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Intrinsic and extrinsic are a type of motivation that can be used at work, in life and in school. Ones behavior and age are some other factors, to understanding the use of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. This paper will explain what intrinsic and extrinsic is, how it is used, advantages and disadvantages and which is most benefitting amid the youths in school. Among the students and the theories it will show intrinsic vs. extrinsic and the motivational tools developed to help children achieve.
In the book, “Development of Acheivement Motivation,” by (Wigfield, 2002) states there are three questions that you must ask to determine a persons’ motivational mind set is; “Can I do the activity? Do I want to do the task and why? What do I need to succeed at this activity?” The two motivational tools are intrinsic and extrinsic.” (p16).What is intrinsic? Intrinsic is the yearning to participate in behaviors for no reason, but sheer gratification, pleasure, challenge or curiosity (Lepper, 2005).
How is this motivation tool used among youth is school? Several instructors have used this method in focusing on the challenge and conceptual thinking. In Development of Acheivement Motivation (Wigfield, 2002) states “This is where the instructor motivates the students’ challenges, the conceptual and analytical thinking. It helps to promote the student by fostering greater feeling of competence and isolating the skill part because the more challenging of the work would result in apparent progresses of understanding”, (p312).
Conquering the challenge concepts should also in engender positive emotions such as pride and fulfillment (Wigfield, 2002). These feelings of pride and competence should in turn, prompt intrinsic interest amusement. Many studies are done with in school to show the development among the motivational tools. Survey studies support the postulation that students enjoy work that is thought-provoking, conceptual and surrounded around big ideas, rather than a separate skill. Studies have also shown that age factors do affect a student’s motivational mind set. Many children may participate in academic tasks both because it interests them and because it will please their teacher or helps those to earn a good grade (Lepper, 2005).
Many teachers use activities to determine the response of the student. Is there a focus, understanding and enjoyment of the activity or are the students lacking and looking for a reason to complete the activity. A child’s behavior depending on the age is also factor in, in determining if intrinsic will work on a student. For example a child in elementary school in 2nd grade between 7 and 8 years of age is curious and eager to learn. There is an enjoyment of learning more and getting better at an activity. Now take a student in 8th grader between 13 and 14 years of age, where things are more hectic it is more of what will I get if I do well on this activity. To get a good grade for self is not as important to get a good grade because for every “A” you get is $10.00.
In many school intrinsic is used among younger student because at this point is where their curious about everything and ask why a lot more. Older students are harder to use intrinsic motivation, because of the lack of self-gain and time constraints. In elementary schools and child with learning disabilities intrinsic motivation is used more frequently. It is easier to develop a child into a stronger reader, better speller and a faster math student, by challenging them in different activities. Because of the child learning development it is easier to mold a child at a younger age than a child much older and has developed a learning style or many more different focuses.
In today’s society intrinsic is used more often at an earlier age. Students have one main teacher and more hands on with activities to encourage more of intrinsic use of motivation. Teachers try to make the student more independent rather dependent, to let the students push for a challenge and desire of the activity over an easy task, and focus on personal curiosity and interests rather focusing on pleasing the teacher to get a good grade
What is extrinsic? It is “exterior” to the behavior and defined as the type of motivation as engaging in an activity to obtain an outcome that is distinct from the activity itself (Lepper, 2005). The student thought process is more of what will be received rather than having an understanding of what was learned.
In middle school and high school extrinsic motivation is more frequently used, such as competition, extrinsic motivation. Students have different teachers; have certain time for each class; and then have to switch many to different periods. Teachers give more of a lecture based class than hand on activities. The policies and procedures are much stricture than elementary schools and it is more evident in the honor rolls, class rankings, and standardized testing for reporting mastery levels to the states as well as for college admissions.
An example of extrinsic completion is a student looking up his her grade to see if academically their grade is higher than the other students. Another example of extrinsic is a student who may find the subject uninteresting, may not even like the assignment and have no interest in the subject, but will continue to the work if and put forth the effort it mean the outcome of a good grade.
According to (Module 15 Behavioral Theory) adolescents in middle and high school increasingly encounter in:
decontextualized learning where students do not see the relevance of academic material (p268)
few opportunities to make decisions, more rules and discipline, and poorer teacher-student relationships (p268) and;
competition among students and more evaluation of student performance (p268)
These factors lead to more use of extrinsic motivation. This form of motivation in today society is used in middle school and high school.
Some advantages to intrinsic motivation are increased responsibility; self -improvement; and inquiry based learning. These brings fourth the desire and long lasting gratification, helps a student to understand the cause and effect and to behave more responsibly, and when solving a problem can reach a goal and feel that he or she is going somewhere. Some advantages of extrinsic motivations are the personal praise, rewards, public recognition. This can make a student feel good. This can also make a student want to work harder to work towards the outcome and work in short term for students who are used to this type of motivation.
The disadvantages of intrinsic motivation are not simple or a quick type of motivation it takes time and work. This gives the upper hand to the students and this may have many different outcomes which can make thing very complicated. Teachers need to be able to know each student and be able to give the student the intended skill needed. Teachers also do not have complete control of the students. The disadvantages of extrinsic motivations are, it shifts the focus of the learning goals. Over time loses meaning towards an outcome and can become manipulative.
With years of training teachers learn how to access a student’s motivational gratification. Teachers have the knowledge to identify the high and lows of motivation in a student. Students who are motivated show great feeling when starting a task and completing it, while others show their unmotivated and procrastinate to complete the task and may in other ways show the subject is not interesting and would rather do something else.
According to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation (Kaplan, 2003) states:
These differences demonstrate the measureable dimension of motivation, ranging from high to low. Teachers can often also classify highly motivated students who engage in tasks in different ways. Some may attempt to finish the task quickly, while others may seek more information. Some may persist, while others may begin willingly but give-up when they come across difficulty (Kaplan)
Depending on the grave level, age, and behavior of the student will determine if motivational tool is benefitting the student. Over assumption is not an easy decision to make. Studies, tests and surveys must been done to determine a solid answer. From the information that has been gathered, explains that intrinsic is much more beneficial in elementary school and extrinsic in middle and high school.
There are two types of motivation that has been used by teachers, in the workforce and in everyday life to improve the motivation of their students, workers and self. Which type of motivational tool that works depends on the person. Understanding the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic can determine which will work on an individual youth in school. After researching the two types of motivation, intrinsic is for one’s personal self-gain and enjoyment and student look at the interest of it, while extrinsic is to know what outside source can be used as personal self-gain for achievement and students are looking more at the outcome. A student’s age, schedule and behavior determines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational tools throughout the school years.
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