Introduction And Concept Of Npe Education Essay

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1st Jan 1970 Education Reference this


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Malaysia is becoming more towards excellent especially in Education. In 1988 According to the Curriculum Development Centre has stated that National Philosophy of Malaysian Education is

“Education in Malaysia is an ongoing process towards further effort in developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner; so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God.” ” Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal wellbeing as well as being able to contribute to the betterment of the society and the nation at large.”

The National Curriculum is

…”an educational programme that includes curriculum and co-curricular activities which encompasses all the knowledge, skills, norms, values, cultural elements and belief to help develop a pupil fully with respect to the physical, spiritual, mental and emotional aspects as well as to enhance and develop desirable moral values and to transmit knowledge”.

The formation of NPE (1998) based on National ideology ( RUKUN NEGARA) ,education policy, education reports, will enlighten pupils to excel, carefully designed by education experts again 1996. The analysis and interpretation of National Philosophy of Education is the teachers and educators must study and interpret its contents. The contents are formed from various factors such as religious, political economic, individual and International. The National Philosophy of Education (FPK) combines the objectives, policies and educational practices to form a consistent, clear and coherent entity. The aims of National Philosophy of Education is rationally explaining the current educational practices as well as facilitates the actions and trends of education in the future. For example believe and devotion in God, responsibility to the society, country and religion , instill tolerant value to foster the unity among people of variety of races, love to the nation and produce individuals that are faithful to the King .

Besides that, the goals of National Philosophy of Education are knowledgeable, believe and devotion in God, possess balanced and firm personality, responsible to the society, religion and nation as well and tolerance to foster unity among people of various races. In addition, produce individuals that are responsible and able to fulfill their duty as good citizen, produce progressive, skillful, and proficient in carrying out their duties perfectly with the aim to contribute towards advancement and development of the nation. Moreover, produce individuals who will be able to understand, accept and abide by the democratic principles, loyal to the King and also love to the nation and lastly understand and practice the national Principle.

The important roles of NPE are an enlighten guidance, direction to nation, basic consideration for objectives of National Education, reference to understand education system, guidance for teachers duties, helps to plan school curriculum, educational programs implemented according to FPK and no misunderstanding, ambiguity or dispute. Furthermore, the implications of FPK on school tradition are teachers and pupils follow closely, realize successfully the aims and aspirations, basic consideration for reformation of education planning like activities, upgrading pupils’ facilities, reorganize social activities for social development, to develop intellectual potentials, ICT, knowledge and also develop unity and social among various races through co-curriculum. While the implications of FPK on education reforms such as Introduction for Educational System, Introduction for Science and Modern Mathematics, Introduction curriculum of KBSR and KBSM, Introduction of Science and local studies, Implementation of the Smart School and Malay language was replaced by English.

Curriculum Concept.

Curriculum and learning materials, known as contents of education or teaching and learning, are the result of intellectual cultures and human experiences based on epistemological theory presented from time to time, and through the teaching by teachers, to fill up the cognitive psychology of children and adolescents in order to allow their growth to develop smoothly without interference.

Definition of Curriculum

“Curriculum covers selected, real and imaginary living experiences. It is organized and arranged carefully and professionally by scholars in the fields of education and curriculum experts. This is to ensure that the various types of real and imaginary learning activities can be implemented in and out of the classroom, and in and out the school, for all levels of schooling.”

Integrated Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) was change to Standard Primary School Curriculum (KSSR). KBSR was introduced in 1982. Whereas , KSSR was introduced in 1993. KSSR was introduced for make a big difference to the education. KSSR was to develop the curriculum to make sure the students be knowledgeable, skills, and values to face the challenges of 21st century. KSSR replacing the existing primary school integrated curriculum. In KSSR which based on a statement of standards , pupil-centered with an emphasis on fun learning, critical and creative thinking to evaluate and generate the ideas, reasoning skills to evaluate using of logical techniques, communication and ICT literacy .However ,the purposes of KBSR was more emphasize towards students mastery in Malay language as their first language .KBSR used study syllabus materials such as essentials of analytical and creative thinking skills.

