Children and young people looked after by local authorities are underachieving in schools

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Children and young people looked after by local authorities are underachieving in schools.

"Looked after' is the term introduced by the Department of Health (1989) to describe all children in public care, including those in foster or residential homes and those still with their own parents but subject to care orders"*

(Department of health 2000)

According to Hayden et al (1999) and Sinclair (2005) children and young people who entre into the care system will have previously experience significant difficulties or disadvantages. (Holland, Randerson 2005) They are placed in care for various reasons such as sexual or physical abuse, persistent neglect, domestic violence, death or illness in there family. Their family may be unable to cope or there may be drug, alcohol, or substance abuse. The majority children and young people in care come from families experiencing difficulties and are separated from them through other forms of hardship or breakdown. The consequences of these experiences could form some barriers to learning.

(Milligan, Stevens 2006 P: 85) There has been growing concerns regarding the health status of looked-after children and their really low levels of educational attainment. Jackson et al (2005 P: 1) proposes that research on the education of children and young people in care was just about non-existent until the 1990s and although this subject has attracted more interest lately. Although the majority of the findings found in early studies were extremely negative and depressing. (Milligan, Stevens 2006 P: 94 Cox 2000 P: 65) Studies show that children in care attendance rates are low and exclusion is high. Furthermore data; continuously indicate that looked after children have poor outcomes in terms of gaining qualifications.(Taylor 2006) These children are more likely to have special educational needs, though findings suggest that some of these children may have experienced difficulties at school before going into care. Prior experiences of poverty and deprivation amongst young people in care are associated with under-achievement. For other children being in care may cause educational problems.


They may have experience numerous and often unplanned moves from home.

(Brodie 2001 P: 166) Frequent and unexpected changes in care and education, has been identified as one of the main factors that contribute to a high level of exclusion among children in care. (Alock et al 2002) Information acquired suggests that many children in care experience numerous and often unplanned move from home. Due to placement changes, children in care are often forced to change schools. This situation places them at a great disadvantage. Due to these unexpected moves they are forced to resolve different curricula and varying educational expectations without continuity of instruction or services.


Making and sustaining relationships with peers may be difficult due to lack of care and schooling enjoyment of schooling and educational success

(DR B CHARLOTTE) It is also recognised that it is not only the academic work that suffers due to the lack of attendance. Being excluded and missing out of the social side of school life, especially in the first few years of education, this can have an effect on children's ability to make and keep friendships that is a fundamental part of growing up.

(Howe 1999: P: 150) Literature reveals that many maltreated children are not popular in school with their peers. They are inclined to be unhappy children who hardly ever smile or laugh. They can be inflexible and obstinate in both thinking and their behaviour, also may portrait aggression towards whatever or who ever cause them distress. Furthermore, they lack empathy.


Low self-esteem

(Ashford et al 2008 P: 429) Many children and young people in care do exhibit low self-esteem. Previously entering into care most children would have experience; a breakdown in family, peer or community relationships.

(Rapshaw 2002, McLaughlin, Noley 2003) They can be depressed and withdrawn, and have problems in school. Children with low self-esteem may not want to experience new things, and may frequently speak negatively about themselves. They possibly may exhibit a low tolerance for frustration, giving up easily or will wait for some -one else to take the lead. They also tend to be over critical of and easily disappointed in themselves.

(Long 2000) Students who display low self-esteem will set them-selves low targets, enabling them to achieve success, or unrealistically high ones, where they can direct the blame of failure on the task.

(Daniel, Wassel 2002, Guishard-Pine et al 2007 P: 75) Whereas a child or young person with high self-esteem will be inclined to have good academic achievement, be energetic, expressive, emotionally intelligent, outgoing, confidence person who as the ability adapt their role to meet the given situation.


Social services Department Local Education Authorities and schools may not gather or share information. That would help them plan effectively

Looked after Children are amongst the most socially excluded of our child population" (Hall, Elliman 2003 P: 296)

(DFES 2006) children and young people in care have stated during interviews that education is important to them. They do want to excel in school and they do recognise and are aware, of how a good education can in prove their life chances. Children express that they felt that the lack of communication between schools and the care system and support received, excludes them from receiving the education they deserve. Furthermore they felt not all schools were able to meet their individual needs and felt like outsiders. They felt that being care and the stigma of being in care contributed in them being single out and bullied.

(Whitney 2007 P: 76) Looked after children repeatedly state that they do not want to be seen or treat different form other children, all they want to do is to be accepted for who they are, not the that child in care..

(Charlotte DCSF and DR B document) Children's and young people educational difficulties may begin before they entered foster care and that children and young people are themselves aware of this and do not associate poor academic performance only with being in care.


Schools and carers may display lower expectation of children or young people in care, which can contribute to under achievement.

