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In a world of science and technology, it is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare and security of the people. This is not a mere statement of faith in education as expressed by the Education Commission (1964-66) but a very well proven truth as well. While education of acceptable quality depends on many factors including curriculum, infrastructure, teaching-learning material and methods, educational technology, etc. yet the most important among these factors is the teacher. It is he who is directly responsible to operationalize the process of education, establish intimate contact with learners and motivate and train them in various aspects of their personality in a manner that they are successfully initiated into the society as its young, promising, productive and responsible members who are capable to face the challenges of life effectively. Like many other professionals, a teacher also needs initial education and training of reasonable length and quality which has to be followed by regular life-long professional development equipment sharp and useful in the ever changing contexts.
1Research Scholar, Department of Education, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa.
2Teaching Associate, Department of Education, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa.
In India, the need of initial education and training of the would-be teacher for different levels of schools education is now well recognized. In higher education sector this need is yet to be appreciated by educational planner. Given the importance assigned to initial training of teacher, elaborate arrangement for initial preparation of school teachers has been made across the country. It is sad that the pre-service teacher preparation in the country is not well organised in its setting as well as in its curriculum.
While emphasizing the need to revamp the initial preparation of teachers, the Programme of Action (POA 1986) and the revised POA (1992) had also stressed that to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century, the quality of education will have to be enhanced which would only be possible through continuous professional development of working teacher at school and higher education levels. For school teachers, regular programmes of in-service training were mooted and for college and university teachers, programmers of initial orientation followed by a series of refresher courses were planned. At school level, organization of the professional development programmes for teachers is the responsibility of Institute of Advanced Studies in Education (IASE), Council for Teacher Education (CTE), State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) and District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) for different categories of teacher and teacher educators. At university level, this responsibility is being taken up by the specially created institutions called Academic Staff Colleges. But in both the cases, teachers' professional development activities are confined to their attending these activities, get some number and completing a technical requirement of a particular number of in-service courses for further promotion in the ladder of their career. In both the cases, it is commonly observed that teachers are more concerned with their certification for having attended programmes than their academic enrichment and professional development. The fault, of course, does not entirely lie with the teachers, it is also the teachers' professional development institutions and educational administrators who fail to motivate the teachers to change their approach and attitude towards their professional responsibilities.
Ethics originated as the philosophical study, begun by Plato and Aristotle, of what constituted a good life. Under the tutelage of subsequent philosophers, the thought came about that a truly good life was a life lived virtuously. This line of though helped to establish a philosophical study of just and unjust behavior. This has taken root most especially in the professional field where the jobs of people have grant them a certain amount of authority.
If one is attempting to live a just, and therefore ethical, life, then it follows that their actions should be virtuous in their vocation as well as their personal life. This is the beginning of professional ethics. Professional ethics were established, and are constantly being developed, as a guiding set of principles that help dictate what constitutes good behavior of person in authority. Professional ethics, in short, are the means of which we judge authority's validity.
Professional Ethical Principles
The following are the basic "rules" for ethical behavior:
Not using authority to influence personal life or for monetary gain.
Not using authority with malicious intent.
Acting within the scope of position's authority only.
Not influencing or advocating unethical conduct in others.
Acting in good faith to fulfill the duty of the position of authority.
Need of Professional Ethics
To aware the teachers to do their duties and abiding by truth, hard work and honesty when they tend towards comforts, selfishness, laziness and money.
To change the conduct and behavior of teachers in such a way behind which there must be social acceptance and approval.
To act as a role model for students by behaving in ethical manner to one and all.
To create, sustain and maintain a reciprocal relationship between school and society for ensuring harmonious development of the students as well as of society.
To enable every teacher for becoming a real one in truest sense of the term by moulding his personality.
To bring improvement in professional environment to make it more conducive, favourable and appropriate for effective working. For this the teacher have to follow the ethical codes of teaching profession.
The following are some professional ethics for teachers:-
Loyalty Towards Duty
Respect for the profession
Respect for the institution
Respect and admiration for Co-Staff
Strictness and straight forwardness
Good Behavior Towards Students
Use of Rights
Studious / Good Learner
Proper Use of Authority
IN PARAGRAPH FORM
Accountability is a concept of ethics and governance with several meanings. It is often used synonymously with such concepts as responsibility, answerability, Blameworthiness, Liability. As result the concept of "Accountability of teacher's has completely disappeared into cold bag not leaving behind even a faint clue. For the last three decades, all the committees and commissions appointed to suggest reforms in higher education had recommended the regular teacher's performance evaluation and ensuring their accountability:
In 1986, S.R. Sen Committee while recommending higher pay scales had added the need for code of (professional ethics) to be made a part of it.
In 1986, National Policy of Education and also its programme of action (POA) had recommended for annual performance appraisal of teachers of education institutions to ensure their accountability.
In Dec. 1988, the U.G.C. Issued a notification regarding Accountability in higher education' for all the universities that self appraisal performance of the teacher is to be made mandatory as a requirement of Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) for award of new pay scales and be implemented with a year. Rastogi committee (1977) while emphasizing the need for account ability in teaching profession suggested self-appraisal by teacher', assessment by students in appropriate manner, periodic performance appraisal, work load and code of professional ethics should be taken in to consideration while ensuring accountability of the teachers.
In 2008, UGC's latest pay review committee headed my professor G.K. Chadda recommended "multiple parameters like regularity in classroom teaching, holding tutorials, availability to students for consultation, participating in faculty meetings, guiding and carrying our research and participating in other academic activities like seminar, workshop etc. should taken in to consideration while assessing a teachers academic accountability.
Professionalism in any sector is a result of the extent of accountability on the part of individuals. Teaching, being a profession, assumes that every teacher needs to be accountable towards his job. The following are the expected teacher behavior in the form of accountability:-
Accountability towards students - Teacher and students are the two main pillars of the teaching learning process. The progress and development of the learners can be possible only when the teacher is sincere, hard work, sympathetic. For achieving optimal learning of students, the teacher should be accountable and should take care of the student's progress according to his ability.
Accountability towards Society - The most important role of teacher is to bring the students into educational fold, coordinate various activities of the society and motivate the weaker sections of the society to learn because he can develop confidence to link between the school and the society. Hence the teacher should be accountable towards the society, which is beyond the classroom teaching.
Accountability towards Profession - A teacher should think various ways and means to help the students to acquire the knowledge, to develop academic potential and to sharp their future through the process of teaching- learning. Professionally accountable teachers adopt various methods and techniques of teaching follow the code of conduct, set the examples for others apply new ideas in classroom situations. Thus a teacher can achieve profession enrichment and excellence which which is beneficial for national development.
Accountability towards lifelong teaching and learning - A teacher should devote his whole life to teaching as well as learning for the future of humanity as his role is multidimensional and multifarious.
A professionally accountable teacher must be excellent not only in the subject to be taught, but also understand the learning requirements of the students. He should be caring, affectionate and sympathetic towards them for their harmonious development and prosperity of nation. Hence it is essential that a teacher must be accountable towards his students, society, profession, teaching- learning process, knowledge and values. Hence, quality education is possible when a teacher has the ethics and accountability towards his profession.