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In Journal 1, the researcher carefully examines the structure of the information
processing model. This is done so that we can understand how each of the structure works and to see the connection between cognitive strategies and tactic and how it influences the efficiency of learning.
Learning is done in a variety of ways. Some teachers would want their students to memorize certain information, or even use some formulae like in subjects like Mathematics and Science to solve problems or have the skills to use certain equipment or tools to perform a task. For instance, the use of power point for project work, the use of any musical instruments in playing music, use of hammer or spanner in repairing jobs and so on. Therefore, the learner shapes his knowledge by remembering, memorizing, practicing and others.
In both the journals, they emphasize on the importance of Information-Processing Model and how or what happens when the information is received by the learner.
According to Babadogan (1995) and Ozden (1998) in Ali Ozel (2009), learning is the learner's attribution to the things happening or surrounding the individual like his past life, memory and model. The individual is described as active and looking for information. The learner than interprets the information with his advance knowledge and tries to make a meaningful understanding of the knowledge he has gained.
In Information-Processing Model, the main emphasis is the learner and the environment according to both journals. The learner interacts with the environment when the simulation activates the receptors. The information is then transferred to the short-term memory (STM). It only keeps important information in STM with the help of selective perception.
In the Journal 2 by Ali Ozel (2009), the investigator talks about learning strategies used and gives emphasis on them and on how to learn and what to learn to form one's own learning (Weinstein & Mayer, 1956, Wittrock, 1986). These learning strategies are the key
points in forming of an individual information processing model.
The individual's cognitive tactics determines the form of storage like in the form of tables, diagrams, charts or pictures.
These can be done by repetition, organizing, recalling, directing cognition systematically in order to improve our ability to understand, remember and memorize the information for later needs. In short, it helps in forming the information received in a systematic way.
Both the journals wrote about cognitive strategies and how these strategies help in improving a more systematic learning form. A cognitive strategy is a combination of a number of cognitive tactics.
STAGE MODEL OF INFORMATION PROCESSING
Short-term memory is also called working memory and relates to what we are thinking about at any time. In Freudian terms, this is conscious memory. It is created by our paying attention to an external stimulus, an internal thought, or even both (Huitt, W. ,2003).
Another major limit on information processing in Short-term memory is in terms of the number of units that can be processed at any one time. According to Miller (1956), he gave the number as 7 + 2, but more recent research suggests the number may be more like 5 + 2 for most things we are trying to remember. Because of the variability in how much individuals can work with. For some individuals it could be three and for some it could be seven. Therefore, it is necessary to point out important information. If some students can only process three units of information at a time, then as educator we must make it a point to make them understand that important three units of information.
Each individual has different interpretation of the information received. Therefore, it may differ from one individual to another (Gagne et al, 1993).
In the Short Term Memory, the information received stays for a short period of time like 15-20 seconds (George Miller, 1956). By carrying out coding and organizing information
well, the information in our Short Term Memory can be transferred to the Long Term memory (LTM). In the Long Term Memory, the capacity is unlimited and the duration is much longer in keeping the information. Here is where meaningful learning forms take place.
The model below proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 stages.
Figure 2.1 : The information processing approach to cognition (Huitt, W. ,2003).
It is critical that the learner attends to the information at this initial stage in order to transfer it to the next one. There are two major concepts for getting information into the Short Term Memory.
First, individuals are likely to pay attention to a stimulus if it has an interesting feature. We are more likely to get an orienting response if this is present.
Second, individuals are more likely to pay attention if the stimulus activates a known pattern. Students try to remember relevant prior knowledge.
There are four major types of organization that are most often used in instructional design:
Component (part/whole)--classification by category or certain aspect (e.g., when teaching a diagram or model)
Sequential -- chronological; (e.g., carrying out an experiment step by step)
Relevance - manage ideas to make it meaningful.
Transitional (connective) - words or phrases that is related and making meaningful connection with the changes over time (Huitt, 2003).
Chunking is a major technique for keeping information in short-term memory; it is also helps in storing information into the long-term memory.
Repetition or rote-learning is a technique we all use to try to learn something. Simply memorizing something does not lead to learning. We all have anecdotal evidence that we can remember something we memorized, for example an essay or short poem, but the truth is how much or are we able to remember it after some time?
3.0 LONG TERM MEMORY
Long-term memory is also called preconscious and unconscious memory in
Freudian term. Preconscious means that the information is easily recalled or remembered while unconscious refers to data that is not available during normal consciousness. It is preconscious memory that is the focus of cognitive psychology as it relates to long-term memory.
