Issues in Adult Learning Programmes

3788 words (15 pages) Essay

9th Jul 2018 Education Reference this

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CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Introduction

This section shows a synopsis of the results, implications and conclusion of the research, and afterward gives proposals to further research. At the outset, the research was to explore whether certain demographic social-economic variables affected the view and experiences adult learners received at a further education institution. Rather than observing the adult learner through a universal philosophy of one best approach, this research tried to decide the level of discrepancy in the perception of adult learners across different areas of teaching and learning.

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Discussion

The running of adult education is a massive industry of huge significance to the UK. As rivalry increments in the industry it will turn out to be progressively imperative to take part in wide-ranging customer research. In this way this research was intended to test the observations and encounters of adult learners on a further education course. The research uncovered a few issues that assumed a part in their choice to study. The most alluring bait was the chance to gain a qualification. Further inspirations included local further training, chance to create and enhance basic skills it was uncovered by those individuals who left school with no formal skills.

In addition, the results likewise uncovered that learners were inspired to learn for own development. They saw learning process as an experience which developed them personally and mentally. They are happy about new ways of thinking and moving themselves into the digital age, which empowers development and freedom. For a few adult learners, this was their first time into adult education. They felt an increase in self-assurance and pride in what they have accomplished. Adult learners look at a bigger picture, seeing learning as a long haul asset in professional success and deep rooted self-awareness. Adding to their point was they see education as mode to expand and develop their ability for thinking and acting locally and nationally so as to improve the capability of their life directions.

Learning accomplishes more than academic improvement and self-awareness. As highlighted by majority of the students it also enhances their employment prospects. The research shows that for adult learners, a further education college is a site of important learning that goes past vocational planning. The learner’s in this research felt they had changed considerably as a consequence of their involvement.

Practically every one of the learners given a questionnaire and those taking part in focus group were extremely happy they had returned to FE and said that they had an exceptionally positive experience in spite of challenges with finance, juggling other responsibilities and assessments. Most came to FE as a result of the level and structure of the course(s) on offer or in view of the adaptability of the course to address their wants. Some were obligatory to go to the course through their job advisor at the Job Centre.

The participants in the research offered some reasons why they chose to come back into education. Not having worked or being struck in an unsatisfying job, becoming unemployed and a yearning for a qualification were ordinarily expressed purposes behind the choice to go back into education. There were as well other factors, for example, children grown up or started school that allowed learners to come back into education; suggestions from friends and family also helped. Noteworthy too was some affinity for learning and education and, by and large, a long-held desire to go back and an inclination that they had missed out a major opportunity by not seeking education earlier. The focus group, nonetheless, uncovered that there were other complex inspirations best comprehended with regards to the individual’s life.

The research was carried out in order to look at whether certain demographic social-economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, mandatory/voluntary attendance, and children at home influenced the perception of adult learners concerning their experiences at an FE institution.

Findings in this research recommended that there was a considerable connection between the age of an adult learner and whether it had an impact on their perception when it came to their educators providing feedback. In this research, it creates the impression that the older the learner, the more prominent the probability that respondents were more favourable to the different parts of teaching and learning than young learners. Findings in this research are consistent with past research, which recommends that while all learners require help with evaluating their learning, many adult learners feel uncertain about their learning capacities, and need direct and significant feedback (Clardy, 2005). The literature is full with conclusions that feedback helps to reinforce the learner’s recently learned knowledge, and also give recommendations to change (Knowles, 1984; Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). Learners need acknowledgment about their learning in the event that it is viewed as well done; if correction is given, it additionally adds to their change (Knowles, 1990).

The older adult learners become the more they want thorough and consistent feedback (Lowry, 2006). This research uncovered that those learners in the older age groups (between the ages of 46 and 55) were less happy with feedback received from educators than learners in the younger age groups (between the ages of 25 and 35). There was no major relationship found between the age of the adult learner and whether age impacted learners’ perception when it came to the remaining aspects of teaching and learning.

There is a lot of research literature with information about the relative impact ethnicity has on adult development and perception (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999), and that numerous minority learners encounter trouble learning in situations developed inside an ethnic model not the same as their own (Chavez and Guido-DiBrito, 1999).

