Education serves as a way to bring about the desired and deserving change in society, to develop a new generation of admirable individuals and thus contribute to the development of good human beings and active citizens. The fundamental purposes of education are to gain knowledge to inculcate the forms of proper conduct and to acquire practical competency. Therefore, the basic and universal aim of Education is to advance good practices into the youth in such a way that they consciously adopt good habits and choices do away and reject the bad ones. Hence, Education played a crucial role in focused efforts to build and mold a nation, not only economically, but also culturally and psychologically (Chua & Kuo, 1991).
In every state, Education for youths encourages the individuals to aware about civic, political moral dimensions of citizenship in them. Education motivates the youths to come forward to work for society. It instills in them a feeling that they belong to the society and that it is their responsibility to drive it on the righteous path. In every state, the most important goal of education is preparation of young people for their role as good citizens. The researcher believes that, Education for citizenship equips young people with the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective role in public life. Citizenship encourages them to take an interest in typical and controversial issues and to get engage in discussion and debates. It means that the pupils must learn about their rights, responsibilities, duties and freedom and about laws, justice and they must know democracy. They must learn to take part in decision-making and different forms of action because they have to play an active role in their school life, neighborhoods, communities and wider society as active and global citizens.
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The researcher wants to explore the current status of society and Social institutions like family, school and curriculum at large have failed to develop above mentioned qualities among its citizens (SAARC Journal of Human Resource Development, 2005). As a matter of fact, a critical aspect of education that is often overlooked or inadequately addressed is the preparation of young school students for citizenship. Citizenship education is a broad curriculum and is more than a subject. If it is taught well and developed according to local and national needs. It can develop the awareness of rights and responsibilities skills and values which can enhance democratic social life. According to Crick report (1999) citizenship education is becoming a cornerstone subject in our education system, and rightly so (National Curriculum Citizenship, 1999).
This cited study has defined a good citizenship as Huddleston (2005) stated that the importance of good citizenship education from an early age is very essential. If children become familiarized to discuss their differences in a rational way in the primary years, they are more likely to accept it as normal practice in their adolescence. Citizenship education helps to equip young people to deal with situations of disagreement and to debate knowledgeably and impatiently. It helps them to understand the consequences of their actions, and those of the adults around them. Pupils learn how to recognize bias, evaluate argument, weigh evidence, look for alternative interpretations, viewpoints and sources of evidence and above all to give good reasons for the things they say and do, and to expect good reasons to be given by other ( Huddleston, T. , 2005)
It is accepted that Citizenship education is one of the basic essentials in the curriculum of social studies. As a matter of fact, in high school level especially at the young age keen attention needs to be paid. Hence, in this area, at elementary and high school level, it should be not only be included but and should also be handled seriously. Unfortunately, in our educational system, especially in curriculum of schools, with reference to social studies special attention is not paid to teaching of citizenship education (Gholtash, 2010).
The researcher refers to the explanation of citizenship education given by Kerr,(1999) . The term 'citizenship education' is used deliberately in the place of the term, Civics Education which deals with citizens' role in a society. The researcher premise is based on the fact that in every state the major goal of education is to prepare young people for their role as citizens. However a critical aspect of education that is often overlooked or inadequately addressed is the preparation of school students for citizenship. Moreover the researcher's assumption is that Citizenship education remains at a relatively low priority in education systems around the world. This is somewhat ironical, which has given sense of crisis in the field. There are no examinations in civics as a school subject; and therefore it receives much less attention than those subjects which are examined (Kerr, D., 1999).
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The present study explores that Citizenship education is a broad curriculum and it is more than a subject. It should not be treated as a topic, and not integrated with any other subject. If it is taught well and developed according to local and global needs, its skills and values will enhance democratic social life for all of us, we will have a better understanding of our rights and responsibilities, if awareness begins in schools.
In the present study the area of citizenship education is covered by a wide range of terms comprising many subjects. These terms include citizenship, civics, social sciences, social studies, world studies, society, and studies of society, life skills and moral education. The area also has links to curriculum subjects and options, including history, geography, economics, law, politics, environmental studies, values education, religious studies, languages and science.
