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Research on Education Policy Development in Secondary School

4809 words (19 pages) Essay in Education

18/06/18 Education Reference this

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CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology used in carrying out the research. The research design, population, sample and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity, reliability, administration and method of data analysis.

Research Design

Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The design gave the researcher the necessary information to be able to draw some basic conclusions about the adequacy of the data as regards policy implementation in education (Cooper & Schindler, 2001). Descriptive survey research design is one in which a group of people or items is studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire group (Nworgu, 1991:54).

Population

The population of the study comprised 247 public senior secondary schools in Rivers State. The respondents consisted of all the 247 school principals and 8452 teachers in senior secondary schools in the State bringing the total population to 8,699 (Rivers State Senior Secondary Schools Board, 2015).

Sample and Sampling Techniques

The sample for this study comprised 1,305 principals and teachers (15% of 247 = 37 principals and 15% of 8452 = 1268 teachers) using the multi-stage sampling technique. Multi-stage refers to sampling plans where the sampling is carried out in stages using smaller and smaller sampling units at each stage (Wikipedia, 2016).

Instrument For Data Collection

The instrument for data collection of research data was the questionnaire titled: Assessment of implementation of Education Policy changes Questionnaire (AIEPCQ). The questionnaire was divided into sections A and B. section A was on demographic information and section B was divided into four parts with eight items on each of the parts making a total number of 32 items. Part I focused on information and communication technology (ICT) in public secondary schools, II on the universalization of Junior secondary education, III on professionalization of the teaching profession, and IV on the school-based management policy in senior secondary schools. Document analysis was to supplement questionnaire data. The questionnaire was designed in such a way as to gather information on the perceptions and experiences of a wide range of participants through narrative of their participation and observation of the role of policy implementation. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agree with each statement using the modified Likert type scale ranging from Very High Extent to Low Extent.

Very High Extent (V.H.E)-(4 – )

High Extent (H.E)-(3 – 3.99)

Moderate Extent (M.E)-(2 – 2.99)

Low Extent (L.E) -(1 – 1.99)

Respondents indicated the extent to which they agree or disagree with the statements. The responses were assigned numerical value.

Validity

Content and face validities of the instrument for the study were determined. The content and face validity were determined by the scrutiny of two lecturers in the department of Educational Management including the researcher’s supervisor. Their comments and corrections were adopted to improve the quality of the instrument.

Reliability

The reliability of the instrument was determined through the use of Cronbach Alpha method. Cronbach Alpha is a reliability co-efficient that reflects how well the items in a set are positively correlated to one another (Sekaran, 1992:69). The instrument was administered once to 20 sampled respondents that were not part of the sample. The reliability co-efficient was determined using the cronbach alpha. The internal consistency of the instrument was computed to be 0.71

Administration of Instrument

The researcher including three trained research assistants administered the questionnaire to the school principals and teachers. A total of 1305 questionnaire was administered, 1200 were collected back and found suitable for an analysis.

Method of Data Analysis

Mean and rank order statistics were used in analyzing the four research questions raised. The criterion mean of 2.5 was adopted. z-test statistics was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level.

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter focused on the results and discussion of findings obtained in this study.

One thousand two hundred copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and found suitable for analysis.

Table 4.1: Distribution of respondents according to their status.

STATUS

No. Administered

No. collected

Percentage Return

Principals

37

37

100%

Teachers

1268

1163

92%

Total

1305

1200

Research Question 1: To what extent is the policy on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in senior secondary schools in Rivers state implemented?

Table 4.2 Mean (X), mean set and rank order of principals and teachers on the extent of policy on the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) in Rivers State.

S/N

Items

Teachers N = 1163

Principals N = 37

Mean set

Rank

Remark

1.

Development of skills through the use of computers

3.18

2.84

3.01

5th

High extent

2

Use of Computer to enhance productivity

2.69

3.03

2.86

6th

Moderate extent

3.

Effective teaching by teachers through the use of computers

3.06

3.08

3.07

4th

High extent

4.

Creation of effective human capital through the use of computers

2.98

3.29

3.14

2nd

High extent

5

Students learn effectively through the use of computers

3.13

3.08

3.11

3rd

High extent

6.

Ease teachers workload through the use of power point

2.58

2.57

2.58

8th

Moderate extent

7.

Increased individualization of learning by students through the use of ICT

2.86

2.65

2.76

7th

Moderate extent

8.

Students exposure to the rudiments of computer literacy

3.37

3.11

3.24

1st

High extent

AGREEMENT

2.98

2.96

2.97

Source: Field Research, 2015.

Table 4.2 shows an aggregate mean of 2.97 for both principals and teachers, the highest mean scores of 3.24, 3.14, 3.11, 3.07, 3.01, 2.86, 2.76 and 2.58 were ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th respectively having means above the criterion mean of 2.5 were accepted indicating that school administrators to a moderate extent implement policy on the use of information and communication technology in Rivers State.

Research Questions 2: What is the extent of implementation of policy on the universalization of Junior Secondary Education in Rivers State.

