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This research explores Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption) in the information communication and technology (ICT) industry in Nigeria. Over the past few years, there has been a renewed interest among academics and practitioners in that line on how to further enhance growth. This research will focus on the challenges, opportunities and the benefits in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in developing Nigerian education. An information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming a major determinant of all aspects of growth,Information and communication technology (ICT) is a factor that has effectively affected man and the way he lives. In this new IT based society, gaining access to information and communication technology is considered a motivating factor for growth and development of any society. Information and communication in Nigeria is still considered at an infant stage compared to other developed nations of the world. Looking at the educational sector of Nigeria, alot is needed to enhance improvement to standard and quality. This can only be achieved by incorporating ICT in the educational sector and establishing the need for offering Nigeria a tremendous opportunity to leapfrog the earlier stages of development. Unfortunately, as the rest of the world progresses in terms of ICT development, Nigeria coined to be among the richest nation in terms of natural resources is still in its technological infancy especially towards the utility of ICT in education without adequate ICT infrastructure to move education rapidly, Nigeria will be further marginalised in the global arena. As such Nigeria needs to launch a massive scale of exploiting ICT resource geared towards increasing access to developing education, reducing bandwidth costs, and facilitating access to the Internet.
In this modern world, ICT is a vital element in the infrastructure of nations and developing its economy. No positive impact can be sustained today without an adequate and pervasive information and communication technology infrastructure in place. The impact of ICT in development covers various aspects of a nation's socio-economic life especially growth in its educational sector. The use of ICT can impact on developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption) in dissemination of knowledge and result in change in learning processes, working methods and culture (Ruikar et al., 2005). In this regard, some benefits of ICT in education is to reduce the time for data processing and communicating information in the E learning process as well, and also to improve communications for effective decision-making and coordination among students and lecturers (Peansupap & Walker, 2005).
Most tertiary education and research institutions in Nigeria are funded by the federal and state governments, though few are privately owned. These institutions have made significant contribution to the dissemination of knowledge and to research in all vital fields and disciplines of human endeavor. They have played some major role in transforming the community, state, and the entire nation. They also support the needs and aspirations of students and scholars. Ajibola and Tiamiyu (2000) and Ogunsola (2005) among others, have made emphases on the effect of the information explosion in the new information era. This includes digital technology, internet connectivity, and E learning adoption in all Nigerian tertiary institutions.
Many universities in Nigeria today have local area networks in their libraries and classes, finance departments, MIS units, also in some faculties or departments,and etc. Meanwhile,the newly adopted Nigerian universities network (NUNET) project initiated by the National Universities Commission which is the regulatory body of Nigerian universities could not be successfully linked up to for networking of the campuses as planned.
1.1 Background of Study
This chapter provides an introduction to and outlines the rest of the study. The topic of the study, information and communication technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption).Looking at the relevance of this study, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong repercussions on many economic sectors especially in developing nations like Nigeria, in vital sectors like the informatics and communication, finance, and transportation. Our focus is, What about education? The knowledge-based economy now sets a new scene for education and new challenges and promises towards the education sector. Firstly, by definition, education is a prerequisite of the knowledge-based economy: the production and use of knowledge both require a more (lifelong) educated population and workforce putting ICT into consideration. Secondly, ICTs are a very powerful and useful tool for dissemination of knowledge and information, a fundamental aspect of the educational process: ICTs sometimes induce innovations in the ways of handling things.
The study will broadly employ the need to harvest the potentiality in Nigeria and to offer increased possibilities for codification of knowledge about teaching using E learning and for innovation in teaching activities using all possible ICT tools making it possible to deliver learning and cognitive activities anywhere at any time within the country. Thus, learning at a distance can furthermore be more learner-centred, self-paced, and also problem solving-based than face-to-face teaching. However, E-learning is a promising tool for expanding and widening access to all forms of education. Because they relax space and time constraints in their procedures, ICTs can allow new people to participate in all forms of education by increasing the flexibility of participation compared to face-to-face method. Working students and people living in remote areas (e.g. rural), non-mobile students in rural areas and even foreign students outside Nigeria could now more easily participate in education through E learning. With ICT, learners can indeed study where and when they have time to do so, and fully participate rather than where and when classes are planned. By identifying and analysing the benefits and requirement of E-learning, information system management concept has transformed the way institutions are administered through shared knowledge education as a part of information system, it is all about knowledge dissemination and information through the internet and other electronic devices. ICT is the underlying framework of any information system, and it has fundamentally changed the way lecturers and students work technologically. The development of E learning over the last few years has been through the production of systems that are powerful and easily accessible by lecturers and students, giving rise to a new concept known as strategic alignment to help enhance good quality and increase knowledge, through some IT tools and techniques and, to positively affect schools, regional and country level performance by developing trust and influence through repeated periods of positive face-to-face or IT based communication, social interaction, and common goal accomplishment through the E learning process. To acquire all this, information system management has to play a significant role.
