Language Learning And English As A Foreign Language Education Essay

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The results of several research in the scope of English as a foreign language have played in important role in the process of language learning, so the style of teaching English has been moved from teachers center to learners center in the twenty first century is very popular and the research on English language learning strategies has become an important field. That's why English language learning strategies used by adult Cambodian EFL learners in Cambodia are going to be explored in this study.

Personal learners used English language learning strategies as the necessary method or model to make the comprehension, existence, and requisition for information for English language learning and acquisition (Oxford, 1990). There are several studies refer to English Language Learning Strategies used by students in the different context. Al-Buainain, 2010, Goh & Foon, 1997, Zhou, 2010, Martínez, 1998, Shmais, 2003, Wu M. M.-F., 2008, Ghee, Ismail, & Kabilan, 2010, Lihua & Xiaoli, 2005 focus on what language learning strategies are used most/least frequently, English proficiency, different genders and grades.

After reading several articles relevent to my topic, I can see the result of laking English language learning strategies used by adult Cambodian EFL learners. Although there are a lot of research has been done in the past the study, they occurred in the different context. That's why I would like to conduct this research with adult Cambodian EFL learners in Cambodian context. Moreover, I really want to identfy more different genders and grades on the usage of English language learning strategies.

The field of TESOL is very important for this study because the adult Cambodian EFL university learners may identify this study is necessary for enhancing the English language learning strategies utilized to be successful learners, then which English language learning strategies is less important, especially they can develop themselves to be a independent learners in Cambodian context. Moreover, it is very useful for teachers to be prettier understanding what kind of strategy adult Cambodian EFL learners use because it can guide them to focus on them. Some model of the research do not focus on the overall of English language learning strategies utilized by adult Cambodian EFL learners, in particular what kind of task and tool should be offered to learners, taking into consideration adult Cambodian EFL learners' context.

The first purpose of this study is going to describe the experiences of adult Cambodian EFL University learners in selecting and using language learning strategy, and this research also want to know what kind of strategy adult Cambodian EFL university learners use more often and least. The second aim of this study is to identify language learning strategies used by adult Cambodian EFL university learners in different grades. Thirdly, to find out how well the English learning strategies helped adult Cambodian EFL students learn English, and to guides teachers to become aware of Cambodian EFL learners' useful strategy and to mix these strategies into their illustration. Finally, I am also interested in finding out the differences between male and female students in using langue learning strategies. the following research questions are addressed in this study:

What kind of language learning strategies do Cambodian college student of English use?

what are their most often and least used language learning strategies?

What is the difference in the types of strategies used by freshmen, seniors, and junior?

What are the differences between male and female students in using language learning strategies?

Al-Buainain, H. (2010). Language Learning Strategies Employed by English Majors at Qatar University: Questions and Queries. ASIATIC Journal , Vol.4 (No.2), 92-120.

This study discusses the type and frequency of language learning strategies used by Qatar University English majors. The subjects were 120 Arabs enrolled in the Department of Foreign Languages representing different learning levels (Year 1-4). Oxford (1990a: 293-300) Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire was used. The results showed that the students used learning strategies with high to medium frequency. They preferred to use metacognitive strategies most (75.3%), whereas they showed the least use of affective strategies (58.6%). In general, the results indicate that Level and Proficiency have differences on the use of some strategies. The differences, however, are insignificant. The article concludes by recommending that more training should be given in using all strategies by embedding them into regular classroom activities. This research provides me a very important idea relates to key concept and strategy of doing the research for my research which I am going to conduct in Cambodian context.

Anugkakul, G. (2011). A Comparative Study in Language Learning Strategies of Chinese and Thai Students: A Case Study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. European Journal of Social Sciences , Volume 19 (Number 2), 163-174.

This study aimed to compare language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese and Thai students and to look for the frequency of LLSs they used. The relationship between the use of LLSs and variables - gender, nationality, and levels of English language proficiency - was also examined. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1990) was administered to 72 Chinese and Thai students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and chi-square test. The research results revealed that Chinese students used overall LLSs significantly more frequently than Thai students. The specific strategies most frequently used were asking for clarification, making positive statements, and using resources for receiving and sending messages. In addition, it was found that gender and nationality had a significant effect on the students' use of overall LLSs, whereas levels of language proficiency had no significant effect on the strategy use. Suggestions are offered for future research. Although this research is conducted in Thailand, it provides a lot of useful idea for my research with larger participants in Cambodian university context.

