PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN KOHAT

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Education is basic in the life of man, which is able to sharpen his faculties of mind, and helps to grow harmoniously. This also helps to grow harmoniously in every sphere of life-Physical, intellectual social and emotional. Education plays vital role in the progress of a country. Education is a life long investment in human resources development. The quality and quantity of educated manpower determine the strength of a nation. All developed and educated countries have recognized the needs of intimate relation of education of life and needs of the community (Singhal, 1991).

All the developed countries have the strong education structure system in their countries. The present structure of education in Pakistan is 5+3+2+2, primary stage, middle stage and then secondary and higher stage and at last higher education. The research study on the basis of secondary education so that it is emphasized on secondary level (IX-X). Secondary education is an important sub sector of the entire educational system. On the one hand, it provides the middle level workforce for the economy and other; it acts as a factor for the higher levels of education. Higher education, which expected to produce quality professionals in different fields, hinges on the quality of secondary education (Shah, 2007).Secondary education is a stage, where a student enters, adolescence. This is the most crucial stage of life. The basic perceptions and models of behavior start taking shape and problems of adjustment with the new role in life assume critical significance (Hussain, 2003).

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Secondary education holds pivotal position in education system of every country, for it is terminal stage for most of students and it also serves as a linkage stage between elementary stage and higher education. It provides input for higher education and thus quality of higher education is dependant upon secondary education (AIOU, 1997). In Pakistan it consists of four classes, 9th and 10th secondary education, and 11th and 12th higher secondary education. Secondary education (IX-XII) is an important sub-sector of the entire educational system. On the one hand, it provides the middle level work force for the economy and on the other it acts as a feeder for the higher levels of education. Higher education which is expected to produces quality professionals in different field's hinges on the quality of secondary education. This level of education, therefore, needs to be revamped in such a way that it prepares young men and women for the pursuit of higher education as well as prepares them to adjust to their practical lives meaningfully and productively (Govt. of Pakistan, 1998).

Khaliq (2000) proposed that Students have small problems, which can be solved with much less money and effort if identified earlier. If they are left unattended, they not only hinder the children in their classroom achievement but also become serious emotional problems later on. The most common problems at the secondary education levels are (a) Educational Problems (b) Financial Problems (c) Home Adjustment (d) Vocational Adjustment (e) Health Adjustment and (f) Personal and Social Problems.

It is a fact that destiny of nation is shaped in the classrooms. This implies that education is the main source of progress and development. It can be said without hesitation that education is mostly responsible for the future of Pakistan. Through education, nation building process for the future citizens of the country is taken place. From this point of view, a lot of responsibilities lie with the educationist and the quality of education. Therefore, the education must be qualitative so that the students should develop necessary knowledge, skills, and attitude to perform their duties effectively. It is in this context that quality education becomes the most important ingredient to enhance the quality of life in any country. It is so worthwhile to raise some issues in this regard and think of their solution.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The present study was therefore conducted to problem and prospects of secondary education at district Kohat.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of the study were:

To determine the present profile of secondary education in Kohat.

To determine the needs of teachers for the secondary education.

To determine the needs of students for the secondary education.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will help us to know about the major problems faced by secondary teachers. The most common problems at the secondary education levels are (a) Educational Problems (b) Financial Problems (c) Home Adjustment (d) Vocational Adjustment (e) Health Adjustment and (f) Personal and Social Problems.

METHODS AND PROCEDURE

POPULATION

All the secondary schools in public sector of district Kohat, their heads, secondary school teachers and students of 10th class constituted the population of the study.

SAMPLE

Random sampling technique was used and description of sample was as followed.

Sample of Schools

Total twenty-four secondary schools in public sector were randomly selected. The proportion of boys and girls schools was fifty- fifty.

Sample of Heads

All the heads of already sampled twenty-four secondary schools of public (the proportion of public sector schools of boys and girls schools was equal) included in sample.