1.2 Presenting problem statement
In the modern world E learning is used as the easiest and fastest way of diffusing knowledge. It is flexible and also very easy in terms of usability. Compare with other forms of learning, it provides several benefits such as effectiveness and efficiency. Typically, E-learning is a simple way of doing research on internet. Since E-learningplays an important role in the development of any nation, this research would determine the situation by investigating how E-learning can really motivate the development of Nigeria. The challenges faced or is trying to develop the phenomenon. I would analyze how the government of Nigeria is trying to explore the potentials of effectively using this development and determine the contribution of the government towards the development of educational sector by the effective use of ICT. Currently, Nigeria is still behind in online research, this is caused by lack of IT infrastructures, online facilities and etc. Nigeria has less than 2% of its general website is been research oriented. In (Nigerian education establishment journal 2008), is clearly stated that 70% of Nigerian students are not computer literates and even the once that are computer literates are not properly focus on research and innovations as sustained around the globe. Thus, looking at this situation, this research paper tends to establish a way of dealing with the problem through emphasizing the need for a well established E-learning approach. Most of the problem is due to lack of IT knowledge, lack of potential knowledge on how E-learningcan effectively change the education structure and how its benefits could possibly reflect the society and nation as a whole. Ideas on new approach to E-learninghas been adopted by other nations such as new research methods, new learning concepts, new ideas and new websites operations has been created. Many nations gain an extra benefit from E-learning adoption, but my question is why is Nigeria behind with the entire abundant human and natural resources it has. My research is going to investigate, to find possible solution to how knowledge is going to be disseminated through the use of ICT (E-learning adoption) and how this is going to change the way education is perceived in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Objectives
First of all, there are two main objectives to this research.
- To explore the role Information and communication technology (ICT) plays in developing Nigeria as a nation with emphasis on education sector.
- To propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption).
Knowing that ICT has to play a major role in education, since it involves technology, ICT is a developed way of teaching and learning that involves mostly computerized gadgets in rendering its services. Thus, ICT has a large impact on the development of education in any nation. Therefore, the first objective of my research is to explore the role Information and communication technology (ICT) plays in developing Nigeria as a nation with emphasis on education sector.
Secondly, is to propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption). Since we know education as defined by (Webster) is ? to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of people through various means and shared, but how can this be shared and utilized in developing countries like Nigeria. So, this research will propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption).
1.4 Research Question
The research questions are three,they tend to ask question about the relevance of the study.
- What has Nigerian government done to improve the standard of information and communication usage especially in education?
- What benefits can Nigeria achieve from fully adopting E-learningas a motivating factor in its educational sector?
- How beneficial is information and communication technology usage to Nigerian students?
1.5 Nature of Study
The basic idea is to produce a comprehensive research on Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education and try to identify and analyse their behaviours toward the adoption of E-learning in Nigeria. Base on these information I will find the answer to my research. This study will apply the triangulation approach towards data gathering. Which consists of questionnaires, interview and data from organizations such as the Federal Ministry of Education, Nigerian Stock Exchange, Economic Community of West African States and African Development Bank.
1.6 Limitation of Research
This research has several limitations to be considered. The main primary obstacle to the study on ICT as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education is the political instability in some part of the nation. Another is mass illiteracy and underdevelopment of some part of Nigeria, including cultural differences.
1.7 Chapter Outline
Chapter 1 Introduction: This provides the reader with background information of the study. Research objectives, background of study, problems, nature of the study and significance as well as the limitations of the problem that will be faced by the researcher are clearly stated in the chapter.
Chapter 2 Literature Review: This chapter explores relevant literature. It basically deals with pertinent literature on Nigeria ICT with discussions on related research variables such as Infrastructures, Digital-Divide and E-learningadoption. This section concludes with an overview of the status of the ICT in Nigeria and actions that the region is taking to overcome the obstacles to becoming ready for the E-learningadoption.