Ghee, T. T., Ismail, H. N., & Kabilan, M. K. (2010). Language Learning Strategies used by MFL Students Based on Genders and Achievement Groups. US-China Foreign Language Journal , Vol.8 (No.1), 50-58.

Many studies have proven that female students use more and more frequently used language learning strategies than the male (Ehrman & Oxford, 1989; Oxford & Nyikos, 1989; Politzer, 1983). Some studies also revealed a close connection between language learning strategies used and achievement level (O'Malley, et al., 1985; Wharton, 2000). This paper reports on the language learning strategies employed by a group of learners learning Mandarin as a Foreign Language (MFL) in a public university in Malaysia. These students were pursuing their study in diploma and degree courses, and have enrolled themselves in the communicative Mandarin course to fulfill the university requirement. The study focused on the different preferences of language learning strategies used by different gender as well as different achievement groups. A total of 165 students from eight Mandarin classes were invited to take part in the study. They were required to complete a questionnaire adapted from Oxford's (1990) the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL version 7). The data obtained was analyzed using frequency counts, average means and standard deviation to identify the strategies used as well as the students' demographic information. Independent sample T-test was used to compare the strategies used by the genders. On the other hand, one-way between groups ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons test was used to investigate the variation in strategies used with regards to the students' achievement level. The results showed that the female students used more learning strategies than the male students. However, only the difference in affective strategies showed statistical significant differences. The results also showed that there was a statistical significant difference between the high achievement group and low achievement group in using compensation strategies. This research relates to my topic I am going to conduct because I want to look at the different genders on usage language learning strategy. Moreover, it gives me a model questionnaires adapted from Oxford's (1990) the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL version 7) that I want to use in my research.

Goh, C. C., & Foon, K. P. (1997). Chinese ESL Students' Learning Strategies: A Look at Frequency, Proficiency, and Gender'. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics , Volume 2 (NO.1), 39-53.

This article reports on a study of language learning strategies used by 175 ESL students from the People's Republic of China. The aims of the study were to survey the frequency of strategy use and to determine how it is influenced by the learners' proficiency level and gender. The SILL questionnaire (Strategies Inventory of Language Learning) by Oxford (1990) was administered. It consists of 6 categories: memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social. Results from the survey indicated that metacognitive strategies were most frequently used, while memory strategies were least frequently used Statistical analysis showed that significant differences were to be found in the use of cognitive and compensation strategies among learners at three proficiency levels. Gender also played a role in influencing the kids of strategy used; female students were found to use compensation and affective strategies significantly more often than male students. Findings from this study could help teachers identify appropriate strategies to facilitate the learning of a second language by Chinese learners. This article gives me more understandable and knowledgeable relates to my topic which I am going to conduct with students in adult Cambodian EFL context, especially the questionnaires.

Lihua, Z., & Xiaoli, G. (2005). Survey of Language Learning Strategies in A Three-Year College . CELEA Journal (Bimonthly) , Vol.28 (No.1), 64-70.

This article attempts to show how language learning strategies play a role influencing students English learning in a three year college. On the basis of Oxfords strategy Inventory for language learning and Cheng Xiaotang, Wen Quifangs research, we designed a set of questionnaires for language learning strategies four investigation. By an analysis of the use of learning strategies by our students, we hope to find some factors connected with language learning strategies that are influencing students' language learning. The result shows, the students poor performance of English in three year colleges relates partly to their low frequent use of strategies, particular of cognitive and social strategies. So it is necessary for us to implement strategy training in three year colleges. This research is necessary for me because the participants are the university students level as my research and it also give very useful key concept of doing my research in Cambodian context.

Martínez, I. M. (1998). A Study of the Learning Strategies Used by Secondary School and University Students of English in Spain. Alicante Journal of English Studies , 8, 177-193.

The aim of this paper is to identify the type and range of the language learning strategies used by Spanish secondary and university learners in their study of English. For the collection of data, eighty students and twenty five teachers of both educational levies were interviewed. The data collected were statistically processed through the Chi-square test. The results obtained indicate that (a) the majority of the students were conscious of their use of strategies, (b) cognitive strategies were by far the type of strategies most commonly reported, (c) university students made use, although not significantly, of a higher number and a wider variety of strategies than secondary school pupils, (d) the majority of the teachers were not aware of their students' use of strategies. The paper concludes by molding a series of pedagogical recommendations that can be gathered from the previous work. This article is conducted in Spain, but it also provides the sample with doing research with the university students for my research which I am going to with the university students as well.

