Information And Communication Technology Education Essay

5372 words (21 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Education Reference this

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This research explores Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption) in the information communication and technology (ICT) industry in Nigeria. Over the past few years, there has been a renewed interest among academics and practitioners in that line on how to further enhance growth. This research will focus on the challenges, opportunities and the benefits in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in developing Nigerian education. An information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming a major determinant of all aspects of growth,Information and communication technology (ICT) is a factor that has effectively affected man and the way he lives. In this new IT based society, gaining access to information and communication technology is considered a motivating factor for growth and development of any society. Information and communication in Nigeria is still considered at an infant stage compared to other developed nations of the world. Looking at the educational sector of Nigeria, alot is needed to enhance improvement to standard and quality. This can only be achieved by incorporating ICT in the educational sector and establishing the need for offering Nigeria a tremendous opportunity to leapfrog the earlier stages of development. Unfortunately, as the rest of the world progresses in terms of ICT development, Nigeria coined to be among the richest nation in terms of natural resources is still in its technological infancy especially towards the utility of ICT in education without adequate ICT infrastructure to move education rapidly, Nigeria will be further marginalised in the global arena. As such Nigeria needs to launch a massive scale of exploiting ICT resource geared towards increasing access to developing education, reducing bandwidth costs, and facilitating access to the Internet.

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In this modern world, ICT is a vital element in the infrastructure of nations and developing its economy. No positive impact can be sustained today without an adequate and pervasive information and communication technology infrastructure in place. The impact of ICT in development covers various aspects of a nation’s socio-economic life especially growth in its educational sector. The use of ICT can impact on developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption) in dissemination of knowledge and result in change in learning processes, working methods and culture (Ruikar et al., 2005). In this regard, some benefits of ICT in education is to reduce the time for data processing and communicating information in the E learning process as well, and also to improve communications for effective decision-making and coordination among students and lecturers (Peansupap & Walker, 2005).

Most tertiary education and research institutions in Nigeria are funded by the federal and state governments, though few are privately owned. These institutions have made significant contribution to the dissemination of knowledge and to research in all vital fields and disciplines of human endeavor. They have played some major role in transforming the community, state, and the entire nation. They also support the needs and aspirations of students and scholars. Ajibola and Tiamiyu (2000) and Ogunsola (2005) among others, have made emphases on the effect of the information explosion in the new information era. This includes digital technology, internet connectivity, and E learning adoption in all Nigerian tertiary institutions.

Many universities in Nigeria today have local area networks in their libraries and classes, finance departments, MIS units, also in some faculties or departments,and etc. Meanwhile,the newly adopted Nigerian universities network (NUNET) project initiated by the National Universities Commission which is the regulatory body of Nigerian universities could not be successfully linked up to for networking of the campuses as planned.

1.1 Background of Study

This chapter provides an introduction to and outlines the rest of the study. The topic of the study, information and communication technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption).Looking at the relevance of this study, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong repercussions on many economic sectors especially in developing nations like Nigeria, in vital sectors like the informatics and communication, finance, and transportation. Our focus is, What about education? The knowledge-based economy now sets a new scene for education and new challenges and promises towards the education sector. Firstly, by definition, education is a prerequisite of the knowledge-based economy: the production and use of knowledge both require a more (lifelong) educated population and workforce putting ICT into consideration. Secondly, ICTs are a very powerful and useful tool for dissemination of knowledge and information, a fundamental aspect of the educational process: ICTs sometimes induce innovations in the ways of handling things.