Chapter 3 Methodology and Data Collection: This chapter focuses on the research design that will be used to conduct this research. It further discloses the ways used in analyzing data that will be collected, limitations of the methods used and how the data will be collected.
Chapter 4 Result and Discussion: This chapter outlines results of data analysis, provides discussion of research findings and builds bridges between objectives, findings and relevant literature. The result section summarizes the analysis of the data and present findings of the study with respect to the hypothesis and research questions.
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation: Conclusions and recommendations are provided in this chapter together with discussions on the contribution of the study to the body of knowledge. This chapter concludes the research and documents the implications of the study with recommendations for future research.
1.8 Purpose of Study
These are some of the major reasons why I decided to focus my research on this topic and use Nigeria as a case for consideration.
- Lack of awareness and understanding of the value of E-learningin Nigeria
Most of the people in Nigeria have not taken up ICT or use the Internet because they fail to see the value of ICT in this modern economy. Many think ICT is suited only to big nations and that it is an additional cost that will not bring any major returns on the economy (Samuel M. Wangwe, 2003).
- Mass computer literacy in Nigeria.
People play a vital role in the development of ICT. However, technology literacy is still very limited in most part of Nigeria. There is a shortage of skilled workers among Nigerian business environment, a major issue in moving forward with using information technology in businesses. There are also doubts about whether Nigerian education can indeed take advantage of the benefits of accessing the globe through the Internet, given their limited capabilities in that instance. Thus, the knowledge of ICT is important in carrying growth along especially in developing nations like Nigeria ( Jacob W. Musila, Simon P. Sigué, 2006).
In line with the intent of this study, this research would be organized in such a way that it will give the reader a helpful insight into the whole dissertation. The aim of this study was to explore the information and communication technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption). As most readers will understand where the researcher is approaching this topic from and where he is going, ICT sector ought to be facilitated in its assimilation into the socio-economic activities of countries and this require commitment from governments and all stakeholders within the country. Therefore, this study will provide a robust technical framework for the federal government's capabilities to develop a state-of-the-art technical infrastructure for applying information technology in achieving growth, in the educational sector of Nigeria. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been a key engine for the performance and growth of economies of the entire globe since the early 1970s, putting education as one of the most concerned sector, making E-learningbecoming perhaps the main technological enablers of economic globalization and sustainable knowledge dissemination.
This chapter basically is going to emphasize on Nigerian context with ICT as a major in determining the growth of it educational sector.
As Nigeria being the most populous country in Africa and with an economy vastly dependent on crude and agricultural product, Nigeria is generally characterized by a poor economic outlay. This will examine education background in its context and the actual level of ICT (E learning) practices in Nigeria. It will focus on how the federal government actually carryout the ICT practices of teaching and learning. Furthermore, attention is also provided to the regulatory environment, that is, IT relations in Nigeria. Within the Nigerian over all contexts, ICT is seen as one of the major fastest growing sectors of the economy - growing on an average 37.5 percent yearly (National Bureau of Statistics, 2006) .The emergence of ICTs in view represents high promises for the education sector. E-learningcould indeed play a role on three fundamental aspects of education policy in the country: this is access, quality and cost. E-learningcould possibly rapidly advance knowledge by expanding and widening access to education in both rural and urban areas, by improving the total quality of education and reducing its cost. All this would also build more capacity for the advancement of modern knowledge economies. E-learning is a global trend and can be a viable source of economic reform in a nation. Nigeria, a third world country is leaving no stone unturned to make life easier and more comfortable in this electronic age. Though developed countries are on the verge of conducting e-learning securely and comfortably, Nigeria is absorbing techniques involved either by espionage, knowledge transfer or other means (Achiebe ndom 1999). Hence, the need for ensuring effectiveness, awareness among inhabitants, and security of resources involved must be taken into account (Cellesti 2007).
For education in developing countries e-learning has a huge advantage of reduced research costs and learning costs here, it improves efficiency of operations by reducing time for looking for information, and lot more. The Internet and other ICTs facilitate access to research information. Internet Allows quick packaging and distribution of information to specific target groups.
