Parental Involvement in Education in Cambodia

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Regarding to the quality of education, parental involvement is important in education sector. The involvement of parents in their child's education cause children does better in school. (Support this claim with some references) Parental involvements do not have yet their own universal definition Some give the definition that the great participation of parent in school, parent help child with individual in learning, parenting, and after school activities is parental involvement (National Human Services Assembly,2004). Another definition of parental involvement according to Zarate (2007, p.8) is:

Latino parents' perceptions of parental involvement could be grouped into two distinct categories: academic involvement and life participation. Academic involvement was understood to encompass activities associated with homework, educational enrichment, and academic performance; life participation characterized ways that parents provided life education and were holistically integrated into their children's lives in school, as well as away from it.

When asked to define parental involvement, Latino parents mentioned life participation more frequently than academic involvement.

According to Chia-Hui Chiu, and Hwa-Wei Ko(2005) there are many factors of parent's involvement. The relationship between parental factors and children's reading behaviors and attitudes, children who have a parent involved in their reading are more likely to enjoy reading then the children who do not have a parent involved.. Furthermore, children's motivation, higher self-esteem, improved achievement, better school attendance, reduced dropout rates, and decreased delinquency are some of the outcomes of parental involvement with school in their children's education. Indeed, children have motivation and confidence in study because their parents' care and follow-up with the school, so the children will think that education is very important for their life. That why the more parents are involved with their child's education the more successful children's achievement is ( Anchorage School District Online,2009).

Family involvement can be more powerful to produce good results for children and their school results. Moreover, the relationship between the family and the school by formal or informal communication give children in elementary school more positive benefited (Harvard College,2007).

In addition, Cambodian's parent have their own culture in order to pause their child in learning by sending their child to school and let teacher or school do whatever they can to make their child get high achievement in school. This culture showed that some parent in Cambodia they care much about their child education, but they still lack of knowledge to how they can help their child more than this. Regarding to Education Law of Cambodia (2007 in chapter 7, article 36) is:

Parents or guardians of minor children, who are dependent, shall have the following rights:

The right to choose the educational programs and educational institutions to be attended by the learner;

The right to receive information and study records of the learner from the educational institutions;

The right to achieve and full participation in order to develop educational standards at school and national levels, directly or through their representatives,

Pare.nts or guardians of minor children, who are dependent, shall have the following obligations:

To take the children, whose age is 6 (six) years or at least 70 (seventy) months, to enroll in grade 1 (one) of the general education program at schools, that have proper educational certificates;

To try their best to support the studies of the learners, especially for their basic education.

Kept the relationship between school family and community to participate in vocational education and reform the educational environment.

As seen above, parental involvement is needed for child education to participate in many activities for the purpose of improving the achievement of child education. Many researchers list numerous benefits of parental involvement with their children's education. That is why parental involvement in their child's education is very important and they also taking part in the school development as well.

Problem Statement

Numerous researchers have shown that many of parents are not involved with their children's education in school (Ramey, & Ramey, 2004). Not only the developing countries but also the develop countries have been meet the same problem about the lack of involvement in child education, (Jeri, 2009).

The lack of parental involvement in child education is going less and less went their child is growing older; it is depend on many reasons. Some parent they lack of involve or good deal with school, family are lack of family members, parent have no time with their child because the time is occupied by other live activities, divorce's parent or death in the family is effect to family environment, and unstable financial in family is also the reason of the parent are lack of involvement in children education (Jeri, 2009).

Regarding to the result of some researcher above, in Cambodian society also have been seen many problem that done by children. Many children use that time for involving with some negative activities in or outside school like taking alcohol, drug abuse, gang children and other activities. Most of them are not car about their parents because they think parents are busy at work or busy with business activities and lack of involve with school, so that the reason can give change to children do something up to what they want without thinking it is right or wrong.

Purpose of this study

The purposes of this research, we will conduct a case study in one private school in Phnom Penh on primary level in order to fine out the level or percentage of Cambodian's parents involved in primary education. And we have stated above, there are many kind of parental involvement so the involvements of parents have been done in how many kinds? And what are perceptions of parents on parental involvement in child education?

Research Significance

Regarding to this study it will become a use full document that can involve in the developing activities in education sector. Furthermore, the result of this study will produce positive aspect of parental involvement in primary education of any parents and stakeholders who need to be involve in. I am believe that this study will encourages parents in Cambodia are look back to their child education; and they will spend more expensive time of their business and their work to support their child. On the other hand they will more and more cooperate with school in propose of helping their child to perform well in school.

Research question

In order to achieve the purpose of this study, we need to raise some questions:

How many percentage of parental involvement in primary education by each of the identified category?

