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In my research paper I will study the learning style in ADU. We will know which style is common in ADU. Does the learners are visual, auditory, or kinesthetic?.
Statement of problem:
Some ADU teacher does not aware about their learner's style. They use un effective ways and methods to teach the students. Also some learners are not realized and know their actual style. So the problem is that both of teacher and learners in ADU are not know which learning style is appropriate for them.
Statement of purpose:
My first purpose is that, to know what the common learning style between ADU students is and the teacher should be attention about it. The other purpose is that to get more knowledge about the characteristic about the different learning styles.
I distributed the questionnaires to twenty students. The numbers of questionnaires were twenty seven. So the methodology which I used it was questionnaires. Before I handle this topic there were some researchers wrote on it, so they wrote their theories about learning styles. In my recherché paper I will write about Dr. Rita Dunn and Dr. Kenneth Dunn theory in the classroom. Also I will write about Sprenger and kolb theory. All of these researchers wrote details about how learning style effect in students result. I will explain more about their theories in the following.
No one can deny the fact that every person has his/ her ability to acquire the knowledge, so every people have own way for getting the information. This differentiate depend on their learning styles. Learning style is considering as means to know which the way that learners prefer to get the education. There are three different styles. Some of learners prefer to learn from teacher directly, they understood what the teacher says and what he / she written on the board. Other class they understand by sharing their ideas with other. They like open discussion. Also they like to work with other. The last class they learn better by doing some thing in the class. They like to movement from place to another. So all of these types, let us to say the three different styles of learning are: visual, auditory and kinesthetic/ tactile. Teacher should know their student's styles and try to make different activities to fit each students need. In my project I focus to know about my university's student to know which style they prefer , so I make different questionnaires and I distribute it to ADU female learners .my purpose is that to identify the ADU students learning style and to understand the differences between these styles(visual, auditory and kinesthetic/ tactile).
What does learning style mean?
There are different definitions of learning style.
Learning styles is define as "the way that you usually absorb and process information and experience"(N.A, 2009)
The business definition of learning style as "the way in which somebody approaches the acquisition of knowledge and skills".(CBS interactive Inc, 2009)
Learning styles are various approaches or ways of learning. They involve educating methods, particular to an individual, that are presumed to allow that individual to learn best".(N.A, 2009)
Benefits of Understanding your Learning Style:
It is too important to keep in your mind that you are unique learner, because you have your unique style to learn. I think it is rarely to find two learners are more learn in exactly in a same manner. There are advantages to understand the way to get the knowledge .some of these benefits are Academic, personal and professional advantages the advantages are academic, personal and professional . (Ldpride.net 2008)
The academic advantages are:
Maximizing your learning potential
·€ Succeed on all educational levels
·€ Understand how to best study and score better on exams and tests
·€ Overcome boundaries in the classroom
·€ Reduces annoyance and stress levels
·€ Expand your existing learning strategies
·€ Improve your self-confidence and self-esteem
·€ Learn how to best use your brain
·€ Gain insight into your own strengths as well as weaknesses
·€ Learn how to enjoy learning more
·€ Develop a motivation for learning
·€ How to maximize your natural abilities and skills
·€ Stay up to date on professional topics
·€ add an edge over the competition
·€ direct teams in a more effective manner
·€ Learn how to deliver more effective presentations
·€ get better your sales skills
·€ Increasing your earning power
From all these benefits I want to say " keep in your mind there is no right or wrong way to learn". As I say each learner is unique and each learning style has advantage as well as disadvantages. Now to know more about your learning style let us go closely to the basic learning styles and their features. (Ldpride.net , 2008).
Learners from this kind need to see material in order to understand it. Such learners have difficulty following lectures and may also have problems with directions that are spoken. They learn better by observing and reading .they are enjoying at seeing pictures graphs, maps ,Diagrams and charts. They are able to remember how the a word looks like rather than how to sound it out, so they are good at spelling. They like reading so they love magazines, books and other types of reading materials. When they unable to take notes they Feel frustrated. Usually they are tidy and organized. When they explaining something to someone they tend to show them what they mean. They spend their free time to watch TV. In general, when they want to connect at first time with a new person they prefer to connect with him/ her face to face. They take their notice about how people are from their look and dress. When they are meeting with an old friend they say "it is great to see you".
