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A school is a social institution and is responsible for the growth. It is the development and progress of future citizen. It is a basic and fundamental principle that no institution can work smoothly and properly without good and efficient leadership. The study has been designed to investigate the make a survey of difficulties faced by the heads of Secondary Schools in Rawalpindi district with an objective to explore the factors leading to various difficulties. The population of the study was all the Secondary Schools in Rawalpindi district. The sample of the study was 32 secondary schools, out of 16 Rural and 16 Urban. Further more out of 16 rural 8 schools were Boys and 8 Girls school. A questionnaire was developed for the heads of Secondary Schools for collection of data. The questionnaires were personally given to the heads of Secondary School. The percentages of respondents were good for the purpose of the study. The major conclusions of the study were the higher authorities did not co-operate with the heads in solving various problems of the schools. There was shortage of teaching staff and menial staff. Majority of the heads of secondary schools did not give proper guidance and counseling services. The major recommendations of the study is given for solving the problems the heads immediate attention should be given to solve the serious problems faced by the heads of secondary schools. As the funds are not sufficient to provide adequate facilities for the students hence it is recommended that funds should be raised from public
Education is a process through which a nation develops its self-consciousness by sensitizing individuals who compose it. It is not mere public instruction; it is a social institution, which provides mental, physical, ideological, and moral training to the individuals of the nation. Education as a process is necessary for the creation of a sound mind in sound body. Dewey defines education in these words education is a process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual; which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities (Hamid and Khalid, 1965).
Secondary education is an important sub-sector of the entire education system. On the one hand it provides middle level work for the economy and on the other it acts as a feeder for the higher levels of education. The quality of higher education, which is expected to produce high quality professionals in different fields of social economic and political life of the country, hinges on the quality of secondary education. This level of education therefore needs to be organized in such a way that it prepares young men and women for the pursuit of higher education as well as prepares them to adjust to their practical lives meaningfully and productively. (Govt. of Pak, 1959).
A school is a social institution and is responsible for the growth, development and progress of future citizen. It is a basic and fundamental principle that no institution can work smoothly and properly without good and efficient leadership. (Mohiyuddin. 1956).
The headmasters do not take the position necessary for effective management and they are always in trouble by interference from outside. At the same time headmaster must be given effective contact over the position and responsibility similar to the authority of headmaster elsewhere in the world. He must be the type of persons who can handle his staff and public, a man whose ideas carry weight and whose character is an example for his students (Govt. of Pak, 1959).
"The schools actually have to function as an integral aspect of each community. Cooperation and coordination with other agencies of government in many communities this coordination has been maintained on a voluntary base. Its operation is a democracy is very desirable". "Leadership always requires cooperation and coordination but not dictatorship". A leader is one who seems the willing cooperation of his followers. Hence a headmaster, who merely gives orders and expects them to be obeyed is not a good leader, He is only dictator. He seems obedience because he has the power. But such a man is hardly loved or respected. The leader of a school can be successful only when secures willingly cooperation from his co-workers and make them to realize that the problems of school are theirs and not his own. (Morphet, 1960).
The headmaster occupies a unique position in the school system, which is seeking to assume the teacher a greater part in the management of education. He is the center of the inter-relationship (Spears, 1950).
Therefore, it is the first and foremost duty of the Headmasters of secondary Schools to cooperate with the public and community in order to improve the development and growth of the school activities. The headmasters are not provided residential facilities in this connection also. The researcher was interested to know as to what kind of difficulties were being faced by the heads, their respective schools and what kind of remedies could be suggested to make them efficient and lesser their tension about the work load.
There are many difficulties and problems, which are being confronted by the high school head master/head mistress in order to achieve the desired objectives and goals of education. Schools have become big business in more ways than in size above increasing urbanization rendered the task of community relations incredibly more complex. New trend in instruction takes place-challenging burden upon the leaders. Teachers are becoming more articulate often less patient with authoritarian administration. The curriculum plans and student activities have come of age too and these activities perplexing the problems of scheduling and financing of appraisal. (Spain, 1956)
Training for competence does not involve training a person's mental faculties so that they will be available to serve him in every appropriate situation which arrive- not entirely a matter of person the correct habits competence then is patterned behaviour- a pattern of general action which tends by and large, to repeat itself as similar situation arises (Graff and Calvin. 1957). Good Administrator as one whom does not plan for others but plans with others. It means that a good administrator takes his faculty into confidence. Since he knows human nature, he knows the art of human relations (Shamim, 1964). A perfect system of human relationship cannot be achieved over night. No administrative techniques are so good to eliminate all stress and frictions. The administrator seeking advice of the staff and community and making decisions on group based thinking and discussion has the best chance of making the vision.
The relations of the principal and teachers must be characterized by reciprocity and not by rivalry. Both must share whether the enterprise fails or succeed because one cannot without others cooperation (Reavis, 1942).
METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY
The study was designed to make a survey of problems faced by the heads of Secondary Schools in Rawalpindi district with an objective to explore the factors leading to various problems.
All heads of the Secondary Schools in Rawalpindi District were included in the population.
The sample of the study consisted of 32 heads secondary schools, out of 16 Rural and 16 Urban. Further more out of 16 rural 8 schools were Boys and 8 Girls school. Similarly out of 16 urban schools 8 schools were Boys and 8 Girls school.
