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Classroom management is a term used by the teacher to ensure the class run smoothly through the whole lesson. According to Moskowitz & Hayman (1976), once a teacher loses control of their classroom, it becomes more difficult for them to regain back the control (Moskowitz & Hayman, 1976, p.Â 283)). Other than that, a research from Berliner (1988) and Brophy & Good (1986) shows that the time that teacher has to take to correct misbehavior caused by poor classroom management skills results in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom (Berliner, 1988, p.Â 310; Brophy & Good, 1986, p.Â 335).Â Several aspects such as classroom layout, classroom language and classroom climate can be looked into in order to ensure the class run smoothly through the lesson.
2.0 Classroom layout
Desk orientation, bulletin board display, classroom decoration and classroom peripheral are several things that are considered as classroom layout. Around the world, there are several layout that have been seen such as traditional, restaurant, islands, horseshoe, seminar, laboratory, looking out, circle, story, chevrons and semi-circle (Wright 2005). However, among all of the classroom layout listed, restaurant and island layout two are widely use. For restaurant layout, the desks are arranged in random. It is often permanent or semi-permanent. Restaurant layout are useful for a class that doing a lot of small group activities. Island layout is a layout of regular grouping. It can be created by modifying benches so that the students on odd number can fit in. this layout are more or less the same as the restaurant layout but island layout are more carefully arranged (see appendix B (classroom layout)). The way of the student desks being organized shows the teachers teaching style. When the students walk in the class, the students will immediately knows whether they will be working as a group with other student or they are required to do the work individually. In a class, different grade level of student may result in a different desk arrangement but, the traditional layout of rows of individual desks may not provide the best learning environment for the students. In order to promote the collaboration, restaurant or island layout is the best choice since the layout group the students together. By grouping the students together, the student can shared learning experience, group discussion and small group activities. To promote the sense of unity of the whole class, arrange the class to circle layout, story layout or semi-circle layout. The displays around the class will tell the student the things that they have learned during the previous class. By displaying the students effort on the bulletin boards will inspire student and increase their motivation to learn. Besides, it will also promote learning to the students. Other than that, displaying a lot of books at the student's level, a comfortable carpet and providing a reading space will encourage the students to read more often. Providing a clearly marked area for the students to place their homework will make the class more organize. It is important to create an environment that make the student feel loved, safe and excited to learn.
3.0 Classroom Language
Classroom languages are used throughout the lesson in the class. From the beginning of the class until the end of the class, every teacher use classroom language to talk to the students. Classroom language is the kind of language used to communicate in the class without using the mother tongue. There are a few ways of presenting classroom language. It can be presented from the student, from the teacher, from the reading material and the real situation in class. The words used by the student such as 'May I come in?' are one example of the classroom language. Another example is 'Excuse me.' The language by the students ought to be more polite if they talk to the teachers. It is not the same when they talk to their peers. In the real situation in class, the teacher might face the misbehavior student in the class. The choice of word from the teacher is a part of the language in the class. For example, if a student making off-task noise in the class and the teacher want him or her to stay quiet. Instead of saying shut up, the teacher will say could you please be quiet. This way, the students are more prompt to follow the order of the teacher. The classroom language also applied when the teacher giving instruction about the task, monitoring the work of students, asking permission and also when the students ask questions to the teacher. The reason for getting the student to communicating is because it represents a necessary stage in transfer the classroom learning to the outside world. When the students are communicating to each other, they are actually enhanced the learning. The arguments between peers are making them to go through the process of sharing their idea and improve the understanding of the certain topic.
4.0 Classroom climate
Maintaining a good classroom climate is importance in order to have a better learning atmosphere and maintain the focus of the student towards lesson in the class. Classroom climate is referred to learning environment, as well as the atmosphere, ambience and ecology. (Adelman & Taylor 2005). In short, classroom climate can be said as the setting of the class. The setting of the class is related to the classroom behavior and learning. A research also suggests the significant relationships between classroom climate and student engagement in class, behavior, achievement, social and emotional development, and overall quality of school life (Fraser 1998; Freiberg 1999). In order to enhance the classroom climate, there are some approaches that can be taken. This includes enhancing the quality of life of the students and the staff in class. A good relationship between the teacher and students are helpful to enhance the good classroom climate. At Comptom Primary School, they have a system called as home schooling. It is a system where a teacher is in charge for a class. This means that, the teacher the students really well such as their names and background. This kind of relationship also helps in the participation of the staff that is the teacher and the students in decision making. They can actually discuss about what they feel and what they want thus help in enhancing the classroom climate. Maintaining and enhancing the positive classroom climate is the main focus of all staff in the school. Having the teacher assistance in the school can increase the teacher ability in the class. In addition, teacher assistance can work with the teacher to improve classroom climate by enhancing and maintaining a positive classroom climate that promote well being and deal with barrier in teaching and learning (Adelman & Taylor 1997). A class consists of students that come with different abilities and it is hard for a teacher to deal with all the students alone. The students with lower ability will sometimes create problems in class thus will result in disrupting the climate of the class. When this happen, teacher assistance will assist the student and help the teacher to deal with the problem. At the same time, this will restore the positive classroom climate. From my visit to the All Saints Academy Plymouth, the teacher have difficulties in controlling the class when a few problematic students and eventually disrupted the climate of the class. There is no assistance that helps the teacher to deal with and respond to the all of the students. Classroom climate can also be controlled by the physical aspect of the class. The ideal classroom will have a good lighting for the class. This is refers to clean and tidy classroom. A classroom with the positive climate should be attractive, comfortable and well-lighted. Which means the class is not too bright and not too dark (see appendix A (pictures)). This physical aspect such as temperature and noise that are likely affect the student concentration and focus in the class are also effect the classroom climate. The arrangement of the internal feature of the class such as desks and chair is also importance. Maybe the teacher has no control about the size of the class, but the teacher can control the arrangement of the chair and desk inside the class. A good classroom climate in term of space is where the space in the class has been adjusted so that an active interaction may occur in the class. It also permitted the student to see the board clearly and allow the teacher to be close to the student. Classroom climate can also be improved by displaying the students' work on the wall. This can encourage student in their own work and motivate them. However, all the students should have the same opportunity for their work to be displayed on the wall.