The study will broadly employ the need to harvest the potentiality in Nigeria and to offer increased possibilities for codification of knowledge about teaching using E learning and for innovation in teaching activities using all possible ICT tools making it possible to deliver learning and cognitive activities anywhere at any time within the country. Thus, learning at a distance can furthermore be more learner-centred, self-paced, and also problem solving-based than face-to-face teaching. However, E-learning is a promising tool for expanding and widening access to all forms of education. Because they relax space and time constraints in their procedures, ICTs can allow new people to participate in all forms of education by increasing the flexibility of participation compared to face-to-face method. Working students and people living in remote areas (e.g. rural), non-mobile students in rural areas and even foreign students outside Nigeria could now more easily participate in education through E learning. With ICT, learners can indeed study where and when they have time to do so, and fully participate rather than where and when classes are planned. By identifying and analysing the benefits and requirement of E-learning, information system management concept has transformed the way institutions are administered through shared knowledge education as a part of information system, it is all about knowledge dissemination and information through the internet and other electronic devices. ICT is the underlying framework of any information system, and it has fundamentally changed the way lecturers and students work technologically. The development of E learning over the last few years has been through the production of systems that are powerful and easily accessible by lecturers and students, giving rise to a new concept known as strategic alignment to help enhance good quality and increase knowledge, through some IT tools and techniques and, to positively affect schools, regional and country level performance by developing trust and influence through repeated periods of positive face-to-face or IT based communication, social interaction, and common goal accomplishment through the E learning process. To acquire all this, information system management has to play a significant role.

1.2 Presenting problem statement

In the modern world E learning is used as the easiest and fastest way of diffusing knowledge. It is flexible and also very easy in terms of usability. Compare with other forms of learning, it provides several benefits such as effectiveness and efficiency. Typically, E-learning is a simple way of doing research on internet. Since E-learningplays an important role in the development of any nation, this research would determine the situation by investigating how E-learning can really motivate the development of Nigeria. The challenges faced or is trying to develop the phenomenon. I would analyze how the government of Nigeria is trying to explore the potentials of effectively using this development and determine the contribution of the government towards the development of educational sector by the effective use of ICT. Currently, Nigeria is still behind in online research, this is caused by lack of IT infrastructures, online facilities and etc. Nigeria has less than 2% of its general website is been research oriented. In (Nigerian education establishment journal 2008), is clearly stated that 70% of Nigerian students are not computer literates and even the once that are computer literates are not properly focus on research and innovations as sustained around the globe. Thus, looking at this situation, this research paper tends to establish a way of dealing with the problem through emphasizing the need for a well established E-learning approach. Most of the problem is due to lack of IT knowledge, lack of potential knowledge on how E-learningcan effectively change the education structure and how its benefits could possibly reflect the society and nation as a whole. Ideas on new approach to E-learninghas been adopted by other nations such as new research methods, new learning concepts, new ideas and new websites operations has been created. Many nations gain an extra benefit from E-learning adoption, but my question is why is Nigeria behind with the entire abundant human and natural resources it has. My research is going to investigate, to find possible solution to how knowledge is going to be disseminated through the use of ICT (E-learning adoption) and how this is going to change the way education is perceived in Nigeria.

1.3 Research Objectives

First of all, there are two main objectives to this research.

  • To explore the role Information and communication technology (ICT) plays in developing Nigeria as a nation with emphasis on education sector.
  • To propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption).

Knowing that ICT has to play a major role in education, since it involves technology, ICT is a developed way of teaching and learning that involves mostly computerized gadgets in rendering its services. Thus, ICT has a large impact on the development of education in any nation. Therefore, the first objective of my research is to explore the role Information and communication technology (ICT) plays in developing Nigeria as a nation with emphasis on education sector.

Secondly, is to propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption). Since we know education as defined by (Webster) is ? to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of people through various means and shared, but how can this be shared and utilized in developing countries like Nigeria. So, this research will propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption).

1.4 Research Question

The research questions are three,they tend to ask question about the relevance of the study.

  • What has Nigerian government done to improve the standard of information and communication usage especially in education?
  • What benefits can Nigeria achieve from fully adopting E-learningas a motivating factor in its educational sector?
  • How beneficial is information and communication technology usage to Nigerian students?

1.5 Nature of Study

The basic idea is to produce a comprehensive research on Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education and try to identify and analyse their behaviours toward the adoption of E-learning in Nigeria. Base on these information I will find the answer to my research. This study will apply the triangulation approach towards data gathering. Which consists of questionnaires, interview and data from organizations such as the Federal Ministry of Education, Nigerian Stock Exchange, Economic Community of West African States and African Development Bank.

1.6 Limitation of Research

This research has several limitations to be considered. The main primary obstacle to the study on ICT as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education is the political instability in some part of the nation. Another is mass illiteracy and underdevelopment of some part of Nigeria, including cultural differences.