The curriculum of KSSR design based on 6 areas which are spiritual, attitude, values, humanitarian, physical and Aesthetical Development , Science and Technology and communication whereas KBSR was divided to 3 areas , communication skills to improve students languages on using different languages like Malay and including Tamil and Mandarin, human nature and individual self-development for instance arts and music. Moreover, KBSR gave importance to the 3 basic skills which are reading, writing and calculation while KSSR are 4R’s, reading, writing, listening and reasoning. KSSR curriculum text books replaced new modules and divide the subjects into 3 modules , Basic Principle Modules , Basic Thematic Modules and Basic Elective Modules with the aim of creating holistic and innovative learners as objectives. On the other hand, the objectives of KBSR was to attain new information or ideas , to nurture moral values in students, to cultivate patriotism in students’ soul , love the environment, mastery in Malay language and also 3 basic skills .The strengths of KSSR are good socialization between teachers and students, students concentrate on Mathematics and Science as major subjects in English, students can give importance to co-curriculum activities and less stressful.

The roles of School in Realization the National Philosophy of Education (FPK). School is the first place of main phase in realization of FPK. School plays a crucial role in providing a comfortable and harmonious environment, catering various activities and programmes. Roles of school management in emerging the intellectual, physical, emotional, spiritual and social (JERIS) aspect of student. First and foremost, the role of headmaster, can be considered as a head of the particular school. The main role of the school head can be categories into 4 part, management, curriculum, co–curriculum, behavior and believe of students. The roles of school head is more multifarious that can made up of financial, office management, academic achievement, and mastering 3M in KBSR and 4M skills in KSSR, curriculum progress and communication with the society, teachers, parents and students as well as staff. In addition, headmaster also will responsible for students’ discipline and enforce the rule and regulation of the school.

Secondly, teacher’s role is to teach while the school head’s role is to match the teacher’s job or subjects that according to their abilities and expert on the particular subject. Based on their experiences and abilities, they can work more happily and comfortable as they are motivated in the field. Teacher as a knowledge and skill practitioner, The teachers is a professional is an educator and practitioner in knowledge and skills. He /she is an effective practitioner and analyst who, through teacher education, is competent in applying his/her knowledge in various pedagogic contexts. A teachers provides education for discipline, for knowledge, for character, for life, for growth, for personal fulfillment and aesthetic refinement. A teacher as social agent, The role of teacher as social agent is an important part of of the learning process. This is very closer as different individuals interact with a teacher and other students to widely varying degrees. The teacher plays a number of social roles in the teaching process. The teacher is often a motivator for pupils, encouraging of reproving them as appropriate. The approval of teachers can be a strong motivating factor especially for younger students. The teacher is also an arbiter of success, measuring and quantifying pupil’s efforts. A teacher as a mentor, a mentor is who guides and supports trainees to ease them through hard transitions; it is about smoothing the way , enabling, reassuring as well as directing, managing and instructing. Besides that, mentoring implies a close relationship within which the role model, consultant, advisor, source of wisdom and also as a protector. A mentor will strive to develop individual’s strengths to maximize their professional and personal potential and also students who come under their core within a classroom situation. The teacher as manager, the teacher structure the learning environment. In this role, all decision and actions required to maintain order in the classroom, such as laying rules and procedures for learning activities. Teachers must good in managing a classroom environment. Teachers are environmental engineers who organize the classroom space to fit their goals and to capitalize on learning. Moreover, self-confidence of a teacher with the attention and aptitude are the great weapon in impart knowledge and good moral values among students. If a teacher has lack of interest, he or she will only teaches for the sake of teaching without knowing the needs of the students and without caring of the student’s knowledge. As a result, the student will unable to learn and master and fail to create a good generation as in FPK. A teacher should show a good illustration and love their job for the reason that teacher playing a crucial role in every one future. Besides that, a teacher will become manager and organizer in the classroom, support students and encourage student in learning and be good listener to the student. Teacher educates students of variety of living skills like technical and vocational fields, as well as to fulfill the aspirations and progress of individuals, society and nation according to the aspirations of FPK. The implication of FPK on the roles of teacher is with the declaration of FPK and vision 2020 in 1998 and 1991 respective, the main goal and aspiration of Malaysians to build a united society through the education programme has become clearer. spatial intelignce role of school teachers role

The National curriculum of the school reflects the objective of National Philosophy of education (NPE).By implementing the curriculum effectively in schools, it can develop the students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor (physical) with other potentials (JERIS) in students. By this the institutions can produce ‘ Model Insan’ as for the future generations.

To visualize the objective of National Philosophy of Education (NPE), I have carried out my task on interviewing headmaster and senior assistant at SJK(T)ST.THERESA CONVENT ,TAIPING,PERAK. It is a Tamil primary school. The headmaster’s name is Mr.Sivarathnam while the senior assistant is Mr. Amuthan. I had been informed that almost more than 10 activities would be carried out in their school. However, my interview with them was only about 5 activities that had carried out in their school such as Sports day, Independence month celebration, Teachers day, Co-curriculum activities and School Award day.