The citizenship education was previously termed "civic training and later it become civic education "Citizenship Education" does not exist as an independent subjects like social studies, Islamiat ( religious study ) and Pakistan studies have limited segments of civic or citizenship education. The national education policy (1998-2010) in Pakistan does not explicitly contain civic sensibility education objectives (Hussain, S.2007)
In the above scenario, the researcher has examined and analyzed the curriculum of social studies of 8th grade in Pakistan. In Pakistani national school system, citizenship education is imparted through prescribed social studies curriculum, its main thrust is Islamization of society since 1980s (Gillani, 2004)
This present study will suggest that family, a school and its curriculum is the major institution from where children can develop civic qualities. In Pakistan, citizenship education is integrated with social studies. The aims, concepts, content, activities, learning outcomes and evaluation are provided in the national curriculum for social studies. The researcher is of the view that not only formal place should be given to citizenship education, but also a clear framework should be given. For this study four components of citizenship education are considered very important. This study is based on four areas:
Citizen and civic Sensibility
Political awareness and functional political literacy
Cultural moral and social development
Socio-economic development ( Castles ,S . 2000)
Background of the study
It is universally accepted that birth may make us citizens by law of any country but in practice. However, competent and responsible and active citizens are created through education in school, in the family, and in the larger community. (Winter, 2001) Short et al through this empiral research Theiss -Morse, 1993; Conover, Crewe & Searing, 1991; Ichilov & Nave, 1981; Carrington & Short, 2000) have said that these are different conceptions within and between different countries citizenship. Furthermore, another study conducted by Dean (2003) in Pakistan, Pakistanis has four conceptions of citizenship. They think of citizenship in terms of
Being born in Pakistan and
Sharing a common culture
Sharing a common religious identity and
As someone who has to fulfil duties.
Schools play a critical role in the development of academic abilities of young people. Schools also serve as places that assist students in developing an understanding of society and commitment to political and civic engagement. In this role, schools can help to foster the knowledge, skills and dispositions that young people need to develop into politically aware and socially responsible individuals (Torney-Purta & Vermeer, 2004). "A curriculum is socially and historically located and culturally determined. It does not develop in a vacuum rather it proceeds on the basis of beliefs seldom made explicit about how people learn, what human beings should be like and what society is" (Hooper, R. ,1971).
In Pakistan, citizenship education is integrated with social studies. The aims, concepts, content, activities, learning outcomes and evaluation are provided in the national curriculum for social studies. This cited research study is based on three foundational contexts (a) The Political Context, (b) The Social, Economic and Cultural Context, (c) The Educational Context.
This study will assess the current state of citizenship education in Pakistan in social studies curriculum. For this purpose curriculum of social studies will be analyzed. This research study will be based on two phases: first an analysis of teaching and learning practices in citizenship education and then a survey to seeking whether the curriculum and textbook of social studies are promoting citizenship education, or not. This study also investigates whether Pakistani students acquire functional knowledge and learn some important values in schools which are part of citizenship education that is required for effective participation in democratic social life. The study will finally suggest what type of curricula and teacher education program should be included to prepare students to become more informed, responsible and participatory citizen of Pakistan.
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The purpose of this study is that youth of Pakistan can protect their citizenship rights by only learning about them, by recognizing their power knowing their responsibilities, by overcoming their feelings of fear, and by mobilizing adequate support for their struggles. Therefore this present study will be conducted to find out whether the state and educational ministry have given citizenship education any importance or not and in social studies curriculum does it hold due importance which it deserves or not. According to founder of Pakistan,
"There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend on the type of education we give to our children and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan" Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah All Pakistan Education Conference November 30 December 02, 1947 Karachi.
The Aim of the Present study is to improve citizenship education in Pakistani schools through the( a) analysis of curriculum of social studies text book; (b) to develop a cadre of teachers to educate students for citizenship; (c) a formulation of a citizenship education program for schools in Pakistan.
The researcher has observed that Textbooks, particularly at school level, serve as the basic source of information for students besides being the foremost expression of the objectives desired by the curriculum. They constitute the necessary institutional cohesiveness, and continuity that allows an educational system to act as a national social process to shape children's' minds (Hasanain & Nayyer, 1997). An analysis of the content materials shows that the textbooks used in public schools contain material that is impacted by political manipulations and according to Yvette (2000) none of the subject disciplines has been subjected to such torturous stretching and contracting as the field of Social Studies because it is used to create civic identity and inculcate patriotism. This study goes further by looking at three Citizenship and an attainment targets which based on three following elements:
Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens;
Developing skills of enquiry and approach;
Developing skills of participation and responsible action.
This study intends to develop to identify effective citizenship education, on the model presented by Crick. A separate Advisory Group on Citizenship Education and Training was set up in England 1999, in order to pursue this recommendation, which was chaired by Bernard Crick (FEFC, 2000). For This Present Study framework and recommendations for citizenship education are the following:
Citizen and civic Sensibility
Political awareness and functional political literacy
Cultural moral and social development
Crick, B. (1998)
As a community member and citizen of Pakistan, it is also painfully obvious to witness a general rise of social problems and ethnic strife along with political instability, official corruption in government, and a breakdown of law and order.