However, there is doubt regarding whether there is enough information on the Web that is relevant and valuable for the average student in a developing country that would make investment in Internet access feasible. Underlying this is the fact that most business in developing countries like Nigeria caters traditional form of teaching rather than investing more on E learning. For this reason, there is a need to substantially increase the amount and quality of information content (including local language content) on the Internet to make it useful especially to students in the rural areas of Nigeria.
2.1 Brief history of Nigeria
Nigeria is an African nation that became independent in (1960), before it was under the colony of the British. It is situated at the gulf of guinea with an area of 356,669 square miles. Nigeria is the most populous African nation, with more than 250 ethnic groups and population of about 120 million (population census 2008).majority of the population are found in rural areas with no good economic facilities.basically,70% of the population engage in agricultural trade. IT development is very poor and the nation is backward in that basis compared to other nations of the world. The development of modern ICT facilities is the question need to be answered in Nigeria.
2.1.0 Information technology in Nigeria
Information technology has always played a very important part in human life ever since its existence. However, dated to the mid 20thcentury, the role of information technology increased immeasurably as a result of social progress and the rapid development in science and technology. The pace of change that is brought by new and emergence technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Emerging technologies along the globe challenge the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the major way education is managed worldwide. Information technology has basically played an important role, in various areas of economic growth and development. It has brought about easy worldwide communication; it provides access to a vast array of useful data, also challenging assimilation and assessment skills.
The aspect of Knowledge, innovation and also Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong impact on many economic sectors, e.g. in the information and communication area, finance, and transportation areas (Foray, 2004; Boyer, 2002).
Furthermore, computing and Telecommunications (and also such major areas as broadcasting and publishing) used to be quite large and distinct industries, involving extreme technologies. Recently it has covered around certain important key activities such as use of the Internet. The pace of adoption of new IT activities has been very speedy within the globe: it is markedly fast moving rapid than that of earlier revolutionary technologies which existed such as the steam engine for train or electric motor. But in a country like Nigeria, information technology is rather a recent/new phenomenon. Telecommunications, which is the oldest element of IT, it had a modest beginning with the earliest trunk telephone services between two towns in early nineties (Ofulue, 1999). Though it was not until the mid century that substantial expansion in IT began with the introduction of VHF radio systems though in small quantity, then came 116 manual and 5automatic telephone exchanges in Nigeria. In other to enhance the full quality of telecommunications services in Nigeria, telecommunications arm of the Post and Telegraph Department of the Nigerian telecommunication limited (NITEL) and the also to boost IT growth in Nigeria, The Nigeria Domestic Satellite System was Established in the 1975/1976 era with a network of six 11-metre earth stations all operating on a borrowed INTELSAT satellite transponder. This network was subsequently developed to comprise three leased Transponders each of 36 MHz, 20 earth stations as IT was becoming more and more acceptable in Nigeria,
Recently, to show how acceptable IT has become in Nigeria, phase of the digital project at Nigeria's capital Abuja was commissioned in 1990 by the then military president Ibrahim Babangida, while other similar work is in progress on several other IT projects. Some organizations in Nigeria have ventured out developing their own private networks all in the mission to build a strong and more reliable IT projects. One of the greatest achievements in IT sector are that of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), which in early 1990, installed a new digital communications network regarded as one of the largest in Africa. It is a hybrid network of fiber optics been developed and coaxial cable. Another of advancement that has been achieved in that area of application of IT technology is that, unlike previously before the coming of IT, economic growth wasn't easily sustained.
The computer has made a tremendous impact on the organization using technology as a means of operational survival. The Nigerian private sectors are not left out in this information technological era. Also Nigerian university campuses are now jam-packed with new Information Communication technology facilities. It is no longer strange to see lecturers and their students doing their researches and other academic works using IT devices as modern technology like email and Internets. One is happy to realize that both the federal government of the federation and other international funding agencies around the globe are now interested in the general development of ICT in Nigerian higher education.
This scenario briefly explains the stages involved in the development of information technology over the years in Nigeria.
2.1.1 Education in Nigeria
The New and emerging technologies challenge the traditional/old process of teaching and learning around the globe, and the way education is being managed. Information technology (IT an important area of study in its own right, is having an impact across all curriculum areas. Easily available worldwide communication provides access to a vast array of informative data, also challenging assimilation and assessment skills.