1.7 Chapter Outline

Chapter 1 Introduction: This provides the reader with background information of the study. Research objectives, background of study, problems, nature of the study and significance as well as the limitations of the problem that will be faced by the researcher are clearly stated in the chapter.

Chapter 2 Literature Review: This chapter explores relevant literature. It basically deals with pertinent literature on Nigeria ICT with discussions on related research variables such as Infrastructures, Digital-Divide and E-learningadoption. This section concludes with an overview of the status of the ICT in Nigeria and actions that the region is taking to overcome the obstacles to becoming ready for the E-learningadoption.

Chapter 3 Methodology and Data Collection: This chapter focuses on the research design that will be used to conduct this research. It further discloses the ways used in analyzing data that will be collected, limitations of the methods used and how the data will be collected.

Chapter 4 Result and Discussion: This chapter outlines results of data analysis, provides discussion of research findings and builds bridges between objectives, findings and relevant literature. The result section summarizes the analysis of the data and present findings of the study with respect to the hypothesis and research questions.

Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation: Conclusions and recommendations are provided in this chapter together with discussions on the contribution of the study to the body of knowledge. This chapter concludes the research and documents the implications of the study with recommendations for future research.

1.8 Purpose of Study

These are some of the major reasons why I decided to focus my research on this topic and use Nigeria as a case for consideration.

  • Lack of awareness and understanding of the value of E-learningin Nigeria

    Most of the people in Nigeria have not taken up ICT or use the Internet because they fail to see the value of ICT in this modern economy. Many think ICT is suited only to big nations and that it is an additional cost that will not bring any major returns on the economy (Samuel M. Wangwe, 2003).

  • Mass computer literacy in Nigeria.

    People play a vital role in the development of ICT. However, technology literacy is still very limited in most part of Nigeria. There is a shortage of skilled workers among Nigerian business environment, a major issue in moving forward with using information technology in businesses. There are also doubts about whether Nigerian education can indeed take advantage of the benefits of accessing the globe through the Internet, given their limited capabilities in that instance. Thus, the knowledge of ICT is important in carrying growth along especially in developing nations like Nigeria ( Jacob W. Musila, Simon P. Sigué, 2006).

1.9 Conclusion

In line with the intent of this study, this research would be organized in such a way that it will give the reader a helpful insight into the whole dissertation. The aim of this study was to explore the information and communication technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption). As most readers will understand where the researcher is approaching this topic from and where he is going, ICT sector ought to be facilitated in its assimilation into the socio-economic activities of countries and this require commitment from governments and all stakeholders within the country. Therefore, this study will provide a robust technical framework for the federal government’s capabilities to develop a state-of-the-art technical infrastructure for applying information technology in achieving growth, in the educational sector of Nigeria. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been a key engine for the performance and growth of economies of the entire globe since the early 1970s, putting education as one of the most concerned sector, making E-learningbecoming perhaps the main technological enablers of economic globalization and sustainable knowledge dissemination.

Chapter 2

2.0 Introduction

This chapter basically is going to emphasize on Nigerian context with ICT as a major in determining the growth of it educational sector.

As Nigeria being the most populous country in Africa and with an economy vastly dependent on crude and agricultural product, Nigeria is generally characterized by a poor economic outlay. This will examine education background in its context and the actual level of ICT (E learning) practices in Nigeria. It will focus on how the federal government actually carryout the ICT practices of teaching and learning. Furthermore, attention is also provided to the regulatory environment, that is, IT relations in Nigeria. Within the Nigerian over all contexts, ICT is seen as one of the major fastest growing sectors of the economy – growing on an average 37.5 percent yearly (National Bureau of Statistics, 2006) .The emergence of ICTs in view represents high promises for the education sector. E-learningcould indeed play a role on three fundamental aspects of education policy in the country: this is access, quality and cost. E-learningcould possibly rapidly advance knowledge by expanding and widening access to education in both rural and urban areas, by improving the total quality of education and reducing its cost. All this would also build more capacity for the advancement of modern knowledge economies. E-learning is a global trend and can be a viable source of economic reform in a nation. Nigeria, a third world country is leaving no stone unturned to make life easier and more comfortable in this electronic age. Though developed countries are on the verge of conducting e-learning securely and comfortably, Nigeria is absorbing techniques involved either by espionage, knowledge transfer or other means (Achiebe ndom 1999). Hence, the need for ensuring effectiveness, awareness among inhabitants, and security of resources involved must be taken into account (Cellesti 2007).