Auditory learners are those who like to learn by hearing materials as they are
Spoken. They have ability to recall information rather than through reading it .they Learn most effectively through audio books, lectures and oral presentation, so they Prefer presenting oral reports rather than written reports. They enjoy to read aloud .they have ability to memorize well. Also they able to remember names well. They like discussion, so they benefit from study group. They enjoy speaking with other. They enjoy music. When they read anything they read it slowly. They don't able to keep quite foe very long. When they teach someone something they explain verbally. It means explain it in different ways until they understand. They spend their free time to talk with their friends. When they want to connect at first time with new person they prefer to connect with them about the telephone. They take their notice about how the people are from their sound and speak. When they meet with an old friend they say" it is great to hear your voice".
Kinesthetic/Tactile Learning Style:
Kinesthetic learners learn through moving , acting touching and doing something in the class. They feel frustrated when they sit for long periods of time. They tend to say "I know how you feel"." Let me try". When they explain something to someone they encourage them to try and talk through the ideas. They spend their free time doing physical activity or making things. They take their notice about how people are from their stand and move.
Matching learning styles and teaching style in the classroom:
There are different researchers have tried to provide ways in which learning style theory can take effect in the classroom. Dr. Rita Dunn and Dr. Kenneth Dunn are two scholars of them . they have book called" Teaching Students Though Their Individual Learning Styles". They found elements of classroom, so they give a background of how learners are affected by these elements. They said that learners are affected by their: ( Wikipedia, 2009)
1-own emotionality (responsibility, persistence and motivation)
2-sociological needs ( team, adult ,peers ,pair and self)
3-immediate environment (design, temperature, light and sound)
4- Physical needs( time ,intake ,mobility ,and perceptual).
They make their clam that students cannot identify their preferred learning styles only, but also can score higher on test, have better attitude and are more efficient if they are tough in ways to which they can more easily relate .as we know learning styles are differ among students in the classroom , Dunn and Dunn say that teacher should make different activities which will benefit to everyone and also teachers should make changes in their classroom, for example, make change in room redesign, the development of small- group techniques and the development of contract activity packages. They say that "redesigning the classroom involves locating dividers that can be used to arrange to room creatively".
Small- group techniques involves circle of knowledge. It means students sit in a circle and they will discuss a subject
Contract activity packages are plans which make learning process facilities, when we use the following elements:
1-make a clear statement about students needs
2-provide different sensory resource
3-use creative activates for mastering information
4-disscuss or share your project within small groups of classmates
5-make pre-test, self test and post-test
There is another scholar who believes that learning styles should have an effect in the classroom. The scholar is Sprenger. She writes in her book " Differentiation through learning styles and memory". She has three premises for bases her recommendations in the classroom learning . the first one is , teacher can be learner and learner can be teacher , we are all both. The second one is every one can learn under the right circumstances. The last one is learning is fun. Make it appealing. She wrote different details and different ways in which teachers can teach so that students will remember. She has three teaching methods according to which learning style they fit auditory, visual and kinesthetic. The method for visual learners include ensuring that student can see the words which written down. When describing thing they using pictures.
The methods for auditory, learners include repeating difficult words and concepts aloud, discussion between small-group, listening to books on tape, writing oral reports. The methods for kinesthetic, learners include providing hands on activities, having frequent breaks to allow movement , using role play in the lesson.
When teachers use from each these categories, they will able to challenge students to learn in different ways.
Another conception of learning style is a two - dimensional organization offered by Kolb( 1984). The first dimension describes a preference for learning from concrete experiences (such as hands -on activities) versus a preference for learning in the abstract (such as principles tough by lecture or text. The second dimension expresses a preference for driving knowledge though reflection versus active experimentation. He says that any individual's learning style depends on their location in these two - dimensional spaces. One suggestion from educators who write on learning styles is that students and teachers should be matched by style, or teacher could use different styles over the course.(W.Scott Terry, 2000)
This figure will show the Kolb learning style:
Quickly seek correct solution
Math, economics ,sociology
Abstract theories and ideas.