Are there significant different in test score of children according to the level of parental involvement by each of the identified category?

What are perceptions of parent's in Cambodia about the parental involvement?


Most parents tend to support children's learning in the level 1 and going less and less from level 2 to level 6.

There is a significant different between test score of children according to the level of parental involvement by each of the identified from level 1 to level 6.

Please note: the Methods chapter is a stand alone chapter and the elements that are being marked have been outlined in the marking criteria see below

The discussion and justification for selected data collection method/s provides evidence of a well-developed understanding of the method/s' strengths and limitations.

The proposed data collection processes (sample, method, instruments, data collection and analysis) are described clearly and match the research questions

Questionnaires, interview questions, letters of introduction (where appropriate), Consent and Information Forms (where appropriate) provide evidence of a sound understanding of ethical practice in conducting research.

The section below is significantly inadequate for the research report and needs considerable work to address the criteria.

The research design


This study is combining the quantitative research and qualitative research. This research will be conducted in a private school is located in Sangkhat Tek Laak I, Khan Toul Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. For selecting sample, we use the total number of 150 parents of students are study from grad 1 to grad 6, all teachers are teaching from grad 1 to grad 6, and school principal.


For this study we will use the instrumentation as follow:

Questionnaire with parents of students and teachers of grad 1 to grad 6 and it will be including the interview if an answer which is get from questionnaire is not clear and understanding from those parents. In addition, the pre-testing questionnaire around 10 to 20 copies is requiring to be sure that the questionnaire are short cleared and consisted.

Interview with school principal.

Interview with class patrons

Group discussion among 7 to 10 parents, 4 to 5 teachers of primary education, and school managements. This activity is wanted to know deeply on the perception of parental involvement in child education.

For the test I no need to design for all students, but I will uses the test score of annual exam.

Analysis the articles best on observation and finding from the result of questioner and interview.

Data collection procedure

The questionnaire is distributed to individual parents are acknowledged and participating in this survey will be received from teachers and suggested to return back with date required. In order to make sure that all parents are understand this questionnaire, we will make phone call to all participation who get that paper in advance and tried to explain each item if they are not well understanding.

For the interview will be conducted in the school area during time available according to particular situation of all teachers and school principal with well appointment. The interview's time is not limited. And before conduct the interview Ever participation will be given an opportunity to ask any question before starting their survey.

The final test score of the annual exam will be collected from the academic officer with the later of approval from the school principal.

Data analysis

The data collected will be computerized in the way of explain or analysis the data of this study. Moreover, there are many variables will be use to analysis such as the standard of parent involvement, the education level of parent, parent's age, parent's occupation, the number of family member, single family… est. related to the annual test score.


All participations are having their own responsibilities with their job or business. However, only participation those are willing to volunteer to answer the question in questionnaire or interview form will be able to get answers. This study is work with only one of the private school in Cambodia so it is not mean that it represent to Cambodia. But it can be a sample study of one particular school in Cambodia.

Ethical issues?


Review of Literature

If we look back to the history of research document that related to the parental involvement in children education are not defined but it seem that there are many term of world that they used to categorized the level or steep of the way that parent are involve in children education. For example: According to The Tomás Rivera Policy Institute "TRPI" (2007), the perception of latino parents about the involvement of parent in children education was divided in to two categories including "Academic Involvement" and "Life Participation". For these two kinds of the parental involvement have the characteristic as bellow TRPI (2007, p.8):


Academic Involvement

Life Participation

Attend parent-teacher conferences.

Be aware of child's life.

Sign homework as required by the teacher.

Be aware of and monitor child.

Know when to expect report cards.

Be aware of child's peer group and interacting with peers' parents.

Ask about homework daily.

Teach good morals and respect of others.

Listen to the child read.

Communicate with child.

Visit classroom during open houses.

Be aware of and encourage child's abilities and career aspirations.

Ask questions about homework.

Provide general encouragement.

Ask friends, siblings, and other family members for homework help for child.

Discuss future planning.

Have high standards for academic performance.

Monitor school attendance.

Purchase materials required for class.

Exercise discipline and provide behavioral cuing

Drive them to tutoring and school activities.

Establish trust with child.

Go to the library with them.

Provide advice on life issues.

Be present when required to pick up report cards at school.

Warn of dangers outside the home, such as illegal drugs.

Get to know teachers to assess child's safety.

Volunteer to observe school environment.

Encourage siblings to look out for each other.