For education in developing countries e-learning has a huge advantage of reduced research costs and learning costs here, it improves efficiency of operations by reducing time for looking for information, and lot more. The Internet and other ICTs facilitate access to research information. Internet Allows quick packaging and distribution of information to specific target groups.

However, there is doubt regarding whether there is enough information on the Web that is relevant and valuable for the average student in a developing country that would make investment in Internet access feasible. Underlying this is the fact that most business in developing countries like Nigeria caters traditional form of teaching rather than investing more on E learning. For this reason, there is a need to substantially increase the amount and quality of information content (including local language content) on the Internet to make it useful especially to students in the rural areas of Nigeria.

2.1 Brief history of Nigeria

Nigeria is an African nation that became independent in (1960), before it was under the colony of the British. It is situated at the gulf of guinea with an area of 356,669 square miles. Nigeria is the most populous African nation, with more than 250 ethnic groups and population of about 120 million (population census 2008).majority of the population are found in rural areas with no good economic facilities.basically,70% of the population engage in agricultural trade. IT development is very poor and the nation is backward in that basis compared to other nations of the world. The development of modern ICT facilities is the question need to be answered in Nigeria.

2.1.0 Information technology in Nigeria

Information technology has always played a very important part in human life ever since its existence. However, dated to the mid 20thcentury, the role of information technology increased immeasurably as a result of social progress and the rapid development in science and technology. The pace of change that is brought by new and emergence technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Emerging technologies along the globe challenge the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the major way education is managed worldwide. Information technology has basically played an important role, in various areas of economic growth and development. It has brought about easy worldwide communication; it provides access to a vast array of useful data, also challenging assimilation and assessment skills.

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The aspect of Knowledge, innovation and also Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong impact on many economic sectors, e.g. in the information and communication area, finance, and transportation areas (Foray, 2004; Boyer, 2002).

Furthermore, computing and Telecommunications (and also such major areas as broadcasting and publishing) used to be quite large and distinct industries, involving extreme technologies. Recently it has covered around certain important key activities such as use of the Internet. The pace of adoption of new IT activities has been very speedy within the globe: it is markedly fast moving rapid than that of earlier revolutionary technologies which existed such as the steam engine for train or electric motor. But in a country like Nigeria, information technology is rather a recent/new phenomenon. Telecommunications, which is the oldest element of IT, it had a modest beginning with the earliest trunk telephone services between two towns in early nineties (Ofulue, 1999). Though it was not until the mid century that substantial expansion in IT began with the introduction of VHF radio systems though in small quantity, then came 116 manual and 5automatic telephone exchanges in Nigeria. In other to enhance the full quality of telecommunications services in Nigeria, telecommunications arm of the Post and Telegraph Department of the Nigerian telecommunication limited (NITEL) and the also to boost IT growth in Nigeria, The Nigeria Domestic Satellite System was Established in the 1975/1976 era with a network of six 11-metre earth stations all operating on a borrowed INTELSAT satellite transponder. This network was subsequently developed to comprise three leased Transponders each of 36 MHz, 20 earth stations as IT was becoming more and more acceptable in Nigeria,

Recently, to show how acceptable IT has become in Nigeria, phase of the digital project at Nigeria’s capital Abuja was commissioned in 1990 by the then military president Ibrahim Babangida, while other similar work is in progress on several other IT projects. Some organizations in Nigeria have ventured out developing their own private networks all in the mission to build a strong and more reliable IT projects. One of the greatest achievements in IT sector are that of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), which in early 1990, installed a new digital communications network regarded as one of the largest in Africa. It is a hybrid network of fiber optics been developed and coaxial cable. Another of advancement that has been achieved in that area of application of IT technology is that, unlike previously before the coming of IT, economic growth wasn’t easily sustained.