The aspect of Knowledge has become the most important factor for massive economic development in the 21st century. Through its role and capacity to augment productivity, it also increasingly constitutes the foundation of a country's competitive advantage (PORTER 1990). Many developing nations have neither articulated a developmental strategy linking knowledge to national economic growth nor building up their capacity to do so. Although it is the Africa's largest country with about 20 percent of the region's population, statistically Nigeria has only 15 scientists and engineers engaged in economic research and development per million persons. This in comparism with 168 in Brazil, 459 in republic of China, 158 in India, and 4,103 in the United States of America (WORLD BANK 2002 report). What positive chance does Nigeria have of participating in the challenging and emerging global knowledge economy?
Nigeria as a nation possesses the largest university system in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Although in Africa, South Africa's tertiary enrolments are much higher, Nigeria boasts more institutions in terms of number. With about 78 states, federal and private universities enrolling over 700,000 students (NUC annual report 2008), the Nigeria education system supports numerous graduate programs about (9% of enrolments) and serves as a magnet for other students from neighboring countries to study. The education system embraces much of the country's research capacity and also produces most of its skilled professionals. Nominally the responsibility of the regulatory body that is the Federal Ministry of Education is to enhance effective operation within the education system.
The Nigeria's educational system has witnessed changes in policies and programs over the years. Some of these changes have appeared to quite a number of people while one continues to wonder, some of the other changes were ever initiated in the system. Many of these changes in educational policies in Nigeria have been described as the product of total confusion (Ayeni, 2000). Therefore, a very high level of uncertainties, which is beclouding planning in Nigeria's educational system. This can be very dangerous as the future of Nigeria will be determined by the overall level of education her nationals have acquired.
2.1.2 ICT as a tool for developing education in Nigeria
The role of technology in the teaching and learning aspect of the economy is rapidly becoming the most important and widely discussed issues in modern contemporary education policy (Rosen and Thierer, 2000).
Nigerians' Vision 2020 policy was formulated to ensure the transformation of Nigeria into becoming a fully developed nation and one of the best 20 economies of the world by the year 2020. The vision calls for Nigeria to achieve a self sufficient industrial set up, the Nigerian centric economy. In her quest to achieve the objectives of the Vision 2020, Nigeria has identified information and communications technology (ICT) as one of the major key foundations for its projected transition from its own production based economy to knowledge based economy by 2020.
ICT is crucial enabler in a knowledge based economy because ICT facilitate the acquisition, utilization and dissemination of useful knowledge towards enhancing the economic and social values of the society. To spearhead the move towards achieving this Vision 2020, the Nigerian government has embarked upon the launching of its Nigeria sat 1 satellite for the development and nurturing of the Nation's ICT industry, the Nigeria sat 1 provides first-world knowledge and infrastructure for IT, at developing-nation costs.
The federal Ministry of Education articulation of ICT in Nigerian education system focused on some major areas.
National University Network (NUNET) IT facilities for all tertiary institutions in Nigeria
ICT will formally be used as an enabler to reduce digital divide between the nation's schools by enabling ICT access for all students, ICT will also be used as teaching and learning tools in Nigerian education, taught as an independent subject of its own and integrated into others subjects as well; and ICT will be used in enhancing efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of management in Nigerian education system.
- Intensify total development of the ICT infrastructure;
- Expand the access to and equity for ICT facilities;
- Improve assessment and evaluation systems using ICT;
- Emphasis the ICT integration into basic teaching and learning processes;
- Improve ICT knowledge and the skills of students, teachers and other personnel;
- Intensify the usage of ICT in education management;
- Improve the management and the maintenance of ICT equipment;
- Increase research and the development efforts in ICT; and
- Increase cooperation between educational sector and the community towards expansion of ICT in the Nations education.
a) The universities NUNET project
The universities NUNET project is one of the applications envisaged under the Education reform agenda. This ICT project attempted to systematically transform the universities in terms of teaching and learning practices including research and school management processes in order to prepare students for modern information age.
This project was implemented by the democratic government of Obasanjo in collaboration with a private organization
NUNET IT solution encompasses the computerize School Management System, the browser-based teaching and learning materials and the Help Desk support services
b) Establishment of new Computer laboratories
Under NUNET project, which began in 1999, many computer laboratories were constructed on a large scale in Nigerian schools.
These laboratories are equipped with major ICT facilities such as Personal Computers, Local Network, printers and servers.
c) Established School Net
The established School Net project provides modern broadband internet access to all Nigerian schools with NUNET facilities, this is with the aim of bridging digital divide between students in urban, rural and remote areas within Nigeria, to enable the schools to get connected internally and globally, the internet connection is provided via NUNET project.
d) Access to WebTV, video streaming of educational and research content were made available to students via the NUNET WebTV initiative. Students can download educational contents via major educational channels.