The two processes most likely to move information into long-term memory are elaboration and practice.
There are several examples of elaboration that are commonly used in the teaching and learning process. Some examples are as below :
Imaging - to be able to create a mental picture.
Method of locations-to be able to retrieve information which is well organized and located.
Rhyming - information to be remembered is arranged in a rhyme.
As information is stored in long-term memory, it is organized using one or more structures like declarative, procedural, or imagery.
Declarative Memory is information that we can talk about.
Semantic Memory are facts, problem-solving strategies and learning strategies.
Schema / Schemata is about connecting ideas of a specific experience into a meaningful system.
Script is a declarative knowledge that captures general information about a routine series of events (Stillings et al., 1987)
Program is a set of rules that explains what to do in a particular situation
Model is a set of propositions that describes some aspects of our experience.
Episodic Memory is our personal experience.
Procedural Memory is a skill that we learn like driving a car or riding a bike.
Imagery is from pictures
4.0 REVIEW OF JOURNALS
The journals reviewed are quantitative and qualitative journals. Journal 1 is a qualitative journal whereby the researcher gives feedback on his reviews on information processing and its implications to teaching and learning. On the other hand, Journal 2 is a quantitative journal where the investigator talks about the practice of information processing model in the teaching of cognitive strategies and examines which strategies are most commonly used by primary school teachers.
In Journal 1, gives a picture of how information is stored and how an individual can make a meaningful learning out of an effective strategy used in storing information. As mentioned earlier, both the investigators in both the journals talk about the importance of environment and how it influences an individual's learning process.
In Journal 1, the investigator says that each individual has different ways of interpreting information received. For example, when using the hearing stimuli, for one individual, the sound of birds chirping may be wonderful and calming but for another individual the same sound may irritate him as he finds them disturbing.
Therefore the information received may differ from one individual to another individual. In Journal 1, the researcher also talks about the process how information is transferred from the short-term memory to the long-term memory.
The researcher explains the term cognitive tactics and cognitive strategies. Below is
an example of what is cognitive tactic used by a student who is preparing for an English examination. In this case, the student prepares for the Unified Chinese School Examination (UEC). The student looks through all the past year questions in order to prepare for the examination especially looking at the writing topics and the language components tested in the past years. The student then tries to predict questions that might come out for that particular year by analyzing the questions carefully. After that, taking the past year questions, he will prepare the answers for each question by memorizing what is already in the reference books or will try to answer the questions by applying the knowledge that he has gathered from learning that particular topic.
Hence, the learner is carrying out rote-learning or memorizing and also critical thinking takes place based on his prior knowledge which he has assimilated throughout his learning process. Therefore, the learner applies his cognitive strategy by carrying out all these tactics.
A learner has to decide which cognitive tactic is suitable to be used in certain situations in order to have a meaningful learning. Learning strategies processed according to the information processing model can provide a more meaningful and permanent learning.
In journal 1, the researcher also emphasizes the importance of meaning-making and understanding what is taught and learnt.
As an educator, it is our responsibility in helping the learners to develop information processing skills and apply them effectively. As it was mentioned in 3.0, there are a number of techniques that a learner can use in helping to store information systematically and understand the memorized information well.
Again in journal 1, the researcher has given importance and stressed on the use of cognitive strategies in guiding the learners' when thinking, memorizing and choosing the most suitable cognitive tactics that can be used. This is because a learner has to know which tactic is used for a particular situation as not every tactic is suitable. This is where metacognitive is very important because a metacognitive learner will be able to monitor and check his own learning strategies and to check if it works for him.
Therefore it is important for teachers to teach her students to use cognitive tactics metacognitively. However, according to Biggs (1988) and Schoenfeld (1987), to use develop these skills are not that easy and it takes time.
That is why it is important for teachers to use various teaching techniques that will help their students with. This will enhance their understanding, retrieval and problem-solving skills.
The implications of information processing in teaching and learning have been summarized as below according to the journal reviewed :
Learners will be metacognitively in control of their own learning
Learners are more motivated to learn because they have a clearer goal.
Good learners will be able to use selective perception to learn the most important things in a subject or topic.
Good learners will be able to differenciate between the more important details and the less important ones.
Good learners will know how to use information and when to use it.
Metacognitive learners will be able to devise cognitive tactics to help them recall something easily.
USING THE INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH IN THE CLASSROOM
1. Gain the students' attention.
Use cues to signal when you are ready to begin like voice projection to indicate you are beginning a lesson.
2. Bring to mind relevant prior learning.
Revise on the previous day's lesson.