Findings from this research reinforce past research writing that adult learners’ ethnic origin affected their perception concerning whether their educators had made the learning interesting. Contrasts were found among the ethnic groupings; most remarkably amongst White British and Asian learners. In such manner, the information in this research showed that White British learners were the most happy with how their educators made the learning interesting; while Asian learners were the least pleased. In the rest of the research, there was no major relationship found between the ethnicity of the adult learner and whether it impacted learners’ perception when it came to the remaining aspects of teaching and learning.

Past research suggests that there are gender related examples in how both genders perceived the importance of their learning experiences (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). While looking at the gender variable, findings in this research demonstrate that gender impacted the learners’ perception when it came to the ‘Quality and accessibility of the learning materials’. Male learners were less happy with the quality and accessibility of the learning materials than females.

Existing writing on this subject demonstrates that adult learners learn in a range of ways (Knowles, 1998); subsequently, adult learners should be provided with methodologies to adjust the learning materials to suit their individual learning styles. Variety of materials can increase the adult learners’ interest, inspiration and fulfilment with their instructional experience.

In the rest of the research, there was no major relationship found between the gender of the adult learner and whether it impacted learners’ perception when it came to the remaining aspects of teaching and learning.

When looking at literature relating to mandatory or voluntary attendance (initial assessment), the data suggested that the initial assessment affected the view in how learners perceived learning and how there educator’s understood them. In such manner, adult learners who volunteered to come back into education were more positive to specific parts of learning than the individuals who were mandated to attend. In all aspects of teaching and learning those who came into education on their own accord were happier and more motivated in their learning. This is illustrated in existing research which shows that unemployed learners on a mandatory government funded course are less happy and less motivated.

Findings in this research showed that there were significant variances in the perception of learners who were married rather than the individuals who were single. The information found in this research back the accompanying arguments; the marital status of learners impacted their view of their educators’ knowledge of the subject matter. Single learners were the happiest with their educators’ knowledge of the subject. Separated or divorced learners were somewhat less satisfied, and married learners were the least happy with the educators’ knowledge of the subject. The percent distributions of learner response, as categorised by marital status can be found in Table 1 of Appendix.

Past research literatures demonstrate that educators’ information of the subject is thought to be the fundamental trait for effective teaching and learning (Knowles, 1990). With the end goal for learners to assemble their own particular information, their educators must have a thorough comprehension of significant ideas in the subject they teach (Cross, 1987). Adult learners enter their education experiences with previous knowledge and experiences they have collected over their lifetimes. When adult learners learn something new, they try to integrate it with their previous knowledge (Knowles, 1990).

While looking at whether there was a measurable contrast in the view of adult learners by the number of children and certain parts of teaching they received. In such manner, adult learners with children were better to specific parts of teaching than those without any children.

Adult learners confront major difficulties when taking part in further education. Family obligations and duties pose commanding obstructions for adult learners (Cross, 1987). Learners in this research with two children seem, by all accounts, to be most happy with the quality and accessibility of the teaching materials than they counterparts in this research. The least pleased with the quality and accessibility of the teaching materials were learners with one or no children at home. The percent distributions of learner response, as categorised by marital status can be found in Table 1 of Appendix.

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The findings had shown that adult learners endure to manage the issues identified with various demographic factors. The indication from the questionnaire and focus group demonstrates that the vast majority of these learners experienced issues in juggling home and learning so they have been depending on their families to keep up this stability.

Adult learners seeking education in the FE institution encounter a horde of difficulties. As expressed in the findings age and ethnicity were important challenges when it came to learning. Eastern Europeans and Pakistani learners specifically had highlighted that they experienced issues communicating their perspectives in the classroom because of language barrier. Most learners thought that they didn’t have enough self-confidence in class on account of insufficient social interaction. A few learners thought that it was difficult to adjust to the different type of teaching. For example a learner in the focus group said that their previous education was classroom teacher teaching from the front. In this way greater part of the learners viewed learner inclusion as another encounter. They would rather have an educator teaching them directly as opposed to working alongside exercise manuals or in small groups.