Therefore the requirement of present time in Pakistan is to develop functional curriculum, only then Pakistani students can acquire functional knowledge and learn about important values in schools which are part of citizenship education that is required for effective participation in democratic social life. The researcher holds the opinion that effective curricula and teacher education program should be included to prepare students to become more informed, responsible and participatory citizen of Pakistan.
Therefore in this study social studies curriculum is analyzed. This study is designed by examining three key aspects:
Social studies Curriculum standards
Out line aims, concepts and text book structure
Analysis of textbook contents and exercises with the help of frame work
The researcher has firm belief that Pakistan holds a significantly position at international level therefore it is extremely important that Pakistanis conceive themselves as peaceful effective citizens. As a matter of fact, in Pakistan promotion of religion in negative aspect and the reduction of Pakistan national philosophy of heroes and political leaders is the main cause of negative image of Pakistan. Furthermore different religious personalities and parties and leaders are the symbols those are associated with religion and the military and the increasingly negative image (violent, intolerant, extremist) of Pakistan internationally has given rise to a negative concept of Pakistani citizens. The result is that most Pakistanis have a negative self-image, low esteem and confidence, a growing feeling of despondency and lack of agency among themselves. Therefore civic or citizenship education curriculum is needed, which can prepare more hopeful, peace loving and active citizenry
1.3 Statement of the problem
The study aims to investigate the current state of citizenship education in Pakistan. For this purpose the researcher examined the curriculum of social studies of (8th grade) at elementary level in Pakistan. Since its independence in 1947 Pakistan has had a distinct political transition often every ten years. With each political transition a new education policy was developed. Each aimed to prepare 'good citizens' but instead, reproduced the government's ideology and its conception of citizenship and citizenship education. Therefore Pakistan needs a comprehensive citizen-centric information policy and the Parliamentary Committee on Constitutional Reforms should expand the scope of article 19 to include "citizens' right to know". Schools and professional training institutes should also embed the concept of access to information and active citizenship in their curricula. Pakistani students acquire knowledge and learn some important values in schools, but they do not learn the skills (problem solving, decision-making) and values (civic mindedness, critical consciousness) required for effective participation in democratic life.
1.4 Purpose of the Research
In present era, government is seriously concerned and encouraged to put citizen and citizenship education in proper place in curriculum of social studies. It is hoped that these steps can give better chance of sustaining democracy and civic sensibility among people of Pakistan. The real Citizenship concept requires informed citizens willing to participate in the democratic and development processes at the local, national and global levels. The purpose of this type of education is to prepare informed and participatory citizens. Citizenship education is required for the citizens to acquire desire knowledge, skills and dispositions as well as to have opportunities for civic engagement through different activities to participate in political processes and to engage in community service.
In Pakistan social studies curriculum from grade I-VII there is a Content related with citizenship education. It is therefore important that curriculum analysis and assessment regarding citizenship education in Pakistan must be undertaken to identify what each content and grade is doing to promote citizenship education, as well as to identify their successes, obstacles and future needs or demands . It is accepted that Findings of the research will facilitate in identification of citizenship education content for the development of a comprehensive citizenship education for Pakistan.
1.5 Objectives of the study
To highlight the role of social studies (as compulsory subject) to promote active and functional citizenship
Examine the textbook of social studies for 8th grade with special reference to citizenship education at elementary level
Investigate the awareness in students of 8th grade regarding citizenship education
Investigate the teachers' knowledge and climate of schools regarding citizenship education in Pakistan
Suggest measure for planning and implementation of text book of social studies and skills learning experiences in citizenship education in schools, community and settings
To develop a model for understanding and improvement of school climate educating for active citizenship at elementary level
1.6 Research Questions
This study will be directed by the following questions:
To what extent does the Social Studies textbook in Pakistan at elementary level teach values that promote appropriate qualities to enhance good and active citizenship?
To what extent is the Social Studies curriculum successful in teaching values for good and active citizenship?
How can changes or improvements to the Social Studies curriculum be made to include values that can further enhance good and active citizenship?
1.7 Hypotheses OF The study
Ho1 There is no significant awareness in teachers regarding textbook development in Pakistan.
Ho2 There is no significant status of social studies text book of 8th grade and school climate for learning and teaching in Pakistan.
Ho3 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education for recognition of the civic purpose of education in school.