The computer has made a tremendous impact on the organization using technology as a means of operational survival. The Nigerian private sectors are not left out in this information technological era. Also Nigerian university campuses are now jam-packed with new Information Communication technology facilities. It is no longer strange to see lecturers and their students doing their researches and other academic works using IT devices as modern technology like email and Internets. One is happy to realize that both the federal government of the federation and other international funding agencies around the globe are now interested in the general development of ICT in Nigerian higher education.

This scenario briefly explains the stages involved in the development of information technology over the years in Nigeria.

2.1.1 Education in Nigeria

The New and emerging technologies challenge the traditional/old process of teaching and learning around the globe, and the way education is being managed. Information technology (IT an important area of study in its own right, is having an impact across all curriculum areas. Easily available worldwide communication provides access to a vast array of informative data, also challenging assimilation and assessment skills.

The aspect of Knowledge has become the most important factor for massive economic development in the 21st century. Through its role and capacity to augment productivity, it also increasingly constitutes the foundation of a country’s competitive advantage (PORTER 1990). Many developing nations have neither articulated a developmental strategy linking knowledge to national economic growth nor building up their capacity to do so. Although it is the Africa’s largest country with about 20 percent of the region’s population, statistically Nigeria has only 15 scientists and engineers engaged in economic research and development per million persons. This in comparism with 168 in Brazil, 459 in republic of China, 158 in India, and 4,103 in the United States of America (WORLD BANK 2002 report). What positive chance does Nigeria have of participating in the challenging and emerging global knowledge economy?

Nigeria as a nation possesses the largest university system in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Although in Africa, South Africa’s tertiary enrolments are much higher, Nigeria boasts more institutions in terms of number. With about 78 states, federal and private universities enrolling over 700,000 students (NUC annual report 2008), the Nigeria education system supports numerous graduate programs about (9% of enrolments) and serves as a magnet for other students from neighboring countries to study. The education system embraces much of the country’s research capacity and also produces most of its skilled professionals. Nominally the responsibility of the regulatory body that is the Federal Ministry of Education is to enhance effective operation within the education system.

The Nigeria’s educational system has witnessed changes in policies and programs over the years. Some of these changes have appeared to quite a number of people while one continues to wonder, some of the other changes were ever initiated in the system. Many of these changes in educational policies in Nigeria have been described as the product of total confusion (Ayeni, 2000). Therefore, a very high level of uncertainties, which is beclouding planning in Nigeria’s educational system. This can be very dangerous as the future of Nigeria will be determined by the overall level of education her nationals have acquired.

2.1.2 ICT as a tool for developing education in Nigeria

The role of technology in the teaching and learning aspect of the economy is rapidly becoming the most important and widely discussed issues in modern contemporary education policy (Rosen and Thierer, 2000).

Nigerians’ Vision 2020 policy was formulated to ensure the transformation of Nigeria into becoming a fully developed nation and one of the best 20 economies of the world by the year 2020. The vision calls for Nigeria to achieve a self sufficient industrial set up, the Nigerian centric economy. In her quest to achieve the objectives of the Vision 2020, Nigeria has identified information and communications technology (ICT) as one of the major key foundations for its projected transition from its own production based economy to knowledge based economy by 2020.

ICT is crucial enabler in a knowledge based economy because ICT facilitate the acquisition, utilization and dissemination of useful knowledge towards enhancing the economic and social values of the society. To spearhead the move towards achieving this Vision 2020, the Nigerian government has embarked upon the launching of its Nigeria sat 1 satellite for the development and nurturing of the Nation’s ICT industry, the Nigeria sat 1 provides first-world knowledge and infrastructure for IT, at developing-nation costs.

  • ICT in Education Policy
  • The federal Ministry of Education articulation of ICT in Nigerian education system focused on some major areas.

    National University Network (NUNET) IT facilities for all tertiary institutions in Nigeria

    ICT will formally be used as an enabler to reduce digital divide between the nation’s schools by enabling ICT access for all students, ICT will also be used as teaching and learning tools in Nigerian education, taught as an independent subject of its own and integrated into others subjects as well; and ICT will be used in enhancing efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of management in Nigerian education system.