Sample of Teachers

Forty-eight teachers teaching secondary classes were randomly selected in which proportion of male female teachers was fifty fifty. In such a way that from each sample district, the proportion of the public male and female teachers was equal.

Sample of Students

One hundred and twenty students were randomly selected in which proportion of male female students was fifty fifty. In such a way that from each sample district the proportion of the public and private and male and female students were equal.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

The researcher prepared three questionnaires using five-point scale. Questionnaires were used as a research instruments..

Questionnaire for Heads of Secondary Schools.

Questionnaire for Teachers of Secondary Schools.

Questionnaire for Students of Secondary Schools.

DATA COLLECTION

The investigator started data collection process w.e.f 5th January, 2008 by visiting each sampled school and administering the questionnaire in person. It took about three months to collect data from the selected sample. The response rate was 100 percent.

DATA ANALYSIS

Data collected through above-mentioned instruments were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted category-wise as principals, teachers and students. To analyze the data, chi square and percentage were used.

For statistical treatment chi-square was applied using the following formula:

= (Garrett, 1997)

On the basis of the analysis and interpretation of data, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were made.

RESULTS

This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data. The data collected through research instruments were tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted in the light of the objectives of the study by using chi-square.

Table 1 (a) : Qualification of Administrators and Teachers

Qualification

Academic

Professional

Ph.D

M.Phil

M.A/

M.Sc

B.A/

B Sc

Other s

M.Ed

B.Ed

C.T

Others

Heads

Public

00

01

23

20

0

10

14

0

0

Teachers

Public

00

00

25

23

0

25

23

0

0

Table 1 (b): Enrollment of students in secondary classes and teacher student

ratio

Sector

Average Enrollment

Average teachers

Teacher- student ratio

Nature of Building

Own

Govt.

Rented

Public

158

26

1:70

0

20

4

The above tables indicate the demographic position of public managed schools. The academic and professional qualifications of both heads and teachers of public sector schools are better. The average enrollment per sampled school of public sector was 158. Average teacher student ratio in public schools was 1:70..

Table 2: Administrative Aspects

Indicators

School

Reponses

2

SA

A

UD

DA

SDA

Involve staff in decision making.

Public

17

4

0

2

1

40.58*

like to be a part of team

Public

25

32

2

32

17

22.5*

Task being carried out in the institution are well-organized.

Public

14

6

0

2

2

26.0*

The recruitment procedure is standardized

Public

12

7

1

3

1

18.5*

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There is coordination among the administrative staff

Public

18

2

0

2

2

46.0*

Teachers have command over subject matter

Public

16

8

0

0

0

42.67*

*Significant

df = 4

2at 0.05 level = 9.488

Table 2 indicates that the 2 values for all six administrative aspects of public schools' head are greater than the critical value at 0.05 levels. Involvement of staff in decision making differed significantly in favour of public schools heads in the category of strongly agree. Head likes to be a part of team with leading teachers does not differed significantly in favour of public schools heads in the category of strongly agree. The aspect of well organization of tasks was found differed significantly in favour of public heads in the category of strongly disagree. The fair selection procedure for recruitment of teachers differed significantly in favour of public schools. The coordination among the administrative staff differed significantly in does not favour of public schools' heads in the category of strongly agree. Whereas, the teachers having command over subject matter differed significantly in favour of public schools' heads in the category of strongly agree.

Table 3: Academic Aspects

Indicators

School

Reponses

2

SA

A

UD

DA

SDA

Job security for teachers is ensured

Public

16

6

0

1

1

37.2*

Lesson planning is done by teachers regularly.

Public

10

4

0

8

2

14.3*

Attention is given to the character building of students.

Public

16

4

0

2

2

34.3*

Teachers are well prepared before taking the class.

Public

12

8

0

4

0

22.6*

The students compete well with the students.

Public

6

6

0

7

5

7.2

School environment is suitable for teaching.