The conclusions demonstrated that numerous adult learners may have diverse ideas of information and feel good with surface learning styles. Reprimanding and testing other’s feeling was viewed as troublesome. Ballard and Clancy (1997) clarified that it is critical to perceive the adult learners’ distinctive presumptions and states of mind to knowledge. This findings bolsters the past research that learning in the classroom is mostly created by the past encounters and presumptions from culture contrasts. Most adult learners are frequently thought to be quite in the class, and in this review most participates expressed that they were hesitant to make inquiries in class. Their reasons exposed a few perspectives, for example, absence of certainty and lack of comprehension. In any case, a few learners contended that the motivation behind why they didn’t make inquiries was that they needed to think about the substance conveyed after class. This finding is steady with Cortazzi and Jin (1996) contention that some adult learners are not inactive but rather intelligent and they need some time to absorb the information to make a sound judgment. At the end of the day, FE educators seemed to connect more significance to useful abilities as opposed to hypothetical learning.

Adult learners face many difficulties and challenges. Keeping in mind the end goal to beat these difficulties learner needs to create mindfulness, understanding and have sufficient support to manage diverse issues. The learners have uncovered that they get more support from other learners and their family. Adult learners originate from a diverse of demographic background with differing methods for seeing things. Some conveyed that educators’ contribution has been incredible. The direction and help they offer during the introduction period, class exchanges and feedback was accounted for to have contributed immensely to their academic enrichment.

Nevertheless, learners seemed, by all accounts, to be unsatisfied with a portion of the teaching. Along these lines, they have proposed that the institution needs to give more developed criticism to help learners who are mature, and make learning including exercise manuals all the more intriguing.

Summary

This part has depicted various issues identified with adult learners’ coveted to learning. The study uncovered that adult learners choice to study was a compelling of push and pull elements. The results additionally recommend that irrespective of the difference of socioeconomics in which the adult learner originate from actually they all have one principle objective they shared, that is to accomplish basic skills. Though, the ride back to learning was not a simple procedure and the findings have revealed these boundaries which serve to annihilate the chain of studying, for example, age, ethnicity and family. The part likewise has demonstrated the components which serve to cripple the enthusiasm, inspiration and strength of adult learners to be specific language barriers and age. The following section takes a look at the conclusions drawn from the research, addresses suggestions for the review and makes proposals.

CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The aim of this study was to explore the experience and perception of the adult learner. To see whether certain demographic social economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, looking after children and voluntary or mandatory attendance influenced these perceptions and experience. Instead of viewing the adult learner within a universal philosophy of adult learning, the study attempted to determine the degree of discrepancy in the perception of adult learners.

As more and more adult learners select further education institutions, it will be essential for these institutions to deliver ideal learning situations to their adult learners (Nesbit, 2001). Coordinating educational techniques to the abilities and necessities of adult learners has turned out to be one of the greatest matters confronting further education institutions (Ackerman, 1998). With a specific end goal to create educational methods that are adapted to meet the particular needs and goals of the adult learner populace, it turns out to be progressively obvious that these institutions should have a more noteworthy comprehension about how it will serve this constantly expanding number of adult learners (Merriam & Brockett, 1996). While past research plans have concentrated on the extraordinary needs and necessities of adult learners, few reviews have centred of the impacts of educating and learning and how it might affect adult learners (Nesbit, 2001). As the age of the UK population grows, it is normal that there will be an expansion in the intake of non-traditional learners. This change will affect further education institutions as far as how they will serve this ever growing populace. Clearly, there will be a huge need to adjust the way in which this populace will be educated.

Discussion

The learners in this research found their time in further education pleasant and useful; nevertheless, the findings offer some insight about the working of the industry.

The expansion in numbers of adult learners in further education arose by default, much like the development of further education in general, with no expressed strategies or target standards. This should be addressed to with regards to a review of the role and purpose behind the sector.

At present, while further education for the most part is comprehensive in its approach and practice, there is no consistency between further education institutions. This as a result capitulates it over to the program administrators or those on the frontline in interviewing new learners to understand admission rules and procedures. In a period of great demand for places and in a framework whose fundamental expressed reason for existing is to get ready learners for business, adult learners, particularly older learners, might be viewed as less worthy of a place than younger learners. In this specific situation, it is critical to ask how further education institution can reinforce a promise to enhancing access and achievement and improving the experience of non-conventional learners. This could include taking a look at targets and standards and liaising with community training facilitators and adult education institutions. In any case, these areas work independently with almost no consideration given to co-operation or empowering learner movement.

Further education offers progression courses to higher education particularly essential for the individuals who lack traditional admission prerequisites. Many adult learners don’t come to further education aiming to progress but, having come through to further education, many progress more higher. Closer cooperation between the FE and HE institutions undoubtedly should be created. This could incorporate the growth of access courses or taking a look at different provisions, for example, those in Warwick college in the UK whose 2+2 degree offers adults who do not have any formal qualification a chance to study for a degree by putting in two years in a further education institution (the equivalent of one year of a traditional degree) and the last two year in the university.