Firstly I had interview with the headmaster then followed by senior assistant by asking some questions on Sports Day activity that had done in their school. His first responsibility for the sport day activity is the formation of Sports Council . The aim of the Sports Council was to find students who are enthusiastic, active in extra curricular activities in school, committed, raise standards of students performance and excellent, develop the provision of sport activities and provide technical information and advice the related to sports, recreation and active lifestyle in every student. Headmaster said that definitely Sports day activity based on NPE. This is because, there are several objectives of having Sports day in the school. Firstly, students would have intelligent brain and healthy body. Thus, they will have a big opportunity to focus and concentrate in curriculum and excel in their academic studies. Besides that, students will develop their spirit in athletic competition which will support them to next level for instance, national level. Participating in sport activities also will provide reasonable leadership, develop their skills and gain experiences and knowledge about training and umpiring as well. In addition, encourage participation, learn basic skills and the rules of the games. Apart from that, people who are responsible and playing important role for this activity are manager, coach, headmaster and teachers. The duties of manager are support the coach, organize the equipment that needed for students’ team practice and also during the event, ensure the players know the location where they going to have their practice, day and time for their team practice during Sports day. In addition, manager should check for appropriate uniforms, numbers and time, provide positive models for teams and take equipment outside and set up playing fields. Secondly, the coach who are responsible in involving all players in practice and competition, be fair to all the players in the team, plan active practices, seek advices of teachers and discuss the ideas with the manager and captain. While, the headmaster responsible for the development and implementation of students’ programmes plan for the school sport for instance, choose the location and venues. Besides that, he should evaluate a number of factors in determining the level and type of supervision which needs to be provided during Sports Day such as identify any potential dangers at location that had chosen, numbers of students involved and the maturity of students. Whereas, teachers responsibilities are they should attain knowledge and skills which enable them to deliver a good message and equip students with appropriate instructions and techniques of the sport day. The most important is to ensure the students safety for example students who are injured not allowed them to play. Apart from that, there are some difficulties to manage the students for sports day preparation such as students do not have the interest in mascot activity because it was too hot in the field, they do not enough time to come for practice and training because they busy with their tuition classes, they give priority to the education and neglect the sports activities, they prefer their own time to attend the practice. Some students do not give cooperation among them and lending their hand to help their teachers and also showing negative emotions to the people around them. These problems were influenced by some parents. Parents seems to give less attention to sports activities , they want their children to excel only in academic achievement. These are some objection from parents because they tend to forget that all study and no play would affect the shaping of the children’s personality. So, to fulfill this, sports must be an inevitable part of the school curriculum. However, there were also students who actively participated in all the activities that had organized for example among 500 students, 27 girls participate in cheerleader dance, about 120 students participate in mascot activity according to the uniforms, 10 students at emergency section who are the St. John uniforms and almost 20 students helped teachers to distribute the food to the students and guests. The big benefit during sports day was there was a big amount of sponsor which sponsored by some political leaders approximately RM 125000 to the school based on the preparation and the participation of everyone during the sport day. Finally, the sports day had successfully done by everyone’s support and cooperation. The main supporters were the sport educators, coaches, association members, sponsors, students, parents, district officers and ex-students.

The next activity that had done in the school was Teacher’s Day. The headmaster said that Teacher’s day is a day that being celebrate all over the world. Teacher’s Day celebration are taken to honor and grateful to teachers for their efforts. Teacher’s Day celebrated on 16 May all over the Malaysia. Teacher’s day is one of the best day in the school. The activities that had done for Teacher’s Day celebration in the school were singing grateful songs to thank teachers by students, dancing competition among teachers for example Indian teachers dance Bharatanatyam dance, music chair games, thank giving ceremony and reception class by students. The activities were really grateful to everyone and make everyone happy. Moreover, the objectives of celebrating teacher’s day are to be thankful for and honor teacher for their contribution to the society as well as imparting knowledge, guiding and responsible for students’ future, shaping the minds and careers of students as well. A role of teacher in this earth is influencing and encouraging the children in their formative. In addition, teachers would sit in the classes by assume themselves as a student. This would build a great understanding between teachers and students. Although teachers are challenged by difficult socioeconomic situation, poor knowledge of environment, teachers still are guiding their students towards their learning goals. Next, all the teachers involved in all the activities that had organized. Every teacher enjoyed themselves happily and actively participated in some competitions. Even more than 30 teachers had won some lucky draws. Other than that, the advantages of having Teacher’s day are one opportunity to appreciate the teachers, make students realize the difficulties that faced by teachers to build a good generation, chance of think of the teachers although they are retired. Besides that, the students themselves had take part in some activities during Teachers’ Day. For example students prepared class dinner to all the teachers, students gave presents to their lovely teachers, they create their own poem and present in the event, and they took pictures with their teachers. Moreover, there were several Teachers’ day celebration ideas such as arranged some plays based on Teachers’ day theme, deliver songs, dance performances, invite teachers for a formal dinner at home or bring the teachers for a movie and this would make the interaction between a teacher and a student very well.