Moreover, in context of Cambodian's parent it is not so easy to separate between academic involvement and life participation. It is so complicated when using those term of worlds. Most parents do not have high level of education background. For academic involvement as my observation parent have been applied but it is not mean that all parent have been done all points. But for life participation it seem to be lack of involvement from parents because many Cambodian parent including teacher are not clearly know about life participation even they already done some of the element in these part. Why I can say like this? If we say about the academic involvement most of activity is done by school policy or regulation that push to all parents to do so. And life participation is depend on how are characteristic of family's living. As my observation Cambodian people careless about emotional mostly think about physical.

In addition, the research result has found that there are relationship between positive school climate, family involvement, improved teaching, and student achievement. And the study also found many benefits of parental involvement for children, parent, school quality, families, and communities as well, according to Family Strengthening Policy Center (2004). This research also found the National Parent Teacher Association standards for parent/family involvement by Family Strengthening Policy Center (2004, p.6):

Standard I: Communicating−-communication between home and school is

regular, two-way, and meaningful.

Standard II: Parenting­−Parenting skills are promoted and supported.

Standard III: Student Learning−parents play an integral role in assisting student learning.

Standard IV: Volunteering−Parents are welcome in the school, and their support and assistance are sought.

Standard V: School Decision Making and Advocacy−Parents are full partners in the decisions that affect children and families.

Standard VI: Collaborating with Community−Community resources are used to strengthen schools, families, and student learning.

Regarding to the reviewed of literature above there are many good point in order to producing the concept of this research. Some guide line that is useful for Cambodia context. For this research, I will separate the parental involvement in education as follow with the six standards above (Standard I, Standard II, Standard III, Standard IV, Standard V and Standard VI). If we compare to what are stated in the research of Tomás Rivera Policy Institute "TRPI" (2007) each standard level from Standard I to Standard VI there are including the academic involvement and life participation. This standard is not so complicate because we just set the level of involvement of parent on their child education in each level.

And other research, Maria, Jennifer, Bruce, et al. (2009) has conducted the research on parental involvement and children's school achievement sown that there are relationship between the involvement in education of parents and the academic outcomes of students. There are several ways in order to make higher on children's academic achievement such as parents have good management and well practice on learning at home, reading together with their children, children's school-related behaviors are controllable, good manage on their study time of their children, home environment, motivation to learn, and more involve with children's doing homework. Moreover, study also found that parents' emotional tone is related to children interaction regarding school issues just like parents' encouraging style and supportive from parental involvement. In the other hand, the negative children's school outcomes are related to pressure from parents regarding with some activities like commands, punishment, or coercive interactions.

In addition, the family-school relationships have the model was not related with mothers' and father' involvement, by Maria, Jennifer, Bruce, et al. (2009, p.39) found:

The family-School Relationships Model


Social- Personal General General School-Focused Child's

Cultural/ Characteristics Family parent-Child parent-child Personal Child Outcomes

Biological of Parents Relations Interactions interactions Characteristics


Level 6 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 0

Context Parent characteristics and family processes Child Traits Child behavior

of family or competencies or accomplishments

What are the APA ethical standards with regards to copying a figure? Please cgeck the APA book about acknowledging sources etc.

With this model they divided the level of parental involvement in six levels but it is different from the result of other research above. The child traits or competencies is in the level 1, Parent characteristics and family processes is in level 2 to level 5 and level 6 is context of family. Moreover, in each level this model has their own characteristic to identify the involvement on their child education.

This chapter needs considerable work - please align the work with the criteria in the marking sheet - pasted below

Evidence of evaluation of the method/s used to collect literature (e.g. description of databases and sources used to identify literature).

Literature review of research problem/question - the extent, currency and ability to justify inclusion of literature in review.

Evidence of identification of theme developed from literature rather than a simple chronological list of writers in the field/topic

Evidence of identification of theoretical frameworks used by writers

Evidence of thoughtful reading and analysis of the data collection methods reported in literature.

Evidence of thoughtful reading and analysis of the reported results found in the literature.





References please check APA style for writing Refernce lists and amend this list to reflect APA style.

Chia-Hui, C., & Hwa-Wei, K. (2005). Relations between parental factors and children's reading behaviors and attitudes: Results from PIRLS 2005 field test in Taiwan.

Craig, T. R., & Sharon, L. R. (2004). Parents involvement in children's education. The newsletter for the center for development and learning. Plain Talk, 4 (9), p. 1.

Harvard family research project, (2007). Family involvement in elementary school children's education: Family involvement makes a difference. 2 in A series, winter 2006/2007.