In spite of the fact that there have been strategies set up for a long time at government level which urge access to HE by non-traditional groups, no such strategies exist for FE. This mirrors FE’s second level status and the unsatisfactory quality of these structures for what happens in the sector.

At the FE college level helpful and positive attitudes of educators and others were considered of key significance by the learners and crucial to their prosperity. This was especially imperative when things got challenging. Having informal access to staff that is eager to give their time and listen was exceedingly valued.

Recommendations

Rather than observing the adult learner inside the one viewpoint, this research analysed the variance in the perception held by adult learners at a FE institution in north of England. While this research discovered measurably important relationships between adult learners when categorised by certain demographic socio-economic factors, it was distinctly clear that there are still various factors that have not been analysed. Thus, the following recommendations are offered. It is suggested that this research be reproduced. This research found that there were factors that swayed the change in adult learners’ perception with respect to their educational experience. While this research was led in one department of a FE College, there is a need to extend to incorporate the whole college and other FE institutions in the north of England to see whether comparative outcome will be achieved. Aside from expanding the number of participation, future research studies ought to find a way to guarantee that the populace incorporates a more noteworthy representation of learners based upon ethnicity, social class, gender and marital status.

In regards to further education institutions it is recommended that they create strategies that will cater for the needs and aspirations of adult learners.

Summary

The information picked up in this research on adult learners’ encounter, their impression of learning and struggles with education all have a part in the management of proficient learning. Brookfield (1989) notes that learning is not a vacuum but rather has its relationship to learners other demographic social-economic factors. Providing adult learners an environment that imparts the ideals of life experience, helpful feedback, acknowledgment of self-uncertainty, and support in building up the capacity to adapt to demands is to give the adult learner space to develop and to change. With no claims to generalisation, this research uses participants own stories and grounded hypothesis to highlight the experience of a group of adult learners and to build comprehension of the factors that contribute to it. It is trusted that this will contribute to an understanding of what goes on in FE College and what it offers adult learners and its imperative role in education in the UK.

CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Introduction

This section shows a synopsis of the results, implications and conclusion of the research, and afterward gives proposals to further research. At the outset, the research was to explore whether certain demographic social-economic variables affected the view and experiences adult learners received at a further education institution. Rather than observing the adult learner through a universal philosophy of one best approach, this research tried to decide the level of discrepancy in the perception of adult learners across different areas of teaching and learning.

Discussion

The running of adult education is a massive industry of huge significance to the UK. As rivalry increments in the industry it will turn out to be progressively imperative to take part in wide-ranging customer research. In this way this research was intended to test the observations and encounters of adult learners on a further education course. The research uncovered a few issues that assumed a part in their choice to study. The most alluring bait was the chance to gain a qualification. Further inspirations included local further training, chance to create and enhance basic skills it was uncovered by those individuals who left school with no formal skills.

In addition, the results likewise uncovered that learners were inspired to learn for own development. They saw learning process as an experience which developed them personally and mentally. They are happy about new ways of thinking and moving themselves into the digital age, which empowers development and freedom. For a few adult learners, this was their first time into adult education. They felt an increase in self-assurance and pride in what they have accomplished. Adult learners look at a bigger picture, seeing learning as a long haul asset in professional success and deep rooted self-awareness. Adding to their point was they see education as mode to expand and develop their ability for thinking and acting locally and nationally so as to improve the capability of their life directions.

Learning accomplishes more than academic improvement and self-awareness. As highlighted by majority of the students it also enhances their employment prospects. The research shows that for adult learners, a further education college is a site of important learning that goes past vocational planning. The learner’s in this research felt they had changed considerably as a consequence of their involvement.

Practically every one of the learners given a questionnaire and those taking part in focus group were extremely happy they had returned to FE and said that they had an exceptionally positive experience in spite of challenges with finance, juggling other responsibilities and assessments. Most came to FE as a result of the level and structure of the course(s) on offer or in view of the adaptability of the course to address their wants. Some were obligatory to go to the course through their job advisor at the Job Centre.

