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Nowadays, we know that unemployment is the major problems for developing country like us Indonesia. Unemployment is like a ghost that scary all people in our society. No matter for those who take low education or high education. Unemployment issue always associated with education. Why would this happen? Anyways to solves it? There are two purposes to analyze unemployment issue. The first is the gender gap, and second is education. Gender gap is the differences between the total amount of man and women, we know that women are much more than man, so that's why it can affect unemployment number. So either does the education level of a person, it very important to a person to get a job, higher the education is easier to get a job but lower the education harder to get a job. What we feel now is there is educational quality backwardness, whether in formal type and so does the informal type. These results happen after comparing those with another country. Surely, education has been a standard to making good quality human resources for developing our country. Because of that, we should improve our human resources so they can compete with other country human resources. We can see in our daily life that our major educational problem is low quality of educational system in all level of education. And because of that our human resources are not workable and not have good quality. If we observe further, amount of unemployment is raising every year, so it's interesting to be explain in this paper.
Theory and Analysis
The main problem of education in Indonesia is lack of attention from government. We can see from how difficult is education in Indonesia, poor infrastructure and facility, low quality of students, low quality teaching staff, expensive cost of education, low educational equity opportunities, even our education law is mess. For infrastructure and facility, for example, many schools building is damaged, low of learning media, library book are incomplete. If there is a good one, it will be expensive. The teachers in Indonesia are also very worrying; they don't have the professionalism adequate to run duties. How can Indonesia have a good quality education if the teachers aren't adequate the professionalism? We know that the teacher is the central point of education and qualification, which is it responsibility. But how can they make it if their welfare is low? So that's why they don't want to teach professionally. Quality education is expensive; from Kindergarten to higher educational level make the poor have no choice but not to go to school. Meanwhile, an early childhood education service is still very limited, only private school accommodates kindergarten level and the cost is expensive. One of our education weaknesses is the difficulty to teach or trained people's education to become more professional in their carrier or job. Now I think our education is concern in theoretical way, not in the practical way. Materials often given with monotone way so it makes students feel bored. Study activities often only using book and one-way communication, not discussing between students. We just good at theory but failed in practice.Indonesia has a system that every child in Indonesia must have at least nine years program of study. Indonesia also has a policy to the middle-low income class to get subsidy at government school, so from that policy they can accomplish their duty to study nine years.But from that subsidy given many people doesn't use it, because some people think that education is not their priority. Whereas they had an education counseling, they will know how important education is. For the middle-low income class that doesn't get education counseling, although they have been lured by government subsidy, they still doesn't want to school, because they objection to buy uniform, books and shoes, so that's why they choose to getting a job even they salary doesn't sufficient their needs and welfare as long as they can survive to live. As we see from their mindset education counseling is a must to them, because in the next generation we need good quality and excellent human resources. Government also provides free school, but as we can see that the facility is not good enough. This free school should have adequate facility, capable teaching staff, and proper curriculum and have good and transparent administration system. But in fact, these free schoolsare located in remote area and all the facility doesn't support studying activity, so come up a question, is it right that those schools are free? Because needs of uniform and books to develop discipline.
We can't deny that education is affecting the amount of unemployment. But it's not that true if our educational sector is blamed about unemployment, that point have a bias idea and can be misguided to us in a long term. Unemployment issue involves many variables. It's not about educational sector always making un-workable graduate. Education can't, and even in other countries they will not preparing all of human resources to only be workable until whenever. If this is our first attention and purposes it means that we not consider as teaching our nation again, we lead our nation to be handyman. If so, our first purposes in leading educational nation, we develops our human resources into more visional lifestyle and more oriented to universal kindness value, so that with good educational process can realizing good social capital for living in nation and country, hard to realize. Because of that, unemployment issue should see by neither direct nor indirect aspect that can makes it possible to happen. Unemployment issue affected by at least three aspects, these are educational, economical, and population. Seeing this unemployment issue, we can't ignore those three major aspects that affected unemployment issue. From population aspect, unemployment issue can cause by very fast population growth. This day unemployment also cause by from baby boom in 1970, where now, they are in productive age. Otherwise, within small chances to getting a job cause by economical in Indonesia going down a few years ago, economical and population aspect are making our unemployment situation getting worst now. Also from some cultural group, it also affected unemployment issue. For those who can work independent, more creative, and maybe making job opportunity for a lot of people, they can survived the unemployment issue, but for those who only just waiting for a job opportunity, they just wasting time and unemployment chance waiting for them. Education surely expected to make good quality of human resources. If not so, this aspect also contributes in making unemployment issue. At least three educational planning models associated with its benefit. The first, planning of education based on social demand approaches. In this approaches, education surely made based from the demand in the public. Peoples want to go to school, and then they offered by many educational programs, this approaches would not be a problem. But, if they always want to get into one educational institution, although it's have not good enough quality, the result would be helping enough to solve this unemployment issue. Uncritical peoples are more prefer about how to get graduate certificate than have a competence education. Even they can buy it. This condition now descends some of our member of society and even official government employee whom like to buy certificate only for prestige. With this cultural, clearly that we can see that education process only makes unemployment issue. Graduated people from educational institute whom their purposes just to only get their certificate will not survive in facing this unemployment issue. The second educational planning model can by economic return approach. In this approach has same meaning as production process. By counting all of cost that involve in educational program and then see how productive the human recourses are, we can say that, is educational program iscontributed for unemployment or surely can makes good quality and workable human recourses that have positive impact for economical. In this model, education institute should be keeping up or at least make it stable for relevancy and accountability they offer. When graduated peoples can't work well enough, it marks by they getting low salary or even they are not getting a job, so what is the education institute doing can we say failed and because that, it means education only contributed for raising unemployment. This approach surely can be done easily. Because to makes well graduated people is not easy. With the same teaching staff skill, infrastructure and facility, and curriculum, can make different quality of graduated people in society. Unwell quality and less productivity of graduated people in society surely impacts unemployment issue. Moreover in this country is hard to erase educational system that in fact can't makes workable and productive human resources in society. This educational system is making worst our unemployment issue. The third educational planning model can be done by employment generation approach. The purpose is to make education not contributed for unemployment issue with this approaches. This program can be done if professionalism attends in educational system. Competence of graduated people should be more important rather than only having a graduation certificate. So, all of elements in educational system should have high professionalism to make workable human resources. Beside of that, educational system should consist elements of professionalism, such as strong basic knowledge, based on individual competences, have a selection and certification system, good ability of work team and well competition between teammates, high awareness of professionalism, and have a good ethic code.
With having high professionalism in educational system, under graduated people will have more good experience from study activity in all of level of education system. The consequences are all teaching staff should be trained so that can improve their ability, skill, and knowledge to teach lesson and modern technology. With those improvements, all of under graduated people have more creativity that can be workable human resources. But in fact our educational system are still far away than we all expected. Teaching staff can't do as much as we expect, it is because low welfare, not conducive school environment to teach independent value, low creativity, and low innovative experiment. So the impact is our graduated people only good at theoretical but failed in practical and can't make their own job opportunity to survived unemployment issue. If government wants to invest in educational system with large amount of cost, it can reduce unemployment in long term. Because basically investment in education has double benefit, there are, multiplier effect in economical way and good social capital in society impact from improvement of quality of human resources after they complete the new improvement of educational program.