3. Emphasize important information.
Provide handouts or write on the board.
4. Information organized properly.
Use logical sequence to concepts and skills.
Go from simple to complex when presenting new material.
5. Show students how to chunk information.
Present information in categories.
Teach inductive reasoning.
6. Give opportunities to students to elaborate on new information.
Connect new information to something already known.
Look for similarities and differences among concepts.
Have group discussions.
7. Show students how to use coding when memorizing lists.
Use mental imagery techniques such as the keyword method, acronyms and etc.
8. Give opportunity for repetition of learning.
State important points several times in different ways during presentation of information (STM).
Have items on each day's lesson from previous lesson (LTM)
9. Give opportunities to learn important concepts/skills.
Drill on important facts daily.
Table 4.1 : Using the Information Processing Approach in the classroom (Huitt, W. ,2003)
In Journal 2, as it is a quantitative study, the investigator studies which teaching strategy is spent more time in forming information processing, how time intervals are spared for learning strategies and if there is a meaningful difference between the strategies at the aspect of the time for teaching learning strategies ?
In this quantitative approach, the investigator had used a general survey to see if there is a difference between the spared time for teaching learning strategies by class teachers in primary schools and forming and processing information processing model.
About 260 teachers in primary schools working in Istanbul Directory of Education were chosen based on convenience sampling. 51.9% were females and 48.1% were males. All of them were graduates from different branches. A majority of them have an experience between 6-10 years.
The strategy teaching tactics developed by Weinstein and Mayer (1986) and applied by Ozturk about teaching learning strategies was used. The aspects tested are attention, repetition, signification, organizing, recall, directing cognition and teaching perception
The survey comprises two parts. The first part is the time span spared for teaching learning strategies by teachers participated in the survey. The second part is to determine which learning strategies out of the seven tested has the most time spared.
The researcher used SPSS 7 package program to determine the meaningful differences of frequency, percentage and variance.
Data was collected using the survey method. Likert Scale of five was used to convert the answers into numeric data.
According to the results of this study, teachers spent more time for repetition strategies (41.2%) and the least time for organizing. Teachers also spend more time to develop attention strategies (35.9%). Therefore, the study indicates that teachers want to form an information processing profile related to attention strategies. They do this in every lesson and some teachers never taught learning strategies at all from the study conducted.
Time spent for repetition and attention strategies were the highest because they provided students to form a information processing model providing them to signify their advance information with their prior knowledge at the aspect of the time spared for teaching signification strategies.
From the research, it was also found that there is a meaningful difference in teachers who spend more time in teaching strategies and teachers who spend less time in teaching strategies.
The conclusion after reviewing both journals are, learning strategies should be
taught to students in every lesson as they can guide in shaping and forming their learning systematically especially when we use the learner-centered approach. Students should be taught to use organization strategies and adopt it properly. They should also use the information processing model with the strategies that belongs to these tactics.
The information processing models in teaching and learning strategies should be
developed and students should be encouraged to change according to the current situation and be independent learners and thinkers. A good learner will be able to use the information gathered and will know when and how to use it when they taught the effective approaches of information processing.
Information processing is important and every teacher has to be familiar with this as by knowing this, we can assist our students in relation to remembering things more effectively within the classroom setting.
In information processing, the system involves the process of encoding, retrieval and storage whereby it explains how our sensory registers and how the short-term and long-term operates.
It is impossible to teach students new information in a short period of time but we can teach them in "chunks" to improve their overall memory.
This will help students to be more focused in their attention on learning by making it more meaningful to them. It is also important to use recognition in which teacher will show their students how to use their imagination or the process of association in order to remember new things. Encoding enables students to learn and remember and relate new information to old information. Use of images, concrete words and visual aids in the classroom will enhance this further.
Organization is a strategy used to improve students' memory and learning. This can be done by teaching students an amount of information over certain period of time. Rehearsing what has been taught is also an effective way to increase memory. One could remember new material through practising, repeating and relating new information to prior knowledge.
As an educator, it is essential to always find new and interesting methods in helping students remember new information that is taught to enhance their understanding better. As mentioned in Journal 2, time spent more for repetition and attention strategies were the highest. However, it depends on the teachers' lesson plans, curriculum and teaching styles in order to meet the needs of individual students. It is important to use a variety of strategies and approaches to help students with remembering what they have learnt especially the new materials that they have learnt.
It is a known fact that every students is able to learn and remember well if we provide them with the proper tools, techniques and guidance. Learning is an ongoing process and every day in our lives we are learning new information. Therefore it is important how we organize our learning and absorb new information on top of the old information that we already have.