Negative Implications of Poor Education in Developing Countries

4217 words (17 pages) Essay in Education

23/09/19 Education Reference this

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The developing world is full of entrepreneurs and visionaries, who with access to education, equity and credit would play a key role in developing the economic situations in their countries.[1] Despite the potential individuals residing in underprivileged communities posses, they often remain in poverty due to their lack of education and opportunities presented to them. Poor education standards, lead to unemployment and labour conflicts, which depict a country’s      reputation.[2] Growing rates of global poverty and unemployment in developing countries are due to the absence of a universal standard of education, which the international community has addressed however developing countries need to implement standardized education programs to eliminate worldwide poverty and unemployment.

There are direct correlations between poverty and criminality.[3] People around the world rely on illegal activity to meet their everyday needs, which results in insecurity and endangerment of a person. Millions of individuals worldwide do not obtain long-term jobs, due to their lack of education; putting communities in the predicament of finding other sources of income; often resorting to crime. Transgression job opportunities subsist of child labour, prostitution, and drug trafficking relating to criminal activities. For parents, sending their children to work is conventional behaviour that is condoned by low-income households. Around the world, “218 million children work full-time and do not attend school, the environments in which they work put the children at risk.”[4] However, when the youth within a community are educated, they have the potential and knowledge to build better lives for their future children. As well as, when adolescents within a community retain awareness about human rights they have the expertise to better their communities and acquire jobs that have a steady income to avoid debt bondages.  From a young age, children get trapped in the cycle of poverty, as they are forced to pursue careers similar to their parents which do not provide them with adequate pay. The primary caretakers of children in low-income areas were not provided with primary education, as a result, they do not believe in investing in their children’s education. Child education is a luxury in some communities around the world, as families believe time spent at school can be time spent at work, paying off the debt. Governments should devote their money towards education in order to help countries abolish poverty. Due to a lack of education, individuals within developing countries are often coerced by the sex industry, or willingly practice the occupation due to their dire financial circumstances. The International Labour Organization conducted a study that represented; women who are employed in the sex industry in Thailand have “the opportunity to make 25 times more than any other job available to them.”[5] This can be unsafe for women involved because of the sexually transmitted diseases that can be contracted, as well, the violent acts that a woman has the potential to face. According to the UNICEF organization, hundreds of thousands of people in developing countries are victimized by gangs that organize and work in the sex industry.[6] When sex slaves want a way out, it is often too difficult and they are not released by their bosses. Since women want to provide their children with food and offer them a better life, they often feel as if they have no other choice, due to their lack of qualifications. Moreover, evidence indicates that secondary school completion is one of the most important preventive investments a country can make in at-risk youth, both in terms of improving their education and reducing nearly all kinds of risky behaviour, including crime and violence.[7] Persons around the world who do not obtain adequate education resort to easy money such as drug trafficking. Drug trafficking has been proven to increase homicide rates in Central America and is a key component in conflict within some regions. For instance, neighbourhoods that experience drug trafficking are more likely to experience crime than areas that prohibit this type of activity. Regardless of the violence and wars, drug trafficking causes the illegal drug industry grosses billions of dollars annually, people put their lives in danger to make a decent living, by the cause of an absence in education in their youth. Youth violence and gangs are a critical concern, males between the ages of fifteen and thirty four account for the overwhelming majority of homicide victims.[8] There are “more than 900 gangs operating in Central America today with an estimated 70, 000 members.”[9] Thus, if citizens in developing countries were provided with a primary and decent education regarding drug prevention, they would have more options for careers and be less likely to engage in crimes that put their life at risk.

International law set standards for worldwide education as Article 26 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “everyone has the right to education”. After 1948, The United Nations has established many treaties in an attempt to make education as accessible to individuals as possible; which includes the UNESCO Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960), International Covenant on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965), and Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).[10] Despite the efforts of The United Nations, countries around the world still failed to provide their citizens with primary education, which is why The United Nations in 2010 initiated; “The Right to Education in Emergencies.”[11] In 2018 the world encompassed countries that did not prioritize education which was evident in the lack of capital in countries being invested towards schooling. The United Nations was successful in informing Member states the importance behind safe and quality schooling in dire circumstances, which involved life-saving and life-sustaining interventions resulting in communities being prosperous and peaceful.[12] The conference outlined the importance behind education in emergencies, Maiwand Rahyab an Afghanistan youth activist stated:

Afghanistan is hit hard by conflict. Education can be very crucial to bringing back normality and peace…. Education can create the kind of environment for children so that they can cope with the traumas associated with conflicts. Education is a fundamental right of every child in the world. (Donors and Member States) need to support the education of children in emergencies now. They can’t wait. They can’t postpone it. [13]

After this issue was addressed countries and organizations began to take preventative measures to overcome the challenges of education and the accessibility to children worldwide, as it proves to be a threat to children; putting their lives at risk.