Ho4 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education for meaningful learning about civic related knowledge in school.
Ho5 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education regarding cooperation and collaboration in school of Pakistan.
Ho6 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education and for trust and positive interaction
Ho7 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education regarding students input and participation skills.
Ho8 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate of citizenship education regarding student's thoughtful and respectful dialogue about issues of citizenship education in school.
Ho9 There is no significant role of teacher and school climate for student's regarding engagement in learning about community help in school.
Ho10 There is no significant level of awareness regarding national identity and concept of citizen in students of grade VIII.
Ho11 There is no significant level of awareness regarding civic sensibility in students of grade VIII
Ho12 There is no significant level of awareness regarding political literacy and sensibility in students of grade VIII.
Ho13 There is no significant level of awareness regarding global and social sensitization in students of grade VIII
Ho14 There is no significant level of awareness regarding cultural and moral education in students of grade VIII
Ho15 There is no significant relationship between teacher academic qualification and awareness on citizenship education.
Ho16 There is no significant relationship between teacher professional qualification and awareness on citizenship education
Ho17 There is no significant relationship between teacher age and awareness on citizenship education
Ho18 There is no significant relationship between work experience of teacher and awareness on citizenship education
Ho19 There is no significant difference of awareness between male and female regarding citizenship education
Ho20 There is no significant difference of awareness between boys and girls regarding citizenship education
Ho21 There is no significant relationship between father occupation and students awareness on citizenship education.
Ho22 There is no significant relationship between mother occupation and students awareness on citizenship education.
Ho23 There is no significant difference between locality and students awareness on citizenship education.
Ho24 There is no significant difference between birth (native) city and students awareness on citizenship education.
1.8 Significance of the study
The purpose of present research study is to determine the role of citizenship education in social studies textbook of (8th class) in promoting functional and active citizenship in Pakistan. This study aims to provide relevant information of citizenship education and civic sensibility after the review of social studies textbook of grade 8th. Civic sensibility is composed of three layers: knowledge, skills and disposition. Civic knowledge is concerned with the context of what citizens ought to know. The second essential component is civic skills which allow citizens to think critically and to act rationally. Finally, civic disposition is a quality which brings a sense of moral responsibility, self discipline, respect for human dignity and civility.
The researcher believes that if social studies textbook is properly developed it can prepare knowledgeable, tolerant, democratic, and active citizens who can function efficiently in Pakistan and in today global world. In essence, citizenship education is about nation-building therefore Pakistani national social studies curriculum should provide guidelines to citizenship education of modern age. And through the model of citizenship education we can address the educational needs of children growing up in a complex global environment.
1.9 Delimitation of the study
This study is delimited in number of ways
This study is delimitated to capital city
This study is delimitated to urban area of Islamabad
This study is delimitated to Federal Government model schools.
This study is delimitated to 8th grade students (boys / girls).
It is a descriptive research. The format of study is based on two methods:
In this present research study two approaches (1) qualitative and (2) quantitative
have been used.
Qualitative approach will be used for outline and textbook / content analysis
Quantitative approach will be used to conduct survey among students and teachers
In the first part of this research, qualitative approach will be used; to examine the content and exercises of social studies text book. With the help of framework for textbook analysis) out line of textbook of grade 8th will analyze, it was given by the ministry of education. Therefore content analysis and document analysis is used as a method of research. According to L.R.Gay (2007) Qualitative research is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviors, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. It's used to inform business decisions, policy formation, communication and research. Focus groups, in-depth interviews, content analysis, ethnography, evaluationÂ and semiotics are among the many formal approaches that are used, but qualitative research also involves the analysis of any unstructured material, including customer feedback forms, reports or media clips.
According to L.R. Gay (2007) Content analysis is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain words or concepts within texts or sets of texts. Researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of such words and concepts, then make inferences about the messages within the texts, the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of which these are a part. Texts can be defined broadly as books, book chapters, essays, interviews, discussions, newspaper headlines and articles, historical documents, speeches, conversations, advertising, theater, informal conversation, or really any occurrence of communicative language. To conduct a content analysis on any such text, the text is coded or broken down, into manageable categories on a variety of levels--word, word sense, phrase, sentence, or theme--and then examined using one of content analysis' basic methods: conceptual analysis or relational analysis (Colorado State University.Â 1993-2011Â )
In the second part quantitative approach has been used. Survey method has been adopted to explore the school climate and teacher's student understanding about knowledge regarding the subject matter of social studies and citizenship education, and how this influences their classroom practice. This study will analyze the social studies text book and explores teachers understanding and student knowledge regarding the subject matter of social studies and citizenship education, and how this influences their classroom practice. Data has been collected from teachers and students through questionnaires. The research has been conducted in the capital city of (Islamabad) Pakistan, in federal public schools, of boys and girls in urban area.