Universal basis education (2002) reports says that ICT is a mediator of learning in multi components environments and ICT have shown to support students and teachers in improving learning outcomes as well. The Federal Ministry of education had produced a number of teaching and learning materials like audio CD, video CDs, web-based multimedia contents and also providing access to internet teaching and learning materials.
2.2 ICT on global perspective
Understanding how technology is fits into the complex realities of modern classrooms has been a very critical factor in creating real change in all schools in the industrialized nations (McMillan Culp, & Carrigg, 2000; Somekh et al., 2003), yet a just little is known about educational technology projects in classrooms of developing world. New trends in the global market economy have brought to the front the debate on impact of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization wave as well. The impact is visible in the context of the developing economies; it astutely plays down its own drawbacks and accentuates its major advantages. One of the positives being the influx of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT). If, on one hand, globalization has precipitated onward march of ICT, the growing success in ICT initiatives has also brought the global community closer within one environment. ICT, in globalization context, is all about the global knowledge, access, participation and leadership in the information age. It has radically changed people's views about the boundaries between organizations and boundaries within the organizations.
As era gradually move from first generation automated data processing to second generation automated decision making system, and further on to the third generation mobile telecom era, all the countries across the globe find themselves enveloped by purportedly new paperless, borderless, corruption free and the interactive world of electronic governance. In fact, one developing economy such as India is one of the top worlds ten in the list of ICT leadership and initiatives.
Since in the 1980s, considerable number of ICT applications at different levels of government, especially at grass roots level, has been initiated. Documented evidence so far has indicated that these are being well implemented and are reaping the exact needed results. In some developing countries, application of ICT is intended to attain certain key objectives outlining increased responsiveness of government towards the citizens. It enables citizens to use information as a key resource for the betterment of their lives and strive towards the socio-economic development. ICT revolution due to its pervasiveness throughout the whole realm of human activity, it has become an essential ingredient of effective governance what is known as 'good governance'.
The World Bank Report (1997) has epitomized the set phrase 'good governance'. The ODA, World Bank and UNDP Reports laid down the following features of good governance:
- Participation that envisages involvement of entire society in governance Legitimacy that emphasizes the need for a system of governance.
- Accountability that involves existence of a mechanism, that ensures those working for the citizens are answerable for their own actions.
- Openness and transparency that highlight major need for public access to quality of information.
- Competence that demonstrates capacity to create effective policy and decision making processes as well.
In this modern economy, ICT denotes the use of computing and telecommunication technologies to provide automatic means of the handling of information with the objective of improving Government's day to day activity or any other organization's way of operation. The concept of Information Systems here underlying it is defined as the system of human and technical components which accept, store, process, and output and transmit useful information Somekh et al., 2003). The role of ICT in fostering growth and development needs to be looked at from a wider perspective that showcases its entire place in Information Systems.
The most vital of all the technological advances is that of the Internet, which is believed to have capacity to redefine the possible phenomena. The Internet is altering today's economic landscape. The power of ICT lies in the fact that an entire office can be recreated on the Internet (worldwide web). It also provides a great opportunity for a real time processes and activities. The historical monopoly of various institutions private and publicly owned over the use of information is being shattered by the worldwide Web. The metamorphosis in modern communication is taking place inform of increased interactivity and also seamless connectivity.
Since in the developing countries like Nigeria, major emphasis is on the enhancement of socio-economic development, we have to focus on the government's major role in the provision of goods and services which is through the use of ICT. The other stakeholders involved such as the private sector, the non Governmental Organizations, the Civil Society Organizations and also the citizens' groups also have an equally very important role to perform. An important feature of ICT is its accent on the public-private partnerships in the facilitation of governance. ICT promotes total acquisition and absorption of modern knowledge, offering the government and the other non-governmental agencies unprecedented opportunities to improve its policy formulation and also implementation, to enhance quality educational systems, to empower the downtrodden, to create new economic institutions as well, and to widen job opportunities, to reduce poverty, and re-engineer companies and institutionalize innovations.
ICT applications in their view of fostering a country's growth and development, basically aim at these factors:
- Provide decision support to public administration for improved planning, implementation and also monitoring of developmental programs Improving citizen total administration interface and the public service delivery.