    • Intensify total development of the ICT infrastructure;
    • Expand the access to and equity for ICT facilities;
    • Improve assessment and evaluation systems using ICT;
    • Emphasis the ICT integration into basic teaching and learning processes;
    • Improve ICT knowledge and the skills of students, teachers and other personnel;
    • Intensify the usage of ICT in education management;
    • Improve the management and the maintenance of ICT equipment;
    • Increase research and the development efforts in ICT; and
    • Increase cooperation between educational sector and the community towards expansion of ICT in the Nations education.
  • ICT for all Nigerian students to bridge the digital divide between Nigerian schools
  • a) The universities NUNET project

    The universities NUNET project is one of the applications envisaged under the Education reform agenda. This ICT project attempted to systematically transform the universities in terms of teaching and learning practices including research and school management processes in order to prepare students for modern information age.

    This project was implemented by the democratic government of Obasanjo in collaboration with a private organization

    NUNET IT solution encompasses the computerize School Management System, the browser-based teaching and learning materials and the Help Desk support services

    b) Establishment of new Computer laboratories

    Under NUNET project, which began in 1999, many computer laboratories were constructed on a large scale in Nigerian schools.

    These laboratories are equipped with major ICT facilities such as Personal Computers, Local Network, pr

    This research explores Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption) in the information communication and technology (ICT) industry in Nigeria. Over the past few years, there has been a renewed interest among academics and practitioners in that line on how to further enhance growth. This research will focus on the challenges, opportunities and the benefits in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in developing Nigerian education. An information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming a major determinant of all aspects of growth,Information and communication technology (ICT) is a factor that has effectively affected man and the way he lives. In this new IT based society, gaining access to information and communication technology is considered a motivating factor for growth and development of any society. Information and communication in Nigeria is still considered at an infant stage compared to other developed nations of the world. Looking at the educational sector of Nigeria, alot is needed to enhance improvement to standard and quality. This can only be achieved by incorporating ICT in the educational sector and establishing the need for offering Nigeria a tremendous opportunity to leapfrog the earlier stages of development. Unfortunately, as the rest of the world progresses in terms of ICT development, Nigeria coined to be among the richest nation in terms of natural resources is still in its technological infancy especially towards the utility of ICT in education without adequate ICT infrastructure to move education rapidly, Nigeria will be further marginalised in the global arena. As such Nigeria needs to launch a massive scale of exploiting ICT resource geared towards increasing access to developing education, reducing bandwidth costs, and facilitating access to the Internet.

    In this modern world, ICT is a vital element in the infrastructure of nations and developing its economy. No positive impact can be sustained today without an adequate and pervasive information and communication technology infrastructure in place. The impact of ICT in development covers various aspects of a nation’s socio-economic life especially growth in its educational sector. The use of ICT can impact on developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption) in dissemination of knowledge and result in change in learning processes, working methods and culture (Ruikar et al., 2005). In this regard, some benefits of ICT in education is to reduce the time for data processing and communicating information in the E learning process as well, and also to improve communications for effective decision-making and coordination among students and lecturers (Peansupap & Walker, 2005).

    Most tertiary education and research institutions in Nigeria are funded by the federal and state governments, though few are privately owned. These institutions have made significant contribution to the dissemination of knowledge and to research in all vital fields and disciplines of human endeavor. They have played some major role in transforming the community, state, and the entire nation. They also support the needs and aspirations of students and scholars. Ajibola and Tiamiyu (2000) and Ogunsola (2005) among others, have made emphases on the effect of the information explosion in the new information era. This includes digital technology, internet connectivity, and E learning adoption in all Nigerian tertiary institutions.

    Many universities in Nigeria today have local area networks in their libraries and classes, finance departments, MIS units, also in some faculties or departments,and etc. Meanwhile,the newly adopted Nigerian universities network (NUNET) project initiated by the National Universities Commission which is the regulatory body of Nigerian universities could not be successfully linked up to for networking of the campuses as planned.