Child labour is prominent in Afghanistan, children do hard labour with the rewards of very little pay. The outcome of working long hours is leaving school at an early age, which is why only half of child labourers in Afghanistan attend school. The extreme poverty of Afghan families drives many children into hazardous labour.[14] Landlessness, illiteracy, high unemployment, continuing armed conflict in much of the country.[15] Ways to help end poverty in developing countries such as Afghanistan is to work with the youth and allocate funds towards social protection of children; by providing education, health services, and legal advice. Although the United Nations has accepted and recognized this issue the education sector in Afghanistan continues to face obstacles, such as an inflation of students out of school (most of them are females, youth in unsafe regions, children with disabilities, or other minorities). There continues to be a lack of primary education provided due to the poorly educated teachers and little resources.[16] The next steps for Afghanistan to maintain a higher level of children attending school consist of expansion of children enrolled in rural regions, making sure children have quality resources and increasing the effectiveness of the Ministry of Education. Afghanistan has been making improvements since 2009. On November 26, 2018, “The Global Partnership for Education allocated US $209.4 million towards Afghanistan, Myanmar, and South Sudan.”[17] To help Afghanistan improve their level of education, they will be granted “US $100 million over the course of 5 years to help underprivileged citizens residing in low-income areas to have access to higher quality education.”[18] Funding will be used to improve the structure of schools and acquire better-trained professionals. This is a change that will be prominent in the education sector when Afghanistan implements the new plan for education and the utilizes the funds provided by the Global Partnership for Education.

Countries such as Myanmar experience an increase of women in sex trade due to the lack of wealth in other occupations presented to them. Women that become sex workers often pursue it due to the hardships presented to them at an early age, and they often continue to do it for their entire lives because of the dangers facing the women if they try to leave. Organizations such as The Global Partnership for Education have voiced the issue of the underfunding in the education sector and the positive implications it can have on the opportunities presented to women which is why they have “designated US $73.7 million to Myanmar within 4.5 years in order to aide the country in their first attempt to improve the quality of education.”[19] This money will be used to help impoverished communities improve schooling. In Myanmar “approximately 23% (2.7 million children) within the ages of 5-16 years old do not attend school.”[20] If Myanmar uses the funds wisely and sets objectives for following years they are likely to see results, and provide the women of Myanmar with more job opportunities and self-fulfillment.

There is a documented association between poverty and educational attainment in Latin America. The poor are those with lower levels of education. “In 2014 the International Labour Organization stated there were approximately $12 billion in illegal profits in Latin America.”[21] Latin America experiences high levels of crime and drug trade, along with high levels of out-of-school-children. The Global Partnership for Education has helped countries in Latin America such as Nicaragua they have developed a strategic education plan to: increase the number of males and females in primary education, quality education by improving the student achievement levels to advocate for personal, family and community development, and strengthen national identity for countries.[22] The Global Partnership for Education has clear objectives and have have been making successes through their initiatives. This has proven to
“have a positive impact on the illiteracy rate by 5% and the out-of-school children.”[23]  

Lastly, despite the effort of the international community and non-government organizations, countries around the globe will start to see change within their illiteracy rates in their countries once they implement strategies and utilize the funds given to them to put towards the education sector. Organizations such as Global Partnership for Education have used their voice and set objectives for the following years in which they aspire to achieve. They have been successful due to the fact “18.5 million children were supported in 2017 to complete their education.”[24] However in order for countries such as Afghanistan to be victorious in the education of their youth and future leaders, the country has to take precautionary measures such as stopping child labour plantations. Despite the efforts of various organizations and the promises Afghanistan has made, “approximately 2.1 million Afghan children between ages 6 and 14 are involved in some form of child labour in 2018.”[25] Myanmar exploits women, and often leave them uneducated which is why they have fewer job opportunities, “there were 471,420 females out of school in 2017.”[26] On the other hand, in Central America crime rates have been increasing within the youth as they engage within gang life at a young age, which is why it is crucial the government of Central America implements social programs to educate the young individuals within the society to see change as the years progress. Countries should have objectives and goals in mind to ensure they reach their objectives.