The definitions provided below explain the meanings of words or concepts used in this study.
A person recognized within a community of people or constituent member of society.
The recognition conferred on people as citizens based on sets of characteristics of being a citizen and by derivation.
The contribution of education for the development of characteristics of being a citizen
Citizens that have the ability to solve social problems and to improve society show good character display honesty, respect, and responsibility; and be law-abiding members of a society.
e. Active citizenship
Citizens who actively participate in the affairs of the society improve and develop the people's quality of life.
f. Democratic citizenship
Citizens who understand their rights and freedom and others rights and freedom as well.
g. Moral values
Code of conduct that is acceptable for the society. This includes cultural and church virtues and values such as honesty, faithfulness, care, responsibility (Grossman, 2008).
The Research has five chapters. The chapters break down is following.
The first chapter will be an introduction on theme of the study "Citizenship Education. The researcher has briefly defined and explains this term and its concept, how it is important for young generation, and how we can inculcate this concept with the help of education. Therefore analysis of social studies curriculum of 8th grade in Pakistan is conducted with special reference to citizenship education.
The second chapter deals with the Review of related Literature. It will look at the previous and current status of citizenship education. Therefore this chapter will outlines and conceptualizes the key theme of the study, as mentioned in the introductory chapter the study concern itself with role of social studies textbook regarding citizenship education in Pakistan. This chapter will attempt to give the definition of citizenship education and why it is necessary in a country like Pakistan. Furthermore it will introduce local and global perspective on citizenship education.
The third chapter deals with Methodology. It is a descriptive research. The research belong to the category of social sciences hence, in this present research study two approaches(1) qualitative and (2) quantitative will be used,. The format of present study is based on two methods that is Content analysis and survey based on questionnaires.
(a) Qualitative approach will be used for content analysis of textbook.
(b) Quantitative approach will be used for survey from students and teachers.
Furthermore Qualitative research is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviors, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. So this approach will also be used.
The fourth chapter will deal with analyses of data, collected through the distribution of questionnaires in school. The data will be critically evaluated, with the help of citizenship education.
The fifth chapter will give conclusions drawn from the study. Based on these the researcher will base her finding and give recommendations for further research in this area.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITRATURE
Social-Studies and Citizenship Education
This chapter highlights key concept of the study, as it is mentioned in the first introductory chapter. The study is concerned itself with the role of social studies curriculum regarding citizenship education in Pakistan. This chapter conceptualized the key points of citizenship education in a country like Pakistan; moreover it will give introduction about local global perspective of citizenship education. Furthermore, it describes the importance of civic education in social studies curriculum. Civic competence is highly promoted in social sciences and humanities. Therefore , Social studies provides an organized and coordinated study to students in schools, by creating sort of disciplines as law philosophy , political science, psychology, religion sociology along with appropriate ingredients from humanities , mathematics and natural sciences. The primary objective of social study is to create awareness among young generation about their own rights and duties and to make reasoned and informed decision for the public welfare being citizen of a democratic society in this interdependent world.
2.1 Concept of Education
Dewey (Ryan 1998 p. 397) was of the view that education was something that gives shapes to human powers. Where Gilbert (2005) also gave some related theory regarding education that it prepares child for his upcoming future. For this preparation a child must possess all his powers, where as his teaching and learning is to be considered cautiously. Education gives power to children, but the process is quite complicated, since is involving teacher's interaction and along with others. In other words education is viewed as an intricate process involving a systematic interaction between teaching and learning. Students polish their minds and behaviors for the betterment of their upcoming life and adjusting themselves according to the changes in the society, as Ross, (2006) said that education system has to respond as well to increasing understanding of education processes and this should be the issue of major concern regarding curriculum
Researcher tend to agrees with the points raised by Roos, 2006 that education is tool which is used for shaping how we view the world. Education system makes it possible for the entire generation to learn the difference between right and wrong. In every society civic education can help a child to become a responsible citizen of the state; it also helps in making him/her aware of his role in the society and in particular the role of education through schooling, teaching and learning. (Ross, 2006) The researcher subscribes the explanation of (Anyon, 1992) that civilization, common culture, stands of citizenship education is transmitted by system of education. The main role of education is to prepare youngsters to take their responsibilities as effective citizens.