Shmais, W. A. (2003). Language Learning Stragegy Use In Palestine. TESL-EJ Journal , Vol.7 (No. 2), 1-13.

This study reports on the current English language learning strategies used by Arabic-speaking English-majors enrolled at An-Najah National University in Palestine. The subjects of the study were (99) male and female students still studying for their B.A. degree. The study also investigates the frequency of strategies use among these students according to gender and proficiency variables. Proficiency is reflected by students' learning level (i.e., sophomore, junior, senior), self-reported proficiency in English (i.e., the students' university average in English courses) and language self-efficacy (i.e,. how good the students perceived themselves as English learners). The results of this study showed that An-Najah English majors used learning strategies with high to medium frequency, and that the highest rank (79.6%) was for Metacognitive strategies while the lowest (63%) was for compensation strategies. In general, the results showed that gender and proficiency had no significant differences on the use of strategies. Based on these findings, the researcher recommends that more training should be given in using Cognitive, Memory and Compensation strategies by embedding them into regular classroom activities. Although this article is conducted in Palestine, it provides a useful finding that there is no significant genders on the use of language learning strategies and that's why I want to look at the different genders on the use of language learning strategies in Cambodian context.

Teh, K. S., Embi, M. A., Yusoff, N. M., & Mahamod, Z. (2009). A Closer Look at Gender and Arabic Language Learning Strategies Use. European Journal of Social Sciences , Volume 9 (Number 3), 399-407.

Numerous studies have discerned gender differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use. In most of the studies in which gender differences emerged, the results showed that female reported using language learning strategies more often than males. However, some studies demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between genders in the use of LLS. Others showed that male students use more LLS than female students in certain categories. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not differences exist between female and male Arabic students in the use of language learning strategies. A total of 457 students at thirteen secondary schools in Terengganu, Malaysia participated in the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire adapted and modified from SILL (Oxford 1990). The findings of the study showed that there was significant gender difference in the use of language learning strategies as a whole. Female students also tend to use overall language learning strategies more often than males. For categories of language learning strategies, there are significant differences between genders in the use of affective and metaphysic strategies with females using them more often. Although this article is based on research conducted in Malaysia, it provides a lot of useful information for my research, especially the result of the study. it will also help me to identify the key concepts in my study.

Tsan, S.-C. (2008). Analysis of English Learning Strategies of Taivanese Students at National Taiwan Normal University. Educational Journal of Thailand , Vol. 2 (No. 1), 84-94.

This study was conducted in order to investigate the language learning strategies used by undergraduate students at National Taiwan Normal University- NTNU (ROC) Taipei, Taiwan. The study sample consisted of 330 students (212 English education major students and 118 non English education major students.). The research instrument was the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) questionnaires (Oxford, 1990). The data obtained from the returned surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent sample t tests. This study concluded that: (1) Students majoring in English used learning strategies more frequently than students majoring in other subjects. (2) Meta-cognitive strategy was the most effective and Affective strategy was the least effective strategy used by both groups. (3) There were significant differences among the strategies used between English and non-English education majors. English education majors appeared to use strategies more than other majors. (4) The effectiveness of learning strategy used between English and non-English education major students was significantly different. English education majors were more effective using strategies than students majoring in other subjects. From the results of this study, the researcher suggests that teachers should be aware of and understand their student's learning strategies in order to introduce effective strategies to students and motivate them to use different learning strategies. Especially for non-English education major students, teachers should provide and instruct them to use learning strategies more frequently and effectively to reach their desired English level. This article is conducted in Taiwan, but it provides an attractive information and key concepts for my research. It also gives a gape with looking at the different genders using language learning strategies in Cambodian context with university students.

Wu, M. M.-F. (2008). Language Learning Strategy Use of Chinese ESL Learners of Hong Kong-Findings form a Qualitative Study. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching , Vol.5 (No.1), 68-83.