    1.1 Background of Study

    This chapter provides an introduction to and outlines the rest of the study. The topic of the study, information and communication technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption).Looking at the relevance of this study, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong repercussions on many economic sectors especially in developing nations like Nigeria, in vital sectors like the informatics and communication, finance, and transportation. Our focus is, What about education? The knowledge-based economy now sets a new scene for education and new challenges and promises towards the education sector. Firstly, by definition, education is a prerequisite of the knowledge-based economy: the production and use of knowledge both require a more (lifelong) educated population and workforce putting ICT into consideration. Secondly, ICTs are a very powerful and useful tool for dissemination of knowledge and information, a fundamental aspect of the educational process: ICTs sometimes induce innovations in the ways of handling things.

    The study will broadly employ the need to harvest the potentiality in Nigeria and to offer increased possibilities for codification of knowledge about teaching using E learning and for innovation in teaching activities using all possible ICT tools making it possible to deliver learning and cognitive activities anywhere at any time within the country. Thus, learning at a distance can furthermore be more learner-centred, self-paced, and also problem solving-based than face-to-face teaching. However, E-learning is a promising tool for expanding and widening access to all forms of education. Because they relax space and time constraints in their procedures, ICTs can allow new people to participate in all forms of education by increasing the flexibility of participation compared to face-to-face method. Working students and people living in remote areas (e.g. rural), non-mobile students in rural areas and even foreign students outside Nigeria could now more easily participate in education through E learning. With ICT, learners can indeed study where and when they have time to do so, and fully participate rather than where and when classes are planned. By identifying and analysing the benefits and requirement of E-learning, information system management concept has transformed the way institutions are administered through shared knowledge education as a part of information system, it is all about knowledge dissemination and information through the internet and other electronic devices. ICT is the underlying framework of any information system, and it has fundamentally changed the way lecturers and students work technologically. The development of E learning over the last few years has been through the production of systems that are powerful and easily accessible by lecturers and students, giving rise to a new concept known as strategic alignment to help enhance good quality and increase knowledge, through some IT tools and techniques and, to positively affect schools, regional and country level performance by developing trust and influence through repeated periods of positive face-to-face or IT based communication, social interaction, and common goal accomplishment through the E learning process. To acquire all this, information system management has to play a significant role.

    1.2 Presenting problem statement

    In the modern world E learning is used as the easiest and fastest way of diffusing knowledge. It is flexible and also very easy in terms of usability. Compare with other forms of learning, it provides several benefits such as effectiveness and efficiency. Typically, E-learning is a simple way of doing research on internet. Since E-learningplays an important role in the development of any nation, this research would determine the situation by investigating how E-learning can really motivate the development of Nigeria. The challenges faced or is trying to develop the phenomenon. I would analyze how the government of Nigeria is trying to explore the potentials of effectively using this development and determine the contribution of the government towards the development of educational sector by the effective use of ICT. Currently, Nigeria is still behind in online research, this is caused by lack of IT infrastructures, online facilities and etc. Nigeria has less than 2% of its general website is been research oriented. In (Nigerian education establishment journal 2008), is clearly stated that 70% of Nigerian students are not computer literates and even the once that are computer literates are not properly focus on research and innovations as sustained around the globe. Thus, looking at this situation, this research paper tends to establish a way of dealing with the problem through emphasizing the need for a well established E-learning approach. Most of the problem is due to lack of IT knowledge, lack of potential knowledge on how E-learningcan effectively change the education structure and how its benefits could possibly reflect the society and nation as a whole. Ideas on new approach to E-learninghas been adopted by other nations such as new research methods, new learning concepts, new ideas and new websites operations has been created. Many nations gain an extra benefit from E-learning adoption, but my question is why is Nigeria behind with the entire abundant human and natural resources it has. My research is going to investigate, to find possible solution to how knowledge is going to be disseminated through the use of ICT (E-learning adoption) and how this is going to change the way education is perceived in Nigeria.

    1.3 Research Objectives

    First of all, there are two main objectives to this research.

    • To explore the role Information and communication technology (ICT) plays in developing Nigeria as a nation with emphasis on education sector.
    • To propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption).

    Knowing that ICT has to play a major role in education, since it involves technology, ICT is a developed way of teaching and learning that involves mostly computerized gadgets in rendering its services. Thus, ICT has a large impact on the development of education in any nation. Therefore, the first objective of my research is to explore the role Information and communication technology (ICT) plays in developing Nigeria as a nation with emphasis on education sector.