The research is concurred with the fact that, Citizenship education plays an important role in developing motivated and responsible learners in schools, as well as in other educational organizations and society at large. They are all positively related to each other and to the surrounding community. As far as society is concerned, citizenship education helps in the creation of a responsible citizen. It promotes willingness to participate in the life of a nation and helps in playing their part adequately in the democratic process.
According to Marshall, (1998) education is a vital ingredient, for good citizenship. It is also important for good politics and government and for crating social and international harmony. In past major focus was on school , home and church to make youngsters learn loyalty and to perform their duties as responsible citizens and these were considered the main tenants of good citizenship. Today, world is changing, rapidly this adequacy of traditional approach for the preparation of citizenship is questioned and similarly there is an evidence of renewed interest in this topic in the world (McKenzie, H, 1993).
2.2 Concept about Social studies curriculum
The major role of social studies is to prepare the individuals for their future rules and right of majority and minority, personal conduct and responsibilities, respect for law and authorities, understanding the need to participate in decision making and the worth of an individual. Furthermore, the scope of social studies is broader in issues like racism, class consciousness, discrimination, sexism, prejudice and ethnocentrism which are embedded in a multicultural society. The best way to deliver knowledge on such important matters is through a well integrated curriculum. The real challenge faced by the curriculum workers and textbook writers is to present real pictures of materials. An assumption is being taken that in Pakistan more emphasis is on the alignment of historic facts in order to suit and support the political ideologies of the federal power. Whether, this is a reality or not curriculum workers have to find out that.
Preston and Herman( 1981) have explained that there is symbiotic relationship between individual's world view and his/her values, attitudes and perceptions. Same goes for the character of nations as well.
2.3 Role of citizenship in social studies
In social studies, Citizenship education is considered the core area in the content of curriculum. Therefore, to deliver knowledge, skills and values of active citizen in society to students, social studies can play the key role. Moreover, the present research study is conducted particularly see that Citizenship is important, and then in curriculum of social studies it should be adjusted with learning level of students. It must be designed to impart knowledge, skills and values of active citizen. In Pakistan achievement must be made in the learning outcomes of the students. As a matter of fact, it will help them in public dealing and dialogues. It also categorizes any democracy and plays a vital role in society. It will help them in becoming an active member in the community not only nationally but also internationally.
2.4 Conceptualization of citizenship
Wesley (1978) gave the definition of a citizen as, who comply with certain norms and values which are often local in character and who participates actively in certain activities Engle and Ochoa (1988) gave the definition of a citizen as some recognition that is bestowed on individuals by the state for legal identification. According to them individuals are identified on the basis of their affiliations that they have with their work place, religious institutions, schools, membership of social political institution or even with the world.
Citizenship education has a twin connotation. Firstly, it comprises the educational training for new citizens to become legal members of a country. Secondly, it refers to educating children to be well-informed citizens in order to contribute significantly in the decisions of the society. This type of citizenship education is taught as a school subject in schools therefore in a number of countries the academic education syllabus has developed for progressive and participatory members of the societies.
Educational programs include an awareness and knowledge of what it means to be a good citizen from an ethical and moral point of view. Respect toward others; acknowledgment that all human beings are equal; and the non-acceptance of discrimination based on gender, race or religion are paramount. These qualities form a foundation for the behavior expected of citizens in terms of their rights as a citizen and their rights as a human being. The concept of an individual's human rights and his or her citizen rights civilly as well as and politically are interrelated. The supposition is that educated children will become educated contributing adult members of society.
Herbert and Sears (1998) describe citizenship as a relationship between individuals of the state and the estate and the individuals. Engle and Ochoa have further added that citizenship as a whole life as it involves relationship, decision making participation in the society and all those activities that affects others. Hence, whenever someone plays a role in any form as a citizen that is observed either directly or indirectly or knowingly or unknowingly.
Another concept defines by Heater (1999). He described citizens as the members of the society who are furnished with the knowledge of public affaires, how to participate in a public arena along with having attitudes of civic virtue. These attributes are achieved lifelong and certain formal and informal institutions are providing through a prepare channel of learning.. "Citizenship" refers to a Varity of meanings.
Lynch and Heater (1999) described citizenship education "as something which has both legal and social meaning. Legally it refers to al the rights and responsibilities that a citizen enjoys given by the estate in recognition of their affiliation to a particular country. In social sense citizenship refers to all those activities and social work that an individual performs demonstrating his/her rights and responsibilities.
