated with the development of stronger intrinsic aspirations (Kasser, Ryan, Sameroff, & Zax, 1995; Williams, Cox, Hedberg, & Deci, 2000). Chapters by Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, & Deci (1996) and Kasser (in press) are excellent sources for reviews of this research area. There have been several studies on this subject that chart intrinsic goals being associated with greater health, well being and performance (Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon and Deci, 2004) (Deci & Ryan, Questionnaires, 2008)
Ryan, Huta, & Deci (2006) pointed out on eudaimonic belief (human happiness) in well-being studies. A model of eudemonia that is based in self-determination theory were expressed that eudaimonic is cored on what it means to live a good life, a life representing human individual excellence. On the other hand, at the between-person level, it was people who engaged in numerous eudaimonic movements or had eudaimonic goals (happiness life goals) who consistently had high life satisfaction and a high mean level of positive influence.
Significant issue being researched
to attain career aspirations
"Schooling is the future oriented investment" (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004, p.59) It applicable in students' school careers, a focus on future goals is more important as a powerful protective factor against more frequent school failure and dropout (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004). A fine - grained motivational theory of the future were expressed by the studied about positive and negative perception of instrumentality of school tasks for future goals and internal - external regulation classroom behavior by future goals. Thus, motivational forces of future goals can be generalized to minority student depend on perceived instrumentality as well as internal regulation. Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, and Deci (1996) (as shown in Deci & Ryan, 2000) argued that the pursuit and attainment of some life goals may provide greater satisfaction of the basic psychological needs than the pursuit and attainment of others, and that those providing greater satisfaction would be associated with greater well-being. Kasser & Ryan (1993) recommended that, because of these expected links to basic need satisfaction, pursuit and attainment of intrinsic aspirations would be more strongly associated with well-being than would pursuit and attainment of extrinsic aspirations.
An importance aspiration index is formed for each aspiration by partial ling out a person's overall represent of significance ratings from that individual importance rating for each aspiration. Results showed that whereas an emphasis on intrinsic aspirations related positively to global social functioning and social productivity and related negatively to conduct disorders, the opposite was true for an emphasis on financial success. The rated current attainment of intrinsic aspirations was positively associated with well-being, but rated current attainment of extrinsic aspirations was not (Kasser & Ryan, 1993). Ryan, Chirkov, Little, Sheldon, Timoshina, and Deci (1999) showed similarly, that extrinsic goal attainment generally did not enhance well-being, whereas the attainment of intrinsic aspirations did.
Additional, in a short-term longitudinal study, Sheldon and Kasser (1998) (as cited in Deci & Ryan, 2000) found that well-being was enhanced by the authentic attainment of intrinsic goals, whereas success at extrinsic goals provided little benefit.
Furthermore, self-determination theory has detailed the processes through which extrinsic motivation can turn out to be autonomous, and research suggests that intrinsic motivation (based in interest) and autonomous extrinsic motivation (based in importance) are both related to performance, satisfaction, trust, and well-being in the workplace which it related to career aspirations (Gange & Deci, 2005)
The Prior researched had shown significant factors that affected career aspirations for high school seniors. There was a noteworthy correlation between the 1996 seniors' career aspirations and grade-point average. There was a significant relationship connecting the female seniors' career aspiration and their graduation years, 1986 and 1996 shown females had higher career aspirations. Another important finding was that the means of female seniors' career aspirations were just as high as their 1996 male counterparts; this was not true in 1986. Also, the 1996 minority seniors had slightly higher career aspiration means than their Caucasian peers (Hoover, 1998).
We notice that there have no Results found for form much of researched the common motivational processes that connect family aspirations, cultural ideals, or personal goals in a distant future with classroom motivation and achievement in differences discipline are missing mostly unexplained. Studied outlined a research agenda that will be significant for supporting the use of SDT as a theory of work motivation and career aspirations.