The participants in the research offered some reasons why they chose to come back into education. Not having worked or being struck in an unsatisfying job, becoming unemployed and a yearning for a qualification were ordinarily expressed purposes behind the choice to go back into education. There were as well other factors, for example, children grown up or started school that allowed learners to come back into education; suggestions from friends and family also helped. Noteworthy too was some affinity for learning and education and, by and large, a long-held desire to go back and an inclination that they had missed out a major opportunity by not seeking education earlier. The focus group, nonetheless, uncovered that there were other complex inspirations best comprehended with regards to the individual’s life.

The research was carried out in order to look at whether certain demographic social-economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, mandatory/voluntary attendance, and children at home influenced the perception of adult learners concerning their experiences at an FE institution.

Findings in this research recommended that there was a considerable connection between the age of an adult learner and whether it had an impact on their perception when it came to their educators providing feedback. In this research, it creates the impression that the older the learner, the more prominent the probability that respondents were more favourable to the different parts of teaching and learning than young learners. Findings in this research are consistent with past research, which recommends that while all learners require help with evaluating their learning, many adult learners feel uncertain about their learning capacities, and need direct and significant feedback (Clardy, 2005). The literature is full with conclusions that feedback helps to reinforce the learner’s recently learned knowledge, and also give recommendations to change (Knowles, 1984; Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). Learners need acknowledgment about their learning in the event that it is viewed as well done; if correction is given, it additionally adds to their change (Knowles, 1990).

The older adult learners become the more they want thorough and consistent feedback (Lowry, 2006). This research uncovered that those learners in the older age groups (between the ages of 46 and 55) were less happy with feedback received from educators than learners in the younger age groups (between the ages of 25 and 35). There was no major relationship found between the age of the adult learner and whether age impacted learners’ perception when it came to the remaining aspects of teaching and learning.

There is a lot of research literature with information about the relative impact ethnicity has on adult development and perception (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999), and that numerous minority learners encounter trouble learning in situations developed inside an ethnic model not the same as their own (Chavez and Guido-DiBrito, 1999).

Findings from this research reinforce past research writing that adult learners’ ethnic origin affected their perception concerning whether their educators had made the learning interesting. Contrasts were found among the ethnic groupings; most remarkably amongst White British and Asian learners. In such manner, the information in this research showed that White British learners were the most happy with how their educators made the learning interesting; while Asian learners were the least pleased. In the rest of the research, there was no major relationship found between the ethnicity of the adult learner and whether it impacted learners’ perception when it came to the remaining aspects of teaching and learning.

Past research suggests that there are gender related examples in how both genders perceived the importance of their learning experiences (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999). While looking at the gender variable, findings in this research demonstrate that gender impacted the learners’ perception when it came to the ‘Quality and accessibility of the learning materials’. Male learners were less happy with the quality and accessibility of the learning materials than females.

Existing writing on this subject demonstrates that adult learners learn in a range of ways (Knowles, 1998); subsequently, adult learners should be provided with methodologies to adjust the learning materials to suit their individual learning styles. Variety of materials can increase the adult learners’ interest, inspiration and fulfilment with their instructional experience.

In the rest of the research, there was no major relationship found between the gender of the adult learner and whether it impacted learners’ perception when it came to the remaining aspects of teaching and learning.

When looking at literature relating to mandatory or voluntary attendance (initial assessment), the data suggested that the initial assessment affected the view in how learners perceived learning and how there educator’s understood them. In such manner, adult learners who volunteered to come back into education were more positive to specific parts of learning than the individuals who were mandated to attend. In all aspects of teaching and learning those who came into education on their own accord were happier and more motivated in their learning. This is illustrated in existing research which shows that unemployed learners on a mandatory government funded course are less happy and less motivated.

Findings in this research showed that there were significant variances in the perception of learners who were married rather than the individuals who were single. The information found in this research back the accompanying arguments; the marital status of learners impacted their view of their educators’ knowledge of the subject matter. Single learners were the happiest with their educators’ knowledge of the subject. Separated or divorced learners were somewhat less satisfied, and married learners were the least happy with the educators’ knowledge of the subject. The percent distributions of learner response, as categorised by marital status can be found in Table 1 of Appendix.

Past research literatures demonstrate that educators’ information of the subject is thought to be the fundamental trait for effective teaching and learning (Knowles, 1990). With the end goal for learners to assemble their own particular information, their educators must have a thorough comprehension of significant ideas in the subject they teach (Cross, 1987). Adult learners enter their education experiences with previous knowledge and experiences they have collected over their lifetimes. When adult learners learn something new, they try to integrate it with their previous knowledge (Knowles, 1990).