A questionnaire was developed for the heads of Secondary Schools for collection of data. The questionnaires were personally given to the heads of Secondary School. The percentages of respondents were good for the purpose of the study.
Questionnaire was got validated from the five heads of Secondary Schools. Their suggestions were incorporated in the questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed by the researcher himself and to some place through mail. In this way the data were collected from the entire sample Schools.
Data collected through questionnaire were tabulated and analyzed by using percentages. Then interpretations were made. Recommendations were made in the light of the conclusions and objectives of the study.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE OF HEADS
Table 1: OVERALL PROBLEMS RELATED TO TEACHERS
Cooperation of Staff
Obedience of Teacher
Time Table adjustment
Teachers transferred with permission.
Teachers work regularly.
Teachers take part in co-curricular activities
Teachers conduct class outside school
Teachers force the students to serve them personal affairs
Majority of teachers has mastery over the subjects
Refresher courses held to refresh the knowledge
Subject wise properly qualified teachers available
Teachers avoid teaching to 9th and 10th class due to ACRs.
Teachers cover the course
Teachers cooperate with their colleagues
Teachers investigate students against the other teachers
The curricula being taught at school is according to growing needs of the society.
The curricula is revised regularly
Subjects and content being taught is relevant to the present and future needs to society.
Over all problems of the teacher indicate here that in the first results that cooperation of their staff enhances the performance of their principals. In second it shows that most their teachers feeling proud frequently obeying the principals order. Third item showed that principals were agree that their some teachers happy and enjoy with timetable adjustment, and many are not enjoy with timetable adjustment. It means that improper schedule of timetable unacceptable to their staffs which cause the performance of their teachers. The principals were agreeing that teachers getting themselves transferred with principal permission. Most of the teachers obey their orders. Fifth item shows that most of the teachers are not willingly taking part in co-curricular activities. Sixth item shows that many of the teachers were not giving duty in the absence of the principals. Most of the principals indicate that their teachers were not cooperative. The above seventh table indicates that minimum of the school teachers taking interest in the conduct with class outside the school. Teachers force the students to serve them in their personal affairs. Majority of teachers have not mastery over the subjects. No refresher courses held in the annual years for the teachers, so there were shortage of subject specialists in the schools. Numbers of teacher avoid teaching 9th and 10th class, because their Results are endorsed in their ACRs. Maximum of teachers cover the course in time. Principals indicate that teachers cooperate with their colleagues when they face any problems. It is habitual that some teachers investigate students against the other teachers usually. It is on opinion curriculum is not revised regularly at proper time and according to growing needs of the society. The above last table and graph indicate that 62.5 % of the principals are agree that the subjects and content being taught is relevant to the present and future needs to society while the remaining 37.5 % are disagree this statement. Hence it means that numbers of principles are agreeing that subjects and content being taught is relevant to future.
The study results revealed that the heads of secondary school enjoy the cooperation of their staff and stated that their teachers feel proud in obeying their orders. The heads expressed that their teachers take part in co-curricular activities and teachers cover the course.
Majority of the heads expressed that their teachers were unhappy with the time table adjustment and also their teachers do not work regularly in the absence of heads. All the heads said that teachers do not conduct classes out side the school and neither forces the students to serve them in their personal affairs.
On the basis of analysis it was concluded that majority of heads used the school building were not adequately meeting the needs of the students and the higher authorities did not co-operate with the headmistresses in solving various problems of the schools. The study results revealed that majority of heads there was shortage of teaching staff or menial staff.
Majority of opined that Proper guidance and counseling services were not available for the students in these school and the provision of medical facilities for the students in generally adequate. Moreover the provision of funds was insufficient to meet the needs of the school and students.
It was found that the heads are provided Audio visual aids and teaching aids to the school were insufficient. The heads were not consulted while transferring their teachers. There was no librarian in those schools and also Science laboratories were not well equipped.
Following recommendations are given for solving the problems of the heads of secondary school in District Rawalpindi and also were made for the improvement of the teaching-learning situation in the Secondary education institutions. The immediate attention should be given to solve the serious problems faced by the heads of secondary schools. As the funds are not sufficient to provide adequate facilities for the students hence it is recommended that funds should be raised from public. A committee may be constituted comprising of the representatives of teachers students and parents. As it has been stated that heavy load of teaching work for the school staff it is suggested that at least teachers may be appointed in each school. Financial problems should be given priority while solving the problems. All the facilities like buildings play grounds apparatus and equipment an Audio-visual aids should be provided. Parents' teacher association and other cooperation techniques should be adopted to make the parents' teachers and students more close in order to solve the problems. More facilities should be provided to rural schools. The heads of secondary schools should adopt democratic behaviour and try to solve the problems cooperatively with the help of their teachers. The concerned authorities should provide immediate assistance to heads in administrative matters.
Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Inamullah is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Peshawar University, Peshawar Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.
Mr.Faridullah Kha is working as Lecturer in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.. firstname.lastname@example.org
Mr.Muhammad Naeem Butt is working as Lecturer in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.. He did his M.Phil in Education from Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar - Pakistan email@example.com