Table 4.3 Mean (X), mean set and rank order of principals and teachers on the extent of policy on the universalization of junior secondary education in Rivers State.

S/N

Items

Teachers N = 1163

Principals N = 37

Mean set

Rank

Remark

9.

Disarticulation of JSS from SSS

2.72

3.16

2.94

6th

Moderate extent

10.

Provision of free and compulsory basic education

2.94

3.35

3.15

2nd

High extent

11.

Compulsory nine years of primary and junior secondary education

2.94

2.49

2.72

8th

Moderate extent

12.

Emphasis on curriculum diversification

2.82

3.19

3.01

5th

High extent

13.

Automatic transition from primary to Junior secondary education

3.17

2.86

3.02

4th

High extent

14.

Restructuring the school system

2.98

3.24

3.11

3rd

High extent

15.

Students gets more experience before proceeding to senior secondary

3.34

2.97

3.16

1st

High extent

16.

Few students to a teacher in the classroom

2.60

3.11

2.86

7th

Moderate extent

AGGREGATE

2.94

3.05

2.99

Table 4.3 shows an aggregate mean of 2.99 for both principals and teachers, the high mean scores of 3.16, 3.15, 3.11, 3.02, 3.01, 2.94, 2.86 and 2.72 were ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th respectively having means above the criterion mean of 2.5 were accepted indicating that universalization of junior secondary education to a moderate extent in public senior secondary schools in Rivers State is implemented and therefore accepted.

Research Question 3: To what extent is the policy on professionalization of the teaching profession in Rivers State implemented?

Table 4.4 mean score, mean set and rank order of principals and teachers on the extent of the policy on professionalization of the teaching profession in Rivers State.

S/N

Items

Teachers N = 1163

Principals N = 37

Mean set

Rank

Remark

17.

Continuous teacher professional development

3.02

2.27

2.65

6th

Moderate extent

18.

Compulsory training of non-professional teachers

3.01

2.70

2.86

4th

Moderate extent

19.

Must be registered with the professional bodies in Nigeria

2.58

3.05

2.82

5th

Moderate extent

20.

Improvement of quality education at all levels

2.61

2.54

2.58

7th

Moderate extent

21.

Development of in-service training

3.11

2.92

3.01

3rd

High extent

22.

Recruitment of only professional teachers

3.08

2.97

3.02

2nd

High extent

23.

Regular exposure to innovations in the profession

3.01

3.05

3.03

1st

High extent

24.

Development of knowledge and skills through mastery of subject matter

2.61

2.41

2.51

8th

Moderate extent

AGGREGATE

2.89

2.74

2.82

Table 4.4 shows an aggregate mean of 2.82 for both principals and teachers, the high mean scores of 3.03, 3.02, 3.01, 2.86, 2.82, 2.65, 2.58 and 2.51 were ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th and 8th respectively having means above the criterion mean of 2.5 were accepted indicating that the policy on professionalization of the teaching profession in Rivers State to a moderate extent will help teachers get a worthwhile experience and impart sound educational morals to the students.

Research Question 4: To what extent is the policy on school-based management in Rivers State implemented?

Table 4.5 mean scores, mean set and rank order of principals and teachers on the implementation of the policy on school based management in Rivers State.

S/N

Items

Teachers N = 1163

Principals N = 37

Mean set

Rank

Remark

25.

To facilitate school effectiveness

2.79

3.22

3.01

2nd

High extent

26

Co-operation between school and community

3.02

2.78

2.90

6th

Moderate extent

27.

Improved infrastructures in schools

2.42

2.78

2.60

8th

Moderate extent

28.

Provision of funds to cover running costs

2.89

2.97

2.93

5th

Moderate extent

29

Committed community support can enhance accountability

3.12

3.00

3.06

1st

High extent

30.

Contribution to school planning

3.09

2.81

2.95

4th

Moderate extent

31.

Provision of support to school activities

2.63

3.29

2.96

3rd

Moderate extent

32.

Regular access to public funds

3.09

2.70

2.89

7th

Moderate extent

AGGREGATE

2.88

2.94

2.91

Source: field Research, 2015

Table 4.5 shows that with an aggregate mean of 2.91 for both principals and teachers, items 29, 25, 31, 30, 28, 26, 32 and 27 ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th 7th and 8th in a descending order respectively, they were therefore accepted indicating moderate extent on how the school-based management policy has encouraged communities and schools to work co-operatively in enhancing educational growth and development in the state.

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of school principals and teachers on the extent policy on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in pubic secondary schools in Rivers State is implemented.

Table 4.6: Summary of z-test on the difference between teachers and principals on the extent of implementation of policy on the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in public senior secondary schools in Rivers State.

Status

No. of Respondents

X

S.D

DF

Level of significance

z-cal

z-crit

Remark

Teachers

1163

2.98

0.98

1198

0.05

0.11

+1.96

There is no significant difference

Principals

37

2.96

1.08

Table 4.6 shows that the z-calculated of 0.11 is less than the z-critical value of + 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance with a degree of freedom of 1198. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted, meaning there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and teachers on the extent policy on the use of ICT is implemented in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.

