This report aim is to develop and produced a Personal Development Portfolio (PDP). The Higher Education Academy (2010) defines PDP as a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development. PDP group learning approaches, doing, recording, ideas, experiences, reflection and planning of goals to be achieved. It will help to understand and improve performance, identify qualities, skills and attributes and help to achieve these goals.
2.0 My profile
I will now give a brief description of myself. I was born on the 20 February 1987 at 00.00 sharp. The doctor didn't know which date to insert on the birth certificate. However after consulting my parents, they decided to put my birth date on the 21 February 1987. I am a citizen on Mauritius a small tropical island in the Indian Ocean. My family consists of my father, mother, brother and sister. I am actually 23 years old. I did my 'O' Level and 'A' Level in 2004 and 2006 respectively. Furthermore, I started working as sales representation and promoted as sales executive after one year. In September 2007 I joined EIILM University for my degree program. I did my degree course in Bachelor in Business Administration and was graduated in July 2010. Please find attached my academic CV in the appendix 1.
Mean while 2007- 2010, I have learned and experience many things. I have created my own event company in 2009 and went to different institution for training as internship. Finally after being graduated, I decided to join University of Hertfordshire for an Msc Management Program. The aim for doing the Masters program is to increase in maturity, learn new culture and extend my knowledge. My aim in life is to become a successful businessman and to have a big family. I did a personality test(2010) to understand what kind of personality suit me and results are:
(SEE APPENDIX 2)
Furthermore, to better understand my personality I decided to undertake various test such as learning style, leadership style, motivator test.
Strength and weakness
My strength are good communication skills, computer wizard, versatile, able to cope under pressure, can take quick decision. I work well in group and I am a good listener. I am punctual and am a good coordinator. I can convince people easily and put pressure on people where needed. I can adapt to change easily.
My weaknesses are: I am very stubborn and I never leave a job without finishing it. I am sometimes short temper when people argue on wrong issue. I am usually a practical type of person and does not use the theory part in general. I generally get bored easily with repetitive or routine work.
3.1 Learning style
Kolb (1985) in Mullins L.J. (2007) identifies a 4 learning style:
Accommodative: strong preference for concrete experience and active experimentation.
Divergent: Preference for a concrete experiences, but to reflect on these from different perspectives.
Assimilative: prefers to swing between reflection and conceptualization and will use inductive reasoning to develop new theory.
Convergent: Prefers to apply ideas, will take an idea and test it out in practice
However, Fleming J. (2001) in Pritchard A. (2008) argued that there are four learning styles how people collect information:
Visual: This kind of learners tends to learn by seeing things. Ex. Charts, graphs, diagrams, arrows, symbols, etc.
Auditory: This type of learners prefers to learn by listening through lectures, tutorials, group discussions, etc.
Reading: This type of learners prefer to learn through reading books, novels, magazines, newspapers, articles, etc.
Kinesthetic: This kind of learners prefers to learn by practically doing things. They very good at remembering things and physical experiencing with memory.
Moreover, Honey and Mumford in Marchington M and al. (2008) develop a similar learning style. They are classified as:
Activists: learn best by active involvement in concrete tasks, and from relatively short tasks.
Reflectors: learn best by reviewing and reflecting upon what has happened in certain situations (stand back, listen and observe)
Theorists: learn best when new information can be located within the context of concepts and theories.
Pragmatists: learn best when they see a link between new information and real-life problems and issues and put it into practice.
Kolb (1985) model, Fleming J. (2001) model and Honey and Mumford learning model shows basically the same. Each one of them has a different way of interpreting the 4 types of learning style. I have done two learning style test which is the VARK learning questionnaire and the Honey and Mumford learning questionnaire. The results of both are illustrated below:
Scores for VARK learning model questionnaire (2010) were:
Kinesthetic:5 (SEE APPENDIX 2A)
Honey and Mumford learning model questionnaire (2010) score are:
Pragmatists: 7 (SEE APPENDIX 2B)
Both test proven that I am an aural and reflectors. It shows that I learn better by listening, experiencing things and thinking well. I always learn better by listening and processing it in my memory rather than reading or watching things. My past experience showed me that I am a Reflector because I think well before taking any decision. In the past I was not taking much time in thinking well before doing something, but with time I have developed a more reflector approach. This is because with experience people learn from their errors and improve them to be more productive and effective.
Sir Winston Churchill (1965) said that "Success is the ability to go from failure to failure without losing your enthusiasm." I have taken many good decisions in my life and these decisions were taken after having well thought and gather information. Examples are creating my own event company, joining University of Hertfordshire, choosing management field and my day to day activities. However, I would have liked to be a pragmatist because it is important to link out the theories with real life. I need to improve more on the pragmatist part to become a more successful person in the future.
3.2 Leadership style
Leadership style is the approach used and way of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Lewin K. and al. (1939) identifies 3 different styles of leadership.
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
Normally good leaders use a combination of the two or three styles, and bad leaders tend to stick with one style only.