"There are often negative attitudes and assumptions surrounding these children". (Haylock Browne 2004 P: 109)

(Chase et al 2006 P53) Carers and teachers may display low expectations of children in care which could contribute to underachievement's..


Schools and social services may not act sufficiently quickly and sensitively to enable children and young people in public care to catch up when their schooling has been disrupted.

(Charlottes Dr Brandos document) studies imply that children who do not attend school regularly possibly will not be able to keep up with school work and in a busy school day. So it essential that schools and other educational settings identify their particular needs, by offering support where necessary enabling them to catch.


Looked after children and young people special educational needs may have not been promptly indentified or assessed.

Department for education and skills (2006) all educational setting should have a designated person who is responsible for the well being of children in care. The person appointed as designed person will have regularly contract with carers and have limited access to confidential information concerning child's background.

Guishard-Pine et al 2007P:131) children in care have a individual plan, which is a plan of action to support the child's full range of educational needs, It is a multi-professionals plan that requires contribution from all of the professionals involved in supporting the child's overall care plan, which is the responsibility of the social services department,


Looked after children and young people are over represented amongst pupils excluded from schools.

The needs of black and ethic minority children and young people may not always be. Considered

(Major 2001 P: 128) Groups of young people with particular characteristic, suffer disproportionately from school exclusion. These children who are particularly vulnerable to a range of educational misfortunes such as low attainment and exclusion are identifies as. Looked after, traveller, and Africa Caribbean children are disproportionately represented in these categories. (Tasman, Goldfinger 1991 P: 597) Studies imply that Black children remain in foster care longer than children of dominant race. Children who are placed for adoption frequently wait years for a home, or they may never be a successful permanent placement. These recurrent unveils possibly may happen prior to their sixth year of life. This factor has implications for emotional readiness of these black children as they begin primary education


Conclusion

Despite all the evidence collated proving that high percentage of children and young people in care are associated with poor academic performance, Their is evidence to support that their are other factors that might have contributed to these static and findings.

(Literacy trust) Researches identify that a number of children in care do receive a good education plus obtain good grades and even progress on to further education. . Despite their experiences within the care system, it has been proven that some children who are encouraged and supported by adults, who recognise their potential and have faith in them, will accomplish something.


References

Ashford J B. Lecroy C. W. Lortie K L.(2008) Human Behaviour in the Social Enviroment: A Multidimensional Perspective: Fourth Edition: USA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Alock P, Erskine A, May M (2002) Oxford UK: The Blackwell dictionary of social policy Blackwell Publishers Ltd

Brodie I. (2001). Children's homes and school exclusions: redefining the problem: London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd

Chase E, Simon A, Jackson S. (2006) In care and after: positive perspective: USA: Taylor and Francis Group.

Cox T (2000) Combating educational disadvantage: meeting the needs of vulnerable children: London: Falmer Press

Daniel B, Wassell S (2002) Assessing and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. Volume 3: London: Jessica Kingsley Publication Ltd.

Department of Health & Department for Education and Employment (2000) Guidance on the Education of Children Looked After by Local Authorities. London: Department of Health.

Department for Education and Skills (2006) Care matters: transforming the lives of children and young people in care. UK

Guishard-Pine J, McCall S, Hamilton L (2007) Understanding looked after children: an introduction to psychology for foster care: London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Hall D M B. Elliman D (2003) Health For all Children: Revised Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Haylock D. Browne A (2004) Professional Issues for Primary Teachers, London: A SAGE Publication Company.

Hayden C. Goddard J, Gorin S, and Van Der Spek N. (1999) State child: looking after children London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd

Holland J, Randerson C (2005) Supporting children in public care in schools: a resourse for Trainers o Teachers, Carers and Social Workers: UK Jessica Kingsley Publication.

Jackson,S, Ajayi, S, and Quigley M (2005). Going to University from Care: London: Institute of Education, University London

Long M (2000). The psychology of education: London: Routhledge Falmer.

Majors R. (2001) Educating our Black children: new direction and radical approaches: London: Routledge Falmer

McLaughlin M J , Nolet V (2003) What every principal needs to know about special education : New Delhi: Sage Publication

MilliganI, Stevens I. (2006). Residential child care: collaborative practice: London: Sage Publications Ltd

Rapshaw M R. (2002). Foster Parent Handbook. Lincoln: Iuniverse.

Sinclair I. (2005). Fostering no.: message from research. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Tasman A, Goldfinger S M (1991) review of psychiatry: Volume 10: USA: America Psychiatry Press

Taylor C (2006) Young people in care and criminal behaviour: London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Van Hasselt V B Hasselt M, (199) Handbook of Social development: a lifespan perspective: New York: Planum Publishing Corporation.

Whitney B (2007) Social exclusion in Schools: Improving Outcomes, Raising Standards. New York: Fulton Publisher

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