Public

18

4

0

1

1

47.2*

*Significant

df = 4

2at 0.05 level = 9.488

Table 3 exhibits that the obtained 2 value is greater than the critical value at 0.05 levels as the frequency of responses of public and schools' heads about four aspects. Ensuring job security for teachers differed significantly in favour of public schools' heads in the category of strongly agrees. Teachers having command over teaching methodology differed significantly in favour of public schools' heads in the category of strongly agree. Giving attention to the character building of students differ significantly. School providing quality education differed significantly in favour of public schools' heads in the category of strongly agrees. Students competing well with other students do not differ significantly. Keeping school's environment suitable for teaching differed significantly in favour of public schools' heads in the category of strongly agree.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of interpretation and finding of data following conclusion were drawn

The demographic data of study revealed that private sector schools had actually less number of students and teachers at secondary level as compared to public sector schools. The results of 10th class students in boards' examinations of private schools were better than government schools. With respect to ownership of building almost 98% public sector schools had their own buildings while majority of private schools were running in rented buildings. In public schools, student teacher ratio was higher than private schools.

The quality of education is the most burning issue of the day. Administration is considered to be the most important ingredient of any organization, for it serves as the asset for the most previous assets of the nations which are educational institutions. The entire study revealed that heads of private sector secondary schools were better than heads of public sector secondary schools regarding involvement of other staff in decision making, keeping themselves as a part of team while leading them and carrying out the tasks in a well- organized fashion. But the heads of public sector secondary schools were more qualified academically as well as professionally having more administrative experience as compared to private sector secondary schools' heads.

It is no more rhetoric but a time tested reality that destiny of the nations is shaped in classrooms. It means that teachers are the central figure in education system of any country. The present research found that teachers of public secondary schools were more qualified academically as well as professionally having command over teaching methodology as compared to the teachers of private secondary schools.

Head teachers' management aspects were found better in privately managed schools for the aspects of becoming a part of team well arranged tasks, and coordination among administrative staff. Whereas the aspects of involving staff in decision making, keeping selection procedure fair, and observing teachers' command over subject matter were found dominant in public sector schools.

The quality of education is intrinsically integrated and directly proportional to the quality of infrastructure. The physical facilities hold paramount position in educational institutions. It was found that position of physical facilities was better in public secondary schools than in private secondary schools with respect to buildings, libraries, play grounds, furniture while position of private sector secondary schools was better in availability of computer labs and gas facilities.

The quality of education also owes a lot to the quality of supervision. It was found head teachers of private schools were better for having observing timing, and maintaining teacher student ratio. Whereas arranging sports and game, keeping fair assessment procedure and merit based admission were found dominant at public sector schools' management.

RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of analysis of data, findings and conclusions the following recommendations are offered.

The enrollment of students was higher in public sector than private sector. It is therefore recommended to establish more schools in the public sector. School mapping kept in mind before establishing new schools. The heads and teachers of schools should take such necessary actions which may help to raise academic standard of these schools. The heads of public schools should take serious consideration of the problem of their low pass percentage. Teachers of public schools may be made accountable for their poor result in examinations. They must also be rewarded with incentives for showing good results. Teachers of both systems should be given opportunities for regular in-service training in order to improve their teaching methodology. Libraries of public and private schools should be kept well maintained and all necessary books be available and students and teachers should be encouraged to get benefit from their library. All necessary educational facilities such as well maintained buildings; science laboratories with standardized apparatus and needed audio visual aids be provided and maintained by school management. Teachers should be encouraged to make use of A.V. aids more and more to make teaching process more effective. The school curriculum should be updated according to the emerging needs of the society and it should be revised regularly. The study indicates that due consideration was not given to merit in student admission procedure. Merit should be the sole consideration for entry to private institutions. Access to higher education, is recommended to base on entry tests that measure the aptitude and ability of suitable candidates for higher learning. The services of National Testing Service be utilized for construction of valid and reliable tests at secondary level.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

Dr. Sajjad Hayat Akhtar is working as an teachers Department of Education, Govt. of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Ali Murtaza is working as an Assistant Professor Preston University Islamabad, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

DrHafiz HameedUllah is working as an Assistant Professor, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com