Essortment (2010) indicate 4 types of leadership style:
Autocratic: manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. It is a one way communication.
Bureaucratic: manager manages "by the bookÂ¨. Everything must be done according to procedure or policy.
Democratic: is also called the participative style. It encourages employees to be a part of the decision making and work as a team.
Laissez-faire: manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible.
Essortment (2010) and Lewin K. and al. (1939) identified mostly the same type of leadership style. Many other authors came out with similar leadership style and they have simplified it. I took a Quiz - What's Your Leadership Style (2010). The result of the quiz shows that my leadership style was a mixture of Authoritarian and Participative (SEE APPENDIX 3). Normally in life, I use more of participative leadership style. Tuckman B.W (1965) in Mullins (2007) defines group as "the interactions within and between groups and the stable arrangement that results from them."This is because I believe in work in group and two way communications give better ideas and solution.
I also use authoritarian leadership style not too often. Due to circumstances I have to adapt myself and use autocratic leadership style. Normally I use autocratic leadership style with Theory X people. McGregor (1957) in Beardwell I. and al (2004) indicate than Theory X people are people that has an inherent dislike of work and are very lazy to work on their own whereas Theory Y people physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. So I must make use of power to be able to make the Theory X people to work and form part of the group.
Hertberg (1950) in Davis, K. (1981) developed a motivational model and called it as two-factor model. It consists of:
Maintenance factors: It includes work itself achievement, possibility of growth, responsibility, recognition.
Motivational factors: It includes status, peer relations, relations with subordinates, relation with supervisors, quality of supervision, company policy and administration, job security, working conditions, pay, bonus and salaries.
Another guru in theories of motivation is Abram Maslow. Maslow A. (1943) came up with a hierarchy of 5 level needs.
Maslow A. says that people are motivated according to their needs. As people are always greedy in life, when they achieve physiological needs they will not be motivated by same reward. They will focus on the next level to safety needs and so on.
I have undertaken a motivational behavior test (2010) and the results are as follows:
(SEE APPENDIX 4)
Actually I am a very motivated person. When I start something, I like to finish it for a self satisfaction. I sometimes have a strong drive for completing important tasks, but I will often not be driven if I do not feel the task is important enough. I am somewhat motivated by the possibility of a reward for completing a task. I like the sound of a reward (such as a promotion or winning a bet) but it only moderately helps me to focus on a task and get it done. I am motivated to avoid things that I don't like.
3.4 Myers - Briggs type indicator
The MBTI was developed by Isabel Briggs-Myers (1897 - 1979) and her mother Katherine Cook-Briggs.
The teambuilding company (2010) says that MBTI is a mean 'to raise awareness and increase understanding of yourself and others in your team and to value the differences between you. At the end of the workshop you will write a personal action plan which will contribute to you and your team's development.'
In MBTI there are four polar extremes:
Extrovert to Introvert (E to I)
Sensation to Intuition (S to N)
Thinking to Feeling (T to F)
Judging to Perceiving (J to P)
I undertaken the Myers Briggs Test and my result is as follows:
Myers Briggs Test (2010) Results
Extroverted (E) 58.82% Introverted (I) 41.18%
Sensing (S) 67.74% Intuitive (N) 32.26%
Thinking (T) 62.16% Feeling (F) 37.84%
Judging (J) 64.71% Perceiving (P) 35.29%
(SEE APPENDIX 5)
My type is: ESTJ. This indicates that I am an Extroverted, Sensing, Thinking and judging person in life. Before taking a decision, I will gather as much information needed and think well based on actual figures. This will help to be more successful. In the past I have think well before choosing the management field. I've chosen management field because business will search continuously for the best businessman to run its business. As I have created my own company and wish to be a very famous businessman in life, I have chosen the management field which will help me in improving my knowledge and experience.
3.5 Johari Window
Luft J. et al (1970) in West, R. & Turner, L.H. (2008) came up with a model named Johari Window. It helps to understand how known you are to yourself and others. There are four components in the window:
Open self / Arena: It includes the behavior known by others and self.
Hidden self / Facade: It includes the behavior known by self only.
Blind self / Blind spot: It includes the behavior unknown by self and known by others.
Unknown self: It includes the behavior neither known by self nor by others.
I have taken the Johari window test and the results proven that I am a hidden self and mostly unknown self. It shows that people and I don't know about my behavior. This helps me work effectively in group and help to create a positive and friendly atmosphere.
3.6 Belbin's team role
Team building (2010) explains that: "The team roles identified by Belbin are based on certain patterns of behavior that people exhibit within teams. These patterns of behavior can potentially have an impact on the performance of the team." There are nine team roles in Belbin's model:
Action Oriented Role:
Implementer - Turn ideas into action
Shaper - It is a goal directed person. The shaper dynamic like challenges and is courageous
Completer/Finisher - This strengths are meticulousness, attention to detail and the ability to meet deadlines.