In the view of above definitions and concepts, Engle and Ochoa citing the work of Wesley (1988) in the same way and observes citizenship to be having the characteristics of a society. The further explained that citizenship is a process that involves rational and well thought decisions by the citizen of the society. Rationale in this sense refers to the continuous complex situations that a citizen faces and then derides in those morally ambiguous situations.
2.5 Citizenship Education in school
Citizenship education remained one of the most important topic in public schools historically. Infect Conley (1989) claimed that it is mandatory for public education to train citizens in the widest sense of the term. This broader concept of citizenship is mainly concerned with the development of sense of identity i-e one is different from other people a sense of unity among themselves. It not only includes the rights and obligation's knowledge (Hughes 1994) however Osborne in 1992 quoted that in the current situation of education reform major emphasis has been on perceived economic priorities rather than on citizenship but perhaps good citizens pay their role as a responsible citizen for the well being of their nation and this ensure success in the international market place.
Basically citizenship means how we live and behave in the society and how our coming generation would be. In simple words it stems from a moral point of view. There are a lot more proposals under consideration for an effective and good citizenship education:
What our concept of citizenship is that how we are loyal to others and to the nation and what are our views of an ideal society. Major concern is with the normative sense of good citizenship rather than that of legal definition of citizenship. This concept of good citizenship differs largely with time, culture gender and political philosophies.
According to Gagon and Page, 1999, there are 4 components of citizenship views, namely (a) national identity (b) Social, cultural and supranational belonging, (c) an effective system of political rights and (d) civic participation of citizen.
There is a variety of citizen in terms of participation and engagement in society. In Canada where some groups experience a sense of exclusion in terms of race, language, ethnicity, gender, belief and poverty.
In the recent past years the concept of citizenship has become a brooder, Now there are multiple ways of being a citizen. In Europe a person might be a citizen of France as well as European Union, the latter as a supra-national category. In Canada a person might be a citizen of a first nation as a citizen of Quebec and also a citizen of Canada. This is what called as multicultural citizenship sometimes shortened to multiple citizenship. (Kymlicka, 1995)
2.6 New Conception of Citizenship of Education
The concept of citizenship has a lot of meanings and context. This is the reason that council of Europe (2000) has embraced a multidimensional approach to citizenship. It has also given the definition of citizenship as being primarily a co- citizen where he loves other and interacts with them on the basis of his rights and responsibilities.
Thus, because of above mentioned concept arise a difference between citizenship as states. Citizenship is something that leads to a legal contract between the individual and the state along with the nationality, so an individual is subject to rights and responsibilities, liberties and duties granted by the state to an individual. In fact, Citizenship plays a social role in issues of identity, sense of belonging and inclusiveness are included Citizenship is dissociated from a particular estate since it is context related depending upon the community it refers to whether (local, regional, European or global). It focuses primarily on the inter-relations among the co-citizen.
2.7 The Origins of Citizenship Concept
The origin of concept of citizenship is specifically from the ancient Greece (Heater, 1999). Heater explained citizenship as a legal term and a term of social states during the period of Greek and the Romans civilization. Heater, Kymlicka and Norman, Crick stevick and Levinson are of the view that citizenship is related to the reconstruction and creation of a nation state. Crick (2000) further categorized it as a major part of modern and contemporary civilization. Hargrieves cited in Crick 2000 that citizens in this regard are those individuals. who have legal right and power to interfere in the affairs of a city. A city is places contaminated by people sharing ideologies and have common structure they have a certain status that is conferred on them by the city. (Heater, 1999). Why a status is conferred by the state, it is merely to shape society politically to fit in the different kind of citizens, which a estate wants. Hence, the traditional idea of citizenship education is based on duties and responsibilities performed by citizen. (Crick , 2000)
Another concept of citizenship education is related with "National Identify". According to this concept that legal status of citizenship is attached and associated with national state, therefore it is associated with loyalty and patriotism. This idea is related with being good citizens, those who are the faithful for national identify and national states.
In the ninetieth century, the "liberal idea of citizenship education" was developed. These liberal views were based on duties which were perfumed by the citizen. The concept of citizenship was extended slowly. Therefore, for society and people of society the idea of justice and political rights became familiarized.
In the twentieth century the idea of "social citizenship education" was promoted and become progressive and functional. The supporters of this idea recognizing that civil and political rights are not part of citizenship. The supporters of this idea argued that citizenship must cover the rights of citizens in their own living and working conditions. This idea further argues that only participation in politics and political affairs is not citizenship education.
The concept of "Dual citizenship" and "Multiple Citizenship" is another concept and idea of citizenship. This type of citizenship allows the individuals, to be citizens of more than one state. Now a day the concept of dual citizenship has became important, therefore the idea of education is now increasing popular.