 A man willing to work, and unable to find work, is perhaps the saddest sight that fortune’s inequality exhibits under this sun. [27] Millions of people worldwide are not given the chance to prove their intelligence through their employment due to the lack of education opportunities in their country. The international community has addressed this dilemma with member states through informational meetings, however if countries wish to see their illiteracy rates and unemployment rates decrease they have to take immediate action to ensure success in low income and underprivileged communities. Funds need to be allocated towards schooling infrastructure, resources, and qualified teachers. 

Bibliography


[1] Muhammad Yunus, “Access to Quality Education,” Huff Post, November 2013, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/muhammad-yunus/global-partnership-for-education_b_3999287.html.

[2] Zoleka Ndayi, “Poor education, unemployment threaten national security,” Business Report, September 2014, https://www.iol.co.za/business-report/opinion/poor-education-unemployment-threaten-national-security-1749133.

[3] Haiyun Zhao, “The Dynamics of Poverty and Crime,” Semantic Scholar, January 2016, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/417a/ccdd94db31cbfd153aa19f5f0bbbda2d3ee6.pdf.

[4]  International Organization, “Child Labour,” International Labour Organization, September 2017, https://www.ilo.org/moscow/areas-of-work/child-labour/WCMS_248984/lang–en/index.htm.

[5] Sandra Neuman, “Female Prostitution in Thailand,” Linnaeus University, September 2012, https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:558735/FULLTEXT01.pdf.

[6] Clare Ribando, “Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean,” Congressional Research Service, October 2016, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33200.pdf.

[7] Bank Group, “Crime and Violence in Central America,” World Bank Group, last modified January 2011, https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/FINAL_VOLUME_I_ENGLISH_CrimeAndViolence.pdf.

[8]  Bank Group, “Crime and Violence in Central America,” World Bank Group, last modified January 2011, https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/FINAL_VOLUME_I_ENGLISH_CrimeAndViolence.pdf.

[9]  Bank Group, “Crime and Violence in Central America,” World Bank Group, last modified January 2011, https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/FINAL_VOLUME_I_ENGLISH_CrimeAndViolence.pdf.

[10] United Nations, “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” UN, last modified September 2012, http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/.

[11] United Nations, “UN General Assembly Debate,” An International network for education in emergencies, last modified March 2009, http://www.ineesite.org/en/education-in-emergencies/un-education/ga-debate.

[12] United Nations, “UN General Assembly Debate,” An International network for education in emergencies, last modified March 2009, http://www.ineesite.org/en/education-in-emergencies/un-education/ga-debate.

[13] United Nations, “UN General Assembly Debate,” An International network for education in emergencies, last modified March 2009, http://www.ineesite.org/en/education-in-emergencies/un-education/ga-debate..

[14] Human Watch, ““They Bear All the Pain Hazardous Child Labor in Afghanistan,” Human Rights Watch, last modified July 2016, https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/07/14/they-bear-all-pain/hazardous-child-labor-afghanistan.

[15]  Human Watch, ““They Bear All the Pain Hazardous Child Labor in Afghanistan,” Human Rights Watch, last modified July 2016, https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/07/14/they-bear-all-pain/hazardous-child-labor-afghanistan.

[16] Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, last modifiedNovember 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[17] Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, last modified November 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[18]  Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, last modified November 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[19]  Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, last modified November 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[20]  Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, last modified November 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[21]  Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, last modified November 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[24]   Partnership Education, “Global Partnership for Education approves over US $200 million in grants for Afghanistan, Myanmar and South Sudan,” Global Partnership Education, November 2018, https://www.globalpartnership.org/news-and-media/news/global-partnership-education-approves-over-us200-million-grants-afghanistan-myanmar-and-south-sudan.

[25] Preethi Nallu, “Children Are Paying the Price for Afghanistan’s Endless War,” Foreign Policy, June 2018, https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/06/27/children-are-paying-the-price-for-afghanistans-endless-war/.

[26] United Nations, “Myanmar,” UNESCO, April 2018, http://uis.unesco.org/country/MM.

[27] Forbes, “Thoughts,” Forbes Media, October 2008, https://www.forbes.com/global/2008/1013/120.html#4acf77b25994.

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