H02: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of school principals and teachers on the extent policy on the universalization of junior secondary education in Rivers State is implemented.

Table 4.7: Summary of z-test on the difference between teachers and principals on the extent of implementation of policy on the universalization of junior secondary education in Rivers State.

Status

No. of respondents

X

S.D

DF

Level of significance

z-cal

z-crit

Remark

Teachers

1163

2.94

1.05

1198

0.05

0.66

+1.96

There is no significant difference

Principals

37

3.05

0.99

The result from the table shows that, the z-calculated value (-0.66) is less than the z-critical value of (+1.96). The null hypothesis is therefore accepted, indicating no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and teachers on the extent of implementation of policy on the universalization of junior secondary education in Rivers State.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of school principals and teachers on the extent policy on professionalizaiton of the teaching profession in Rivers State is implemented.

Table 4.8: Summary of z-test on the difference between teachers and principals on the extent of implementation of policy on professionalizaiton of the teaching profession in Rivers State.

Status

No. of respondents

X

S.D

DF

Level of significance

z-cal

z-crit

Remark

Teachers

1163

2.89

1.02

1198

0.05

0.78

+1.96

There is no significant difference

Principals

37

2.74

1.15

The result from the table shows that the z-calculated value (0.78) is less than the z-critical value (+ 1.96). The null hypothesis is therefore accepted indicating no significant difference between the mean ratings of principals and teachers on the extent of policy on professionalization of the teaching profession in Rivers State is implemented.

Ho4: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of principals and teachers on the extent school-based management policy in Rivers State is implemented.

Table 4.9: Summary of z-test on the difference between teachers and principals on the extent of implementation of school-based management policy in Rivers State.

Status

No. of respondents

X

S.D

DF

Level of significance

z-cal

z-crit

Remark

Teachers

1163

2.88

1.05

1198

0.05

0.33

+1.96

There is no significant difference

Principals

37

2.94

1.08

The result from the table shows that the z-calculated value of -0.33 is less than the z-critical value of + 1.96. The null hypothesis is therefore accepted, meaning that there is no significant difference between the mean score of principals and teachers on the implementation of the school-based management policy in Rivers State.

DISCUSSION OF FINDING/IMPLICATIONS

The main aim of this study was to assess the implementation of education policy changes in senior secondary schools in Rivers State. In other words, the purpose of the study was to capture the extent of implementation of the different policies introduced as regards teaching and learning. The administration of schools, and the experiences gained. The study addressed the following:

Implementation of policy on the use of ICT in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.

The answer to research question one revealed that the extent school administrators implement policy on ICT in senior secondary schools in Rivers State is development of knowledge and skills through the use of computer, computer usage enhance productivity. There is effective teaching by teachers through the use of computers, creating of effective human capital through the use of computers, students learn effectively through the use of computers in schools, it eases teachers workload through the use of power point in schools, there is in creased individualization of learning by students through the use of ICT and students are exposed to the rudiments of computer literacy. The respondents agreed on all the items as being adequate and were all accepted. The findings considered ensures that all the items were strongly accepted as ICT inculcation in the school curriculum will help improve students learning and teachers effectiveness majority of the respondents totally agreed on the extent to which ICT policy implementation in schools will lend to high level of development, and their roles on managing the implementation of such policies. The result of hypothesis one shows that there is no significant difference between the mean scores of school principals and teachers on the extent to which they do implement policy changes. The above is in line with Adeosun (2010:196) who observed that the major objective is to develop computer and technological literacy through the introduction of computers in secondary schools similar to what has been done in many other countries including turkey and morocco.

The implication to policy makers is that school administrators have high regard for ICT integration in secondary schools, the lack of and inadequacy of ICT equipments and facilities might undermine the achievement of policy goals or frustrate the implementation of such policy. According to Ekoro, (2011) facilities are plants, buildings and equipments which enable people to carryout their activities effectively. This implies that ICT integration in secondary schools will develop such society if the necessary equipments and facilities are provided to enable people carryout their activities effectively. According to Adomi, Okiy and Ruteyan (2003), the absence of ICT equipments in most Nigerian schools leads students to resort to cybercafés for internet access. ICT application and use will prove beneficial in improving Nigeria’s educational system and giving students a better education. A technologically advance workforce will lead to ICT growth in Nigeria, with the potential to improve military technology and telecommunications, media communications and skilled CT professionals who will be well-equipped to solve IT problems in Nigeria and other parts of the could (Goshit, 2006).

Implementation of policy on universalization of junior secondary education.

The answer to research question two on the extent of implementation of the policy on the universalization of junior secondary education in Rivers State are;

Few students to a teacher in the classroom, there is free and compulsory basic education, there is automatic transition from primary to junior secondary education, compulsory, uninterrupted nine years of primary and junior secondary education, disarticulation of junior secondary School from senior secondary school, provision of free and compulsory basic education, students gets more experience before proceeding to senior secondary and restructuring the secondary school system. The results of the study presented, shows the importance of the perceived relevance of the universal basic education policy in the school system. The results of hypothesis two indicated no significant difference between the mean scores of principals and teachers on the extent of implementati

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