According to (Oliver, D, 1994) citizenship means only to enjoy rights and to performed duties, than this idea may create a sense that citizen may be created, and they are not born. Heater D, (1994), further describes that for creating qualities of good citizen like loyalty and responsibility that need to be learned and to be cultivated. Hence, if we want "Real Citizen" there is a need to be educated in the broader sense, for essential qualities to being a good citizen in real term, it is accepted that citizenship education is needed.
Oliver and heater (1994) agree that elements of citizenship must be learned and these qualities should be performed by each citizen for real citizens of any states. To conclude the above history, it can be said, that republican's idea of citizenship education deals with character of individual in the state. As compared to new ideas, the liberal view deals with legal and administrative states. According to liberal view, a good citizen means the person who is active in politics and fight bravely for his state. .
After inclusive revision of the literature on citizenship now it can be clearly indicate that citizenship is a functional concept. Most of the writers (Turner 1986, Clarke, 1994 Carrington and Short, 2000) agree that the concept of citizenship education began during the Greeks time. The concept was that all men contribute in decision making and function the common affaire was limited concept of citizenship. But the modern idea of citizenship rises with new standard of state e.g. peace of world, humanity, global political awareness. The modern concept of citizenship actually drives from influenced by the French ÂÂÂÂrevolution in French revolution equality, social understanding, national identity are common elements of citizenship.
The researcher tends to agree that the conception of citizenship enhances the understanding of individual relationship between an individual and political community and they have certain rights and certain responsibilities (Sears 1997).
2.8 Different Models of Citizenship Education
Citizenship has become a key and evolving idea. It is valuable to look at various stands and meaning today. There are different model of citizenship:
The Republican Traditional Model
The Liberal Traditional Model
The National Identity Model
2.8.1 The Republican Traditional Model
This model of citizenship was developed in ancient Greece period. It is derived from the theories of Greek philosopher Aristotle. The Republican model emphasizes on duty and responsibility in the state Aristotle claimed that in the state we must work for happiness of individual and goodness of society. Aristotle also claimed that citizen well doing is related with well being. It is important relationship it can makes common bond and is strengthed by provide a way to share the civic life of ruling and being ruled in turn.
Heater, 1999 has explained and describes ultimate focus of republican model. This model has focused on development of citizens regarding virtue and goodness. According to this model if citizens are virtuous and have goodness, they can create most excellent society.
McGregor (1999) has further more explained the principle of republican model. According to him there are three main principles of this model:
The sense of belonging to the political state.
Loyality and faithfulness with the country in performing duties and efforts to maintain the stability and existence of society.
To Maintain and to engage in a strange relationship with the state individuals enjoy freedom and state can shaped and unremitting
There conceptions can create great harmony and strong stability among themselves.
2.8.2 The Liberal Traditional Model
This model is a revolutionary concept in citizenship Education. This model has stems from the theory of John Lock, According to Lock, J. every man has free and equal right to preserve and maintain his/her life liberty. Therefore this model is based on natural right Theory. The British as well as Americans have adopted this theory. They have adopted the formula of life of any individual, liberty and how they can lead happy life. The British have adopted the others right, and have included more things in this formula e.g. right to vote, right of speech, equality of law, equal rights in society.
Similarly Crick (2000) has explained further the rights of Citizen According to him citizens have three types of citizens right:
Freedom of ideas and thought and along with freedom of privacy and personal ownership.
Freedom of speech, freedom of voice in front of media, press and national Assembly.
Freedom to acquire use and transfer of property.
The Researcher has further added more explanation provided by Crick (2000) the purpose of citizenship is freedom of individual citizen , that how they participate and can shape their future destiny in their own country (Heater, 1999) . Research tends to agree that for nation building based civic and national equality and standardization.
2.8.3 National Identity Model
According to Norman, (2000) national identity model is based on two elements
Stoessinger (1990) has defined the term nation .As a group of people occupying geographical space. Therefore National identity means (man's relationship with the state) and nationality mean (people's collective destiny). Various Researches have further described this model such perspective like national identity model has existed in European countries such as North America Australia. This model is particularly used because new migrants have came from different diverse societies and culture. Due to this perspective many western and European countries are now multi-lingual and multi-cultural. This indicates that in each country conception of citizenship is different.
In fact, concept of citizenship education has become the key part of modern world therefore with the help of citizenship education we can shape the society and state, and though awareness and education we can make the kind of citizen who can properly fit in the state and what state desirs its citizens like to be.