Thirdly, co-curriculum day activity had done in SJK(T)ST. Theresa, Taiping . The activities that had been categorized were uniformed groups, performing arts, clubs, societies and games as well. The aims of having this co-curriculum day are to offer a variety of clubs, societies and uniforms. Co- curriculum activities can nurture personal interests and the skills, group work in a team and leadership. Besides that, students are able to gain experiences of leadership through the senior perfect system and counseling opportunities of running the clubs and other areas of school life. Moreover, students can perform their talents to high level, develop student’s self-esteem and team discipline. In addition, this activity will make students to prepare themselves to face challenges in life. Furthermore, students could play a leading role in charity work with their team and to facilitate the development of student’s behavior, attitude, spiritual, intellectual, emotional and physical. The goals of this activity are to enable students to persist a goal of self-realization, nurture mutual support amongst parents and staff, to prepare students to challenge themselves within a supportive framework and finally to aid them to evolve a strong sense of responsibility and appreciation of the importance of service and community. The headmaster’s scope on this activity was he ensured that the activity is well organized, activity is well supervised, and parents were informed of special activities and the associated risks and the funds that were available if expenses are to be involved. The information that taken into headmaster’s account were who are the teachers in charge during co-curriculum day, approximate the cost, numbers and grades of students and safety measures as well. In co-curriculum activity , a students should compulsory participate at least 2 activities. Types of uniform groups are Cadet Police, Junior School Cadet, Girl Guides Movement, John Ambulance Association Malaysia, Red Crescent society, while types of Societies that were offered in that school were drama and literature Association, cultural association, life skills society, Language and Science Association. There were also various types of games such as handball, netball, football, badminton, chess club, tennis club and Gymnastics club. Teachers role in organizing curricular activities are teachers must be a good planner so that the different activities can be carried out systematically. Moreover, teachers ought to give more prospect to students, act as innovator some innovative programmes and also be good organizer.

Independence Day is one the celebration that known as a compulsory activity that should celebrate on August in school. The activities that had done during Independence day in school were cultural program, flag hosting ceremony, students sung national anthem, students create the Malaysian flag with recycling items, declamation of poem, and drama. The objectives of this activity are to appreciate the meaning of Independence Day and strive to maintain the independence, get to know about the personalities and freedom fighters and appreciation their sacrifices to this country. Besides that, they learn to practice to unite the community and appreciate the celebration theme, nurture a closer relationship between teachers and students and create a sense of co-operation between each other. Big level of activity that had done by students and teachers was, create a longest Malaysian flag that length about 55 meter parade band. The teachers had played a big role in preparing and did some arrangement for make the activities or day run successfully. It took about 1 week to organize the schedule. Lastly, the celebration had brought sacrifice to everyone because the nation among feel proud and grateful living in peace. Patriotism implies feelings of solidarity and mutual responsibility among people of different ethnicities and religious backgrounds and instill the spirit of patriotic into every students so that they willing to sacrifice for the country.

The last activity that had carried out in the school was School Award Day. School Award Day was held on 5th November which was on Monday at 3 o’clock 2012. School Award Day will be carried out in all the places such as institutions as an appreciation or reward for the individual’s hardwork that bring success in their field. The goals of having Award Day are to increase the level of achievements among the students, to upgrade the level of achievements and known as an outstanding student, to identify their most promising students and nominate them for goal based on academic achievement and personal leadership. Moreover, the students would have the spirit to achieve outstanding results in their education and co-curriculum activities as well. The programmes that held were sing National song, ‘Negaraku’, some kind of traditional dance such as Barathanathayam, ‘Tarian Zapin’, ‘Balley dance’, performances like Choral Speaking and drama. In addition, next followed by a talk by headmaster, then District Education Officer officiated the Award Day Ceremony successfully. Next, the students were receiving their awards and rewards, last performances and the day end with the closing ceremony by the headmaster. However, some problems that had faced were financial crisis to buy medals and trophy to the winners, teachers were too busy with their personal matters, fewer students were feasible for receiving the award, less sponsorship and others. On the other hand, there were also a number of impacts of having this event like headmaster had a tremendous opportunity to talk with partner, everyone got the chances to chat with their members of school community, chance to reflect on the practice of their school and dangling awards in front of parents were the best effective. Besides that, children are likely to become enthusiastic, life- long learner, engaging curriculum and caring community.