Qualitative data on the use of language learning strategies (LLSs) from 10 Chinese ESL learners studying at a vocational institute were gathered. Results reveal that research participants used a wide variety of metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective LLSs. Social/affective LLSs were found to be more popular than metacognitive and cognitive LLSs among the participants. The more popular LLSs found were: the metacognitive LLSs of advance organization, advance preparation, organizational planning and self-management; the cognitive LLSs of resourcing, grouping, note-taking, summarizing, and translation; and finally the social/affective LLSs of questioning for clarification, co-operation, and positive self-talk. Besides, research participants were found to use different LLSs for different tasks and in different situations. Three contextual factors, namely the role of English in Hong Kong, the education system, and Confucianism, in addition to some learner characteristics, are suggested as possible influences on LLS use. This paper will also discuss the implications of these findings for classroom teaching to Chinese ESL learners. It is recommended that, in promoting the use of LLSs and providing LLS instruction to learners, teachers should take into considerations the influence of contextual factors. Although this research is not conducted in Cambodia, It helps me know which language learning strategies are used most and least which relates to my research I am going to conduct in Cambodia.

Wu, Y.-L. (2008). Language Learning Strategies Used by Students at Different Proficiency Levels. Asian EFL Journal , Vol. 10 (No. 4), 75-95.

This study is designed to determine: (1) whether a statistically significant difference exists in the extent of language learning strategy use between higher proficiency and lower proficiency EFL students; (2) the strength of the effect of language learning strategy use on English proficiency. The study finds that higher proficiency EFL students use learning strategies more often than lower proficiency EFL students, especially cognitive, metacognigive and social strategies. On the other hand, there is no difference in the use of memory strategies between higher and lower proficiency EFL students. Regarding the relationship between language learning strategy and English proficiency, it was found that cognitive strategies had the strongest influence. Findings indicate that compensation strategies are most often used by EFL students. After reading this article, it provides the definition of seven language learning strategies for my research and I can do further research with looking at the different genders and grades in Cambodian context.

Yu, L. (2006). A Survey Of Language Learning Strategies Used By Elementary School Students. CELEA Journal(Bim onthly) , Vol.29 (No.2), 71-77.

This paper relates a study of language learning strategies used by Chinese elementary school students and discusses their relationship to the students scores The results of a students strategy inventory indicate that (1) High-scoring students had a frequent use of the learning strategies, and there were striking differences between high scoring and low-scoring students in their use of the cognitive strategies affective strategies and social strategies. (2) Cognitive strategies and metacognitive strategies demonstrated significant correlation with the scores of high scoring students while cognitive strategies and social strategies demonstrated significant correlation with the scores of low-scoring students. Finally, some practical suggestions are made for English teachers. Even though this research is conducted in China with the elementary students, it is useful for me getting key concept to further research this topic with adult Cambodian EFL university learners.

Zare, P. (2010). An Investigation into Language Learning Strategy Use and Gender among Iranian Undergraduate Language Learners. World Applied Sciences Journal , 11 (10), 1238-1247.

The present study focuses on determining the language learning strategy use of undergraduate Iranian language learners in learning English as a foreign language. Moreover, the study determines how the use of learning strategies varies according to gender. One hundred and forty eight students were selected through cluster random sampling to participate in the study. the strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used to elicit information on the use of language learning strategies. The collected data were analyzed though descriptive statistics to determine the frequency and type of learning strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners. Chi-square test was also employed to determine how the use of learning strategies varied according to gender. The findings of the study reveal that Iranian undergraduate EFL learners can be strategies as medium strategy users. The findings also show that the overall use of language learning strategies significantly varied according to gender. Female EFL learner significantly prevailed over males in the use of learning strategies. This article is conducted in Iran, but it provides some key concepts and further with language learning strategies in different grades which I am going to conduct my research in Cambodian context.

Zhou, Y. ( 2010). English Language Learning Strategy Use by Chinese Senior High School Students. English Language Teaching , Vol. 3 ( No. 4), 152-159.

Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students' learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person's education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that Chinese senior high school students use compensation strategies most frequently; that significant differences exist between male students and female students with female students using strategies more frequently than males; and that differences also exist in the strategy use among the three grades. The reasons for these differences in strategy use by Chinese senior high school students are discussed and implications for the future language learning strategy training and English teaching are put forward. This article is conducted in China, but it gives me a useful definition of the term, and it is better for me doing this research with adult Cambodian EFL learners with the key concept in this research.

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