- Empower citizens to access the information and knowledge bringing in viable transparency in service delivery and in information sharing and highlighting the key issues such as in project justification, in multiple service centers, and in sustained training, planning and the implementation of ICT applications.
- Enhancing good accountability of governance mechanisms; and
- Sustaining the development of useful human resources towards general use of ICT
2.2.0 ICT on Nigerian perspective
(ICT's) in the education of the developed countries like United States of America facilitated the establishment of 100% ICT over all based University known as the Virtual Universities. Looking at Nigeria, very few of the conventional universities are carrying out their learning/academic activities through ICT. While the urge of embarking on e-learning is still a dream to some of it because their infrastructure of ICT's extremely very weak. The expansion of ICTs in Nigeria offers a viable opportunity to consider its use in promotion of development. It offers students a considerable benefits including the increase access to modern learning opportunities, the convenience of time, and place, making available and greater variety of the learning resources, improve opportunities for an individualized learning system and emergence of a more powerful cognitive tools (Khan, 2006, Pierre, 2004).
2.3 Relating ICT and education
The emerging modern educational technologies, particularly those that are in the area of (ICTs) are providing possibly new ways of education, training and learning electronically a window of positive opportunity that supplement and complement the education and training resources as well and to support the process of developing and also meeting the manpower requirements of modern economic goals.
These emerging technologies are making very high quality technology based modern education and training easier to design, to develop and deliver than was possible in the past. They promised more than only an improvement in educational productivity, thus, they have potential to deliver qualitative change in the nature of learning itself in today's scene.
Today, there is no doubt that governments all over the world have recognized the crucial role that ICT could play in socio-economic growth and development. In that respect, a considerable number of countries in both developing and developed world are designing various economic policies that will enable them transform their economies ICT based. e.g., countries like the USA, Canada and some European countries as well as Asian countries like, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, South Korea, Japan and South American countries like, Brazil, Chile and Mexico with others like Australia and Mauritius already have in place comprehensive ICT policies and plans directed towards education or are at an advanced stage of implementing E-learningacross their economies and societies.
2.4 Identifying the role of ICT in the development of education
ICT brings about possibilities of information and data processing, storage and transmission. Technology affects all industry and every service and has also penetrated society as a whole. Castells (1999) shows a similar view by referring to idea of new socio-economic organization. This organization is also characterized by ICT as "roots of new and modern productivity sources, new organizational forms, and of formation of a global economy" (Castells, (1999). ICT, however, don't solve social problems but rather the prerequisite for socio economic development (Castells, 1999).
According to the UNDP (2005) report, effective deployment of ICT can also affect human development in two major ways. First is, since ICT as a sector of modern economic activity impacts the economic growth of a nation. Another is, ICT as an enabler for the enhancement of human productivity influences human development through the access to information knowledge and enlarging choices. (Chacko 2005) argues saying ICT helps in alleviation of poverty, enhancement of education and improving healthcare.
The penetration of ICT into all society has transformed the societies from agrarian to industrial and now to a modern evolving Information Society (IS) (Mutula, 2004) i.e. to say a society in which the creation, distribution and the manipulation of useful information has become the most important economic and cultural activity" (Vosloo, 2005).
Technological advances are also perceived as the underlying drivers of evolution towards an Information Society. Many more strategies and technologies has been developed to help students learn faster today, whilst achieving a greater retention with more ease. ICT in all areas of education world are now used in ways that acceleratE-learningand the capacity of learners as well at a remarkable pace. Accelerated learning and co-operativE-learningtechniques are also used with enormous successes in huge numbers of corporate training programs and schools which have access to these resources .we often finds that learning time is also cut in half.
Learning institutions are colloquial to need to include emerging technologies in cooperated into their curricula. These techniques alongside with distance learning, schooling, multimedia classrooms and service projects are illustrations of how ICT can generally be used in education.
The following statement by a scholar (Symons 2000) explicitly backs up this, "To prepare all students for the New Economy, reformers are also pushing for a curriculum will use the Internet, technology and internships to immerse students in the intellectual challenges they shall face after graduation. There is a widespread recognition that the entire world can no longer afford to preserve the system of learning designed for a world that has already disappeared".
Some countries see ICT as bringing even greater advantages to their development, thus, who will overtake the development even further. There is little that needs to be done to change this trajectory situation. For some, ICT divergence is inevitable, favoring developed nations more than developing ones, unless the issue is taken serious and addressed.