A teacher in classroom comprises into three classifications which are accomplished, expert and graduate. All the teachers would have a primary aims and focus in the classrooms for example preparation, planning, teaching of lessons to achieve specific student outcomes. Teachers play a crucial role in classrooms especially to develop students’ behavior and their learning style. Thus, teacher’s teaching activity that being focused carried out in the classrooms to actualize the National curriculum in the progress of molding the student’s behavior and believes.

The first activity that had carried out in classroom by Miss. Sundari teacher was Ice breakers activity. Ice breaker activity is extremely useful and crucial among students especially in breaking down barriers between students sequentially to facilitate class involvement. This activity makes students to work in groups and enhance the relationship between students and the group processes as well. By having this activity in classrooms has a high opportunity to change students’ behavior to the better. For example, working in groups could dismantle the egoistic between students. The advantages of having this activity in classrooms are students learn to manage their personal needs and what they wanted, increase their productivity and performances , maintain their positive interpersonal relationship, develop their interpersonal skills such as speaking, leadership and motivated, they also inspired a meaningful conversation and lastly they can know more about themselves such as their strengths and weaknesses. The first focuses of the teacher for this activity was achieving important goals through interactions for instance, they want their students to become engaged in learning process and passionate about the subject matter, they want all their students to take part in the activities and learn to work together, students have to form positive attitude and respectful relationships with their students which allow them to learn more effectively from teachers and also teachers learn from them. Second focus was preparing to create an interactive lesson plan for instance, teachers would prepared some contents and objectives that students need to know, for students to understand the concept of filial piety in Romeo and Juliet, for students to learn scientific method and also students to explore diverse perspectives related to a critical social issues. Thirdly, teachers prepared skill objectives that students will perform on that day for example script a play, debate social issues by applying scientific methods. Besides that, what will a teacher do if the students do not interested to try something new although teacher had used the interactive methods in the classroom? The teacher will introduce interactive methods in her class and required them to step outside of their routines. Although teacher offered them an approach that focus on students activity which brings fun to classroom, at first many students prefer to stay on their own comfort zones. In addition, the life skills that gain through this activity was question box, group discussion, group discussion, value clarification, role play, case play, and quiz contest may prove very effective in providing accurate and adequate information to learners but also inculcating positive attitude into them and develop their ability in life skills.

The second activity that carried out by teacher was spatial activities. “Spatial intelligence is the biological computational capacity that focuses on spatial judgment and the ability to process information through visualization.” E The types of activities with spatial intelligence are use shapes and objects, draw and paint, play with colours, love hearing fairy tales like Cinderella, creating objects with their own hands and take things apart to see what they look like inside. The strengths of children with spatial intelligence students can visualize things very well in their mind, they can also manipulated things in their mind space and analyze what the collision of any change will be, they can manipulate and play with physical objects very well and thus, their motor skills will develop. Teachers duties for this activity were get them books which use pictures more than words so that they could understand that easily, provide them a visual stimulated environment where things are within their sight and reach. Besides that, provide them a lot of objects that they needed like clay, paper, balls, blockets. Moreover, teachers use several gestures during describe things like tall, short, happy and sad. The materials that a teacher should have for students with spatial intelligence are crayons, pencils, picture books, puzzles and games like Pictionary. Besides that, teaching various topics to children with spatial intelligence, for example Mathematics subject, the teachers would use objects like toothpicks or plastic coins which can move around and count to teach addition and subtraction While for Science subject would use techniques such as create a collage and animal pictures and help students make simple experiments to understand various concept. The fun activities that improve spatial intelligence and make students to participate actively are Jigsaw puzzles, Tetris, maps and photography.

Thirdly, musical activities in the classroom, children with high level of musical intelligence learn from through the flow of rhythm. Students really love to enjoy musical activities. The importance of having musical activities are music helps individuals gain focus or reach the state of comfort can develop their mental capacity and intellect because there is a connection between music and mathematical thinking. In addition, students could master in physical self for example children develop coordination, which aids muscular development and they began to understand what they can do with their bodies. Nex

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