History, English ,psych majors
Taxonomy of learning styles:
To analysis, your student's style you can look to latest findings by (Stacy Mantle 1, 2001) .
. He found seven different learning styles, which are (linguistic, logical, spatial, musical, bodily, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Of course, each of them had different features.
1- linguistic: the learners who have this type, you found them love to read, tell stories and write. They have ability to remember places, names, and dates. also they have ability to repeat every thing. So these types of students learn best by hearing, saying and seeing words. Teacher can ask them to write a creative writing .in short sentence I can describe them they are creative in many things.
2 -logical: this type of learners are very good in math. They like to solve any problems that related in math. These types of students learn best by classifying, categorizing and working with abstract patterns. Teacher can ask them to make a chart and to show relationships between different items.
3-spatial : these kind of learners are visualizes. They are enjoying working with colors and pictures. In addition, they spend their time dreaming and watching movies we can say these types of learners are artistic, although they often have problems expressing.
4- musical: learners who have this kind of style you found them study with music. They are best at noticing pitches, details and rhythms. They have ability to turn the abstract into concrete objects if the teacher wants from them to memorize him / she asks them to write a song about the lesson.
5- bodily: from the word body, we can say these learners learn best by using body language they constantly walk around. They like to do something rather than sit down and reed a book, so they need active education. in addition they have ability to do more activities at one time. In other word, I can say they have extra energy to learn.
6- Interpersonal: learners from this kind are social. They are adapting easily to any social situation. We are considering them as excellent leaders. They have many different friends. They will learn best in a group.
7- Intrapersonal: these learners like to do work a lone. They do not like a group discussion. They do better on individual work.
. Finding the result:
Did you ask yourself this question one a day?
Why I am excellent in this subject or that subject, but other not?
Why this instructor is good to present the lector?
The answer will be easy. It will be depend on the way that teacher present the information and the type of learning style that meet students need. So underlying your style it is necessary to do better in the class. It is important to know your style and discover the best method to learn because this thing will help you to learn though your style. Thus I decided to make analysis about what the students in my university prefer to learn
I make my analysis to get the result and to know which style is common between ADU students my questionnaires were about the different learning style( visual, auditory, kinthies) . and the answer were divided into agree or disagree. From the learners answers I notice that 18 students are agree that when the teacher tells them the instructions they understand better , so this means teacher play a basic role to connect with students when he/she explain the lesson. Those students are auditory . the second statement was say " I prefer to learn by doing something in the class". The result was that 19 of students are agree and 1 is disagree. This thing indicate the ADU students prefer class which has action, movement and feeling , so those learners are kinesthetic . Thus I advice the ADU teacher to be attention about this point. The third statement was say " I prefer to get new information in pictures, diagrams, graphs or maps " . the result was 18 students were agree and 2 were disagree . those students who agree are visual. I think this is common because learners when they seeing some at front their eyes they learn better. And the knowledge will be store in their mind for a period. The forth statement said" I learn more when I study with a group ". the result was 10 of students were agree and other ten were disagree. ,so this indicate not all learners have same ability to sit with group and start to discuss , may those learners who agree they have ability to focus with discussion group. The result of fifth statement was 15 of student were and 5 were disagree that when they rite they often say the letters and words to themselves. Thus who agree are auditory. The next statement was " I learn better by reading what the teacher writes on the board" and the result was 18 0f students were agree and 2 were disagree. It means those who agree are enjoying with the notes which written on the board because they learn better from it. I think that teacher's notes are useful in learning process and those learner are visual. . The next statement was " when someone tells me how to do something in class, I learn it better". The result was 16 of students were agree and 4 were disagree. Those students who agree are auditory it mean when they take the instructions from other they do better. The following statement was said " when I am learning something new , it helps me to talk about it". The result was 18 of students were agree and 2 were disagree. I consider those students who agree are socially , because they have over self confidence to talk and discuss with other people about what they learn and this is useful to take other what you learn. In the next statement I notice that 15 of students were agree and 5 were disagree that they remember things they have heard in class better than things they have read. Those students who agree are considering auditory. Because auditory