While looking at whether there was a measurable contrast in the view of adult learners by the number of children and certain parts of teaching they received. In such manner, adult learners with children were better to specific parts of teaching than those without any children.

Adult learners confront major difficulties when taking part in further education. Family obligations and duties pose commanding obstructions for adult learners (Cross, 1987). Learners in this research with two children seem, by all accounts, to be most happy with the quality and accessibility of the teaching materials than they counterparts in this research. The least pleased with the quality and accessibility of the teaching materials were learners with one or no children at home. The percent distributions of learner response, as categorised by marital status can be found in Table 1 of Appendix.

The findings had shown that adult learners endure to manage the issues identified with various demographic factors. The indication from the questionnaire and focus group demonstrates that the vast majority of these learners experienced issues in juggling home and learning so they have been depending on their families to keep up this stability.

Adult learners seeking education in the FE institution encounter a horde of difficulties. As expressed in the findings age and ethnicity were important challenges when it came to learning. Eastern Europeans and Pakistani learners specifically had highlighted that they experienced issues communicating their perspectives in the classroom because of language barrier. Most learners thought that they didn’t have enough self-confidence in class on account of insufficient social interaction. A few learners thought that it was difficult to adjust to the different type of teaching. For example a learner in the focus group said that their previous education was classroom teacher teaching from the front. In this way greater part of the learners viewed learner inclusion as another encounter. They would rather have an educator teaching them directly as opposed to working alongside exercise manuals or in small groups.

The conclusions demonstrated that numerous adult learners may have diverse ideas of information and feel good with surface learning styles. Reprimanding and testing other’s feeling was viewed as troublesome. Ballard and Clancy (1997) clarified that it is critical to perceive the adult learners’ distinctive presumptions and states of mind to knowledge. This findings bolsters the past research that learning in the classroom is mostly created by the past encounters and presumptions from culture contrasts. Most adult learners are frequently thought to be quite in the class, and in this review most participates expressed that they were hesitant to make inquiries in class. Their reasons exposed a few perspectives, for example, absence of certainty and lack of comprehension. In any case, a few learners contended that the motivation behind why they didn’t make inquiries was that they needed to think about the substance conveyed after class. This finding is steady with Cortazzi and Jin (1996) contention that some adult learners are not inactive but rather intelligent and they need some time to absorb the information to make a sound judgment. At the end of the day, FE educators seemed to connect more significance to useful abilities as opposed to hypothetical learning.

Adult learners face many difficulties and challenges. Keeping in mind the end goal to beat these difficulties learner needs to create mindfulness, understanding and have sufficient support to manage diverse issues. The learners have uncovered that they get more support from other learners and their family. Adult learners originate from a diverse of demographic background with differing methods for seeing things. Some conveyed that educators’ contribution has been incredible. The direction and help they offer during the introduction period, class exchanges and feedback was accounted for to have contributed immensely to their academic enrichment.

Nevertheless, learners seemed, by all accounts, to be unsatisfied with a portion of the teaching. Along these lines, they have proposed that the institution needs to give more developed criticism to help learners who are mature, and make learning including exercise manuals all the more intriguing.

Summary

This part has depicted various issues identified with adult learners’ coveted to learning. The study uncovered that adult learners choice to study was a compelling of push and pull elements. The results additionally recommend that irrespective of the difference of socioeconomics in which the adult learner originate from actually they all have one principle objective they shared, that is to accomplish basic skills. Though, the ride back to learning was not a simple procedure and the findings have revealed these boundaries which serve to annihilate the chain of studying, for example, age, ethnicity and family. The part likewise has demonstrated the components which serve to cripple the enthusiasm, inspiration and strength of adult learners to be specific language barriers and age. The following section takes a look at the conclusions drawn from the research, addresses suggestions for the review and makes proposals.

CHAPTER VI: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The aim of this study was to explore the experience and perception of the adult learner. To see whether certain demographic social economic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, looking after children and voluntary or mandatory attendance influenced these perceptions and experience. Instead of viewing the adult learner within a universal philosophy of adult learning, the study attempted to determine the degree of discrepancy in the perception of adult learners.