In this modern world, ICT is a vital element in the infrastructure of nations and developing its economy. No positive impact can be sustained today without an adequate and pervasive Information and Communication Technology infrastructure in place. The impact of ICT in development covers various aspects of a nation's socio-economic life especially growth in its educational sector. The use of ICT can impact on developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption)in dissemination of knowledge and result in change in learning processes, working methods and culture (Ruikar et al., 2005). In this regard, some role of ICT in education is to reduce the time for data processing and communicating information in the E-learningprocess as well, and also to improve communications for effective decision-making and coordination among students and lecturers (Peansupap & Walker, 2005).
Most tertiary education and research institutions in Nigeria are funded by the federal and state governments, though few are privately owned. These institutions have made significant contribution to the dissemination of knowledge and to research in all vital fields and disciplines of human endeavor. They have played some major role in transforming the community, state and the entire nation. They also support the needs and aspirations of students and scholars. Ajibola and Tiamiyu (2000) and Ogunsola (2005) among others, have made emphases on effect of the information explosion in the new information era. This includes Digital technology, internet connectivity, and E-learningadoption in all Nigerian tertiary institutions.
Many universities in Nigeria today have local area networks in their Libraries and classes, finance departments, MIS units, also in some faculties/departments, etc. Meanwhile,
The newly adopted NUNET project initiated by the National Universities Commission which is the regulatory body of Nigerian universities could not be successfully linked up to for networking of the campuses as planned.
2.5 The benefits Nigeria could derive from fully utilizing ICT facilities
Looking at ICT through E learning
Looking at the topic of the study, Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption).Focusing at the relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong repercussions on many economic sectors especially in developing nations like Nigeria, in vital sectors like the informatics and communication, finance, and transportation. Our focus is. ICTs are a very powerful and useful tool for dissemination of knowledge and information, a fundamental aspect of the educational process, ICTs sometimes induces innovations in the ways of handling things.
Thus, Learning at a distance can furthermore be more learner centered, self-paced, and also problem solving based than face to face teaching. However, E-learningis a promising tool for expanding and widening access to all forms of education. Because they relax space and time constraints in their procedures, ICTs can allow new people to participate in all forms of education by increasing the flexibility of participation compared to face-to-face method. Working students and people living in remote areas (e.g. rural areas), non-mobile students in rural areas and even foreign students outside Nigeria could now more easily participate in education through E learning. With ICT, learners can indeed study where, when they have time to do so and fully participate rather than where, when classes are planned.
Looking at ICT through E commerce
ICT through E commerce increases the market scope of small enterprises it provides relatively cheap information about possible trading partners and markets for their goods or services (Potchefstroom 2000), E commerce also provides more stability to their immediate markets by expanding them. In the growth and development of small businesses ICT provides infrastructures to support fast growth of small business through creating a method of exchanging business Information, allowing for provision of business-to-business arrangements, online contract Negotiations and a clearing-house for logistical support. The development of small business, leads to the development of large business and thus, all will reflect to the overall growth of the entire nation (Kosiur E commerce 2002).
Consumers can shop on line throughout a day, and all days of the year. Thus, the time-consuming parts of shopping at physical stores, driving, parking and coping with traffic are all eliminated by making things very easy for consumers. If we look at consumer behavior in business, consumers are always moved by getting their goods and wants easy and cheap. Satisfying consumer is a vital issue in business, consumer is the reason for the existence of a business, and thus, relating that to ICT we can deduce that E commerce is presently the easiest and fastest way of trade. Lesser cost incurred, easily accessible to customer, fast way of making order etc (Potchefstroom 2000).
In looking at Nigeria, been one of the underdeveloped nations of the world, IT infrastructure is one of the major setback to building a great nation. Thus, With ICT systems, business and online activities are operated all day long and every day. It's a way of doing relaxed operation the physical storefront of a firm does not need to be physically opened in order for customers and suppliers to do business electronically. The global internet span has made it possible to enhance business with any person who is connected to the Internet and is ready to do business. Some local businesses can gain more advantage from this form of trade, such as local stores. They can be able to market and sell their products and services internationally using E commerce. The nature of E commerce allows fast sending of messages instantly around the globe; it has eliminated the method of waiting for weeks to get information on a product or services (chaffey E business 2002).