Jeri LaBahn. Education and parental involvement in secondary schools: Problems, solutions,and effects. Retrieved September 08, 2009, from whuitt/ files/parinvol.html

Maria, E. Z. (2007). Understanding latino parental involvement in education: Perceptions, expectation, Retrieved September 12,2009, from data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/3e/55/da.pdf

National Human Services Assembly (October, 2004).Parental involvement in education, Family strengthening policy center, Brief (3)

Maria A. Rogers, Jennifer Theule, Bruce A. Ryan, et al. (2009). Parental involvement and children's school achievement: Evidence for mediating processes, Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Retrieved August 20, 2009, from http://cjs. at James Cook University

Students benefit from parent involvement, Anchorage School District Online. Retrieved August 18, 2009, from

Tomás Rivera Policy Institute (2007). Understanding Latino Parental Involvement in Education: Perceptions, expectations, and recommendations. LA: California.

Kimberly S. Adams and Sandra L. Christenson (2000). Trust and the Family-School Relationship Examination of Parent-Teacher Differences in Elementary and Secondary Grades Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp MN: USA


Kimberly S. Adams and Sandra L. Christenson (2000)

Table 1

Trust Scale From the Family-School Relationship Survey

Parent/guardian form

I am confident that teachers:

• are doing a good job teaching my child academic subjects

• are doing a good job teaching my child to follow rules and directions

• are doing a good job helping my child resolve conflicts with peers

• are doing a good job keeping me well-informed of my child's progress

• are doing a good job encouraging my participation in my child's education

• are doing a good job disciplining my child

• are easy to reach when I have a problem or question

• keep me aware of all the information I need related to school

• are doing a good job encouraging my child's sense of self-esteem

• are doing a good job encouraging my child to have a positive attitude toward learning

• are doing a good job helping my child understand his/her moral and ethical responsibilities

• are friendly and approachable

• are receptive to my input and suggestions

• are sensitive to cultural differences

• respect me as a competent parent

• care about my child

• have my child's best interests at heart

• are worthy of my respect

• will do what is best for my child in the classroom Teacher form

I am confident that parents/guardians:

• are doing a good job teaching their child academic subjects at home

• are doing a good job teaching their child to follow rules and directions

• are doing a good job helping their child resolve conflicts with peers

• are doing a good job participating in their child's education

• are doing a good job disciplining their child

• are easy to reach when I have a question or problem

• make me aware of all the information I need about their child

• are doing a good job encouraging their child's sense of self-esteem

• are doing a good job encouraging their child to have a positive attitude toward learning

• are doing a good job helping their child understand his/her moral and ethical responsibilities

• are friendly and approachable

• are receptive to my input and suggestions

• are sensitive to cultural differences

• respect me as a competent teacher

• are clearly committed to their child's education

• are worthy of my respect

• have their child's best interests at heart

Interview List


Appendix A: Information Sheet


PROGRAM: Master of Education

Research Title: Parental Involvement in Primary Education in Cambodia: A Case: Study in a Private School

Supervisor: Dr Chhinh Sitha

Research Student: Tan Sophondarith


The aim of this study is to explore master students' perception of their development as novice researchers and identify factors that have assisted or blocked their development as beginning researchers. It consists of two phases- Phase 1 is Questionnaire for Parents, Phase 2 is Focus Group Discussions.

The focus group discussion involves ten parents meeting with the researcher to discuss their perception toward the research as the beginning researchers and the experiences of conducting their initial research. the discussion group is expected to take no more than 60 minutes or more deepen on the real situation and will be audio recorded for transcription and analysis.

The researcher stresses that taking part in the discussion group is voluntary. , Due to the nature of a discussion group confidentiality cannot be assured but there will be no identifying names used in the final research report or any other papers produced from this research.

If you have any questions concerning this study, please contact either Mr. Tan Sophondarith through the detail listed above. If you have any questions regarding the ethical conduct of the research project, please contact Dr Chhinh Sitha phone number: 012-722-297, Email:


Research Title:

Masters of Education

Parental Involvement in Primary Education in Cambodia: A Case: Study in a Private School.

Contact Details:

Tan Sophondarith


The purpose of this study is to explore parents' perception of their involvement as novice researchers and to identify factors that have assisted of blocked parents not actively to involve with their children in child education as beginning research.

The aim of this study have been clearly explained to me (in writing and/or verbally) and I understand what is wanted of me.

I know that taking part in this Focus Group Discussion is voluntary and I am aware that I can stop taking part in it at any time and may refuse to answer and any questions.

I understand that no names will be used to identify me with this study without my approval.

I understand that by its nature a Focus Group Discussion cannot be guaranteed of confidentiality.

Appendix B: Informed Consent

INFORMED CONSENT FORM - Focus Group Discussion

I consent to participating in an interview for this research. YES  NO 

I consent to having my interview recorded and a transcript made. YES  NO 

Name: (printed)

Signature (or thumb print)