As more and more adult learners select further education institutions, it will be essential for these institutions to deliver ideal learning situations to their adult learners (Nesbit, 2001). Coordinating educational techniques to the abilities and necessities of adult learners has turned out to be one of the greatest matters confronting further education institutions (Ackerman, 1998). With a specific end goal to create educational methods that are adapted to meet the particular needs and goals of the adult learner populace, it turns out to be progressively obvious that these institutions should have a more noteworthy comprehension about how it will serve this constantly expanding number of adult learners (Merriam & Brockett, 1996). While past research plans have concentrated on the extraordinary needs and necessities of adult learners, few reviews have centred of the impacts of educating and learning and how it might affect adult learners (Nesbit, 2001). As the age of the UK population grows, it is normal that there will be an expansion in the intake of non-traditional learners. This change will affect further education institutions as far as how they will serve this ever growing populace. Clearly, there will be a huge need to adjust the way in which this populace will be educated.

Discussion

The learners in this research found their time in further education pleasant and useful; nevertheless, the findings offer some insight about the working of the industry.

The expansion in numbers of adult learners in further education arose by default, much like the development of further education in general, with no expressed strategies or target standards. This should be addressed to with regards to a review of the role and purpose behind the sector.

At present, while further education for the most part is comprehensive in its approach and practice, there is no consistency between further education institutions. This as a result capitulates it over to the program administrators or those on the frontline in interviewing new learners to understand admission rules and procedures. In a period of great demand for places and in a framework whose fundamental expressed reason for existing is to get ready learners for business, adult learners, particularly older learners, might be viewed as less worthy of a place than younger learners. In this specific situation, it is critical to ask how further education institution can reinforce a promise to enhancing access and achievement and improving the experience of non-conventional learners. This could include taking a look at targets and standards and liaising with community training facilitators and adult education institutions. In any case, these areas work independently with almost no consideration given to co-operation or empowering learner movement.

Further education offers progression courses to higher education particularly essential for the individuals who lack traditional admission prerequisites. Many adult learners don’t come to further education aiming to progress but, having come through to further education, many progress more higher. Closer cooperation between the FE and HE institutions undoubtedly should be created. This could incorporate the growth of access courses or taking a look at different provisions, for example, those in Warwick college in the UK whose 2+2 degree offers adults who do not have any formal qualification a chance to study for a degree by putting in two years in a further education institution (the equivalent of one year of a traditional degree) and the last two year in the university.

In spite of the fact that there have been strategies set up for a long time at government level which urge access to HE by non-traditional groups, no such strategies exist for FE. This mirrors FE’s second level status and the unsatisfactory quality of these structures for what happens in the sector.

At the FE college level helpful and positive attitudes of educators and others were considered of key significance by the learners and crucial to their prosperity. This was especially imperative when things got challenging. Having informal access to staff that is eager to give their time and listen was exceedingly valued.

Recommendations

Rather than observing the adult learner inside the one viewpoint, this research analysed the variance in the perception held by adult learners at a FE institution in north of England. While this research discovered measurably important relationships between adult learners when categorised by certain demographic socio-economic factors, it was distinctly clear that there are still various factors that have not been analysed. Thus, the following recommendations are offered. It is suggested that this research be reproduced. This research found that there were factors that swayed the change in adult learners’ perception with respect to their educational experience. While this research was led in one department of a FE College, there is a need to extend to incorporate the whole college and other FE institutions in the north of England to see whether comparative outcome will be achieved. Aside from expanding the number of participation, future research studies ought to find a way to guarantee that the populace incorporates a more noteworthy representation of learners based upon ethnicity, social class, gender and marital status.

In regards to further education institutions it is recommended that they create strategies that will cater for the needs and aspirations of adult learners.

Summary

The information picked up in this research on adult learners’ encounter, their impression of learning and struggles with education all have a part in the management of proficient learning. Brookfield (1989) notes that learning is not a vacuum but rather has its relationship to learners other demographic social-economic factors. Providing adult learners an environment that imparts the ideals of life experience, helpful feedback, acknowledgment of self-uncertainty, and support in building up the capacity to adapt to demands is to give the adult learner space to develop and to change. With no claims to generalisation, this research uses participants own stories and grounded hypothesis to highlight the experience of a group of adult learners and to build comprehension of the factors that contribute to it. It is trusted that this will contribute to an understanding of what goes on in FE College and what it offers adult learners and its imperative role in education in the UK.

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