People Skills Oriented Role:
Coordinator - It enables and facilitates interaction and decision making.
Team worker - It is a good listener, being collaborative, co-operative, easy going and tactful.
Resource Investigator - It is an enthusiastic explores.
Planter - Its strength is in problem solving and out-of-the-box thinking.
Monitor/Evaluator - It is a good judgment and good strategic thinking ability.
Specialist - It is a single minded person and has a specific skill.
I have undertaken the test of 123test (2010) of Belbin team role (2010) and my results are as follows:
(SEE APPENDIX 6)
The test shows that I have nine team roles are the Executive, Explorer, Innovator, Analyst, Driver, Chairman, Completer, Team player and Expert.
Finally to conclude my PDP, I will prepare a SMART action plan for my future. SMART stands for:
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Achievable
R - Relevant
T - Timely
I want to work either in a European countries or USA for 4- 5 years before going back to my country. The aim behind this is to enhance my knowledge and experience. I also want to do another Masters in accounting. This is because to be able to manage a company well, I will need to understand in dept all the cost and revenue of the company. Moreover, I would like to meet famous and successful businessman in the world and attend some of their talk so as to increase my experience.
Based on the different personality test (motivators, leadership style, learning style, Johari window etc) completed, I would like to use the critics to improve myself in the future. Johari window will help me lots in the future because there are personality type in me which I haven't develop and seen yet. Leadership style test also will help me. I will become a manager in the future, to be a successful one mean to adapt to situation. I will need to learn more how to use all the types of leadership style.
-Essortment (2010) 'Style of leadership' Available from [http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm] [Accessed 28/12/2010]
- Fleming J. (2001) 'Leadership Styles' in Pritchard, A. (2008). Ways of Learning: Learning theories & Learning Styles in the Classroom. 2nd edition. London: David Fulton Publishers.
-Hertzberg. (1950). 'Hertzberg's Two factor Model' in Davis, K. (1981). Human Behavior at Work Organization Behavior. 6th edition. London: McGrawHill, Inc.
-Honey and Mumford 'Learning style' in Marchington M. and Wilkinson A. (2008) Human Resource Management at work 4th Edition Devon: Short Run Press
-Honey and Mumford learning questionnaire (2010) 'Learning style test' Available from [http://www.rapidbi.com/created/learningstyles.html] [Accessed 28/12/2010]
- Kolb (1985) 'Learning styles' in Mullins, L.J. (2007). Management and organisational behaviour. 8th Edn Harlow: Pearson Education
-Lewin, K., LIippit, R. and White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301
-Luft, J. & Ingham, H. (1970). 'The Johari Window' in West, R. & Turner, L.H. (2008). Understanding Interpersonal Communication: Making Choice in Changing Times. 2nd edition. Boston: Cengage Learning, Inc.
- Maslow A. (1943) 'Hierarchy of motivation needs' Available from: [http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Hierarchy_of_Needs.asp] [Accessed 30/12/2010]
- McGregor (1957) Theory X and Y in Beardwell I., Holden L and Claydon T. (2004) Human Resource Management, A contemporary Approach 4th Edn Harlow: Pearson Education
- Motivational behavior test (2010) Available from: [http://www.learnmyself.com/personality.asp?p=Quick_Test&pg=2&u=MBx2x557627-29345x59eF5x1] [Accessed 29/12/2010]
- Myers Briggs Type Indicator test 'Personality test' Available from: [http://sminds.com/cgi-bin/mbti.pl] [Accessed 03/01/2011]
- Personality Test (2010) Available from: [http://www.learnmyself.com/personality.asp?p=Quick_Test&i=PI&sh=y] [Accessed 03/01/2011]
- Quiz 'What's you leadership style' (2010) Available from: [http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl-leadershipquiz.htm] [Accessed 04/01/2011]
- Sir Winston Churchill (1965) 'Failure and Success Quotes' Available from:
[ http://www.inspirationalspark.com/failure-quotes.html] [Accessed 03/01/2011]
-Team building (2010) 'Belbin Team Roles' Available from: [http://www.teambuildingportal.com/articles/systems/belbin-team-roles] [Accessed 05/01/2011]
-The Higher Education Academy (2010) 'Personal Development Planning' Available from:
[http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/ourwork/teachingandlearning/pdp] [Accessed 05/01/2011]
-The teambuilding company (2010) 'Myers Briggs Type Indicator - MBTI' Available from:
[http://www.teambuilding.co.uk/myers-briggs-mbti-team-theory.html] [Accessed 04/01/2011]
-Tuckman (1965) in Mullins, L.J. (2007). "Management and organisational behaviour". 8th Edition Harlow: Pearson Education
-VARK test (2010) 'Learning style test' Available from: [http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=questionnaire] [Accessed 28/12/2010]
-123test (2010) 'Belbin team role test (2010)' Available from: [ http://www.123test.com/team-roles-test/][Accessed 28/12/2010]