learners did not like to read . the result of the next statement was 14 of students were agree and the 6 others disagree that when they solve math problems they usually work their way to the solution one step at time. Those who agree are logical learners. They enjoy solving problems especially mathematic problems. This kind of learners learn better by classifying , categorizing and they work with abstract s things. The following statements was "I learn more when I can make a model of something" the result was 15 of students were agree and 5 were disagree. Those who agree are considering visual learners . the result of the following statement was 18 0f students were agree and 2 were disagree that they understand when they read instructions. Those who agree are visual . for example, when they buy a new camera and they don't know how it works, so they prefer to read the instructions which on the camera. Rather than ask other to help them.on the following statement I notice that 14 of students were agree and 6 were disagree that when they study alone they remember things better . those students who agree are visual learners. Thy have ability to focus with discussion group. The result of the following statement was 18 0f students were agree and 2 were disagree that they learn more when they make something for a class project. Those who agree are kinesthetic learners. They like the class with action and movement. The statement which say " I prefer courses that emphasize concrete material ( facts , data)". There were 15 of students agree and the other 5 were disagree. Those who agree are auditory . the result of the following statement was 15 0f students were agree and 5 were disagree that they learn better when they make drawing as they study . so those who agree are visual learner. They like to show pictures, diagram and draw . the following statement said" I learn better in class when teacher gives a lecture ". and the result was 18of students were agree and 2 were disagree. Those who agree are auditory. Learners like to hear the information. In the eighteenth statement the result ware10 of students were agree and 10 were disagree that when they work alone , they learn better. There is balance between who are preferring work with other and who are not prefer . it means those are visual and auditory. The following statement said " I understand things better in class when I participate in role playing." The result was 15 of students were agree and 5 students were disagree. Those who agree are considering kinesthetic learners. In the twentieth s statement the result was 15 0f students were agree and 5 of students were disagree that they learn better in class when they listen to someone. I want to say listing to someone not mean passive, so those learner who agree are auditory . the result of the last statement was 15 0f the students were agree and 5 of the students were disagree that if they are not unsure to spell a word they spell it out loud in order to determine if it sound right. So I notice the common one is auditory learners.
Now I will summarize the total result in following table.
The type of style
Number of students
In fact before I distributed the quaternaries I guess that the common style will be visual, but when I get the result I found that the common one is auditory style. I think this return for many reasons. The first reason is that it is naturally there are different learners and different ability to get the knowledge. The second reason I think the education environment influence in student style.
The third reason, teacher style play role on the students style
Now I will offer the result by the percentage. .
The type of style
I have four recommendations the first one is for teacher who teach the ADU students. Teacher should focus on auditory style because it is the common, and teacher should make different activities which are suitable for auditory learners.
Don't forget the other learners who have visual and kinesthetic style.
Teacher should encourage their students to use their styles when they study.
The second recommendation for ADU learners, students should know their learning style and be aware because that will help them to make their learning easy and useful. Also when they know their style they consume their time when they study.
Teacher should know student style and student should know teacher style because both of them should adapt with other.
Whether your learning style, do well and put in your mind learning is fun.
The third one is for designer who will design the curriculum. He / she should make different activities which suitable for the different learning styles, and don't forget that the most one is auditory.
The last recommendation is for the evaluated who will evaluate ADU students. The evaluated should make sure that ADU learners are differences in their learning styles, so he /she makes balance when they evaluated.
Learning style is effective way for teachers and students to know their style. Each student has different style from other because has different abilities, skills, language, thought, and so on. In ADU auditory learners female are most one. As I said before, auditory learners prefer to learn by hearing and they care about the teacher's notes and so on. In addition, learners should know their teacher's styles, methods and techniques in the teaching because when they know they try to adapt between their style and teacher style.
In short, knowing teacher style and learner style let the education process affective. I learn many benefit things from my research paper. First I know that what the characteristic for each learning styles. Second I know my learning style, so I will use it in right way when I study. The last thing I learn that may one learner has more than one style.