    Secondly, is to propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption). Since we know education as defined by (Webster) is ? to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of people through various means and shared, but how can this be shared and utilized in developing countries like Nigeria. So, this research will propose the possibilities of using ICT to manage and disseminate knowledge in Nigeria (E-learning adoption).

    1.4 Research Question

    The research questions are three,they tend to ask question about the relevance of the study.

    • What has Nigerian government done to improve the standard of information and communication usage especially in education?
    • What benefits can Nigeria achieve from fully adopting E-learningas a motivating factor in its educational sector?
    • How beneficial is information and communication technology usage to Nigerian students?

    1.5 Nature of Study

    The basic idea is to produce a comprehensive research on Information and Communication Technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education and try to identify and analyse their behaviours toward the adoption of E-learning in Nigeria. Base on these information I will find the answer to my research. This study will apply the triangulation approach towards data gathering. Which consists of questionnaires, interview and data from organizations such as the Federal Ministry of Education, Nigerian Stock Exchange, Economic Community of West African States and African Development Bank.

    1.6 Limitation of Research

    This research has several limitations to be considered. The main primary obstacle to the study on ICT as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education is the political instability in some part of the nation. Another is mass illiteracy and underdevelopment of some part of Nigeria, including cultural differences.

    1.7 Chapter Outline

    Chapter 1 Introduction: This provides the reader with background information of the study. Research objectives, background of study, problems, nature of the study and significance as well as the limitations of the problem that will be faced by the researcher are clearly stated in the chapter.

    Chapter 2 Literature Review: This chapter explores relevant literature. It basically deals with pertinent literature on Nigeria ICT with discussions on related research variables such as Infrastructures, Digital-Divide and E-learningadoption. This section concludes with an overview of the status of the ICT in Nigeria and actions that the region is taking to overcome the obstacles to becoming ready for the E-learningadoption.

    Chapter 3 Methodology and Data Collection: This chapter focuses on the research design that will be used to conduct this research. It further discloses the ways used in analyzing data that will be collected, limitations of the methods used and how the data will be collected.

    Chapter 4 Result and Discussion: This chapter outlines results of data analysis, provides discussion of research findings and builds bridges between objectives, findings and relevant literature. The result section summarizes the analysis of the data and present findings of the study with respect to the hypothesis and research questions.

    Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation: Conclusions and recommendations are provided in this chapter together with discussions on the contribution of the study to the body of knowledge. This chapter concludes the research and documents the implications of the study with recommendations for future research.

    1.8 Purpose of Study

    These are some of the major reasons why I decided to focus my research on this topic and use Nigeria as a case for consideration.

    • Lack of awareness and understanding of the value of E-learningin Nigeria

      Most of the people in Nigeria have not taken up ICT or use the Internet because they fail to see the value of ICT in this modern economy. Many think ICT is suited only to big nations and that it is an additional cost that will not bring any major returns on the economy (Samuel M. Wangwe, 2003).

    • Mass computer literacy in Nigeria.

      People play a vital role in the development of ICT. However, technology literacy is still very limited in most part of Nigeria. There is a shortage of skilled workers among Nigerian business environment, a major issue in moving forward with using information technology in businesses. There are also doubts about whether Nigerian education can indeed take advantage of the benefits of accessing the globe through the Internet, given their limited capabilities in that instance. Thus, the knowledge of ICT is important in carrying growth along especially in developing nations like Nigeria ( Jacob W. Musila, Simon P. Sigué, 2006).

    1.9 Conclusion

    In line with the intent of this study, this research would be organized in such a way that it will give the reader a helpful insight into the whole dissertation. The aim of this study was to explore the information and communication technology as a motivating factor for developing Nigerian education (E-Learning adoption). As most readers will understand where the researcher is approaching this topic from and where he is going, ICT sector ought to be facilitated in its assimilation into the socio-economic activities of countries and this require commitment from governments and all stakeholders within the country. Therefore, this study will provide a robust technical framework for the federal government’s capabilities to develop a state-of-the-art technical infrastructure for applying information technology in achieving growth, in the educational sector of Nigeria. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been a key engine for the performance and growth of economies of the entire globe since the early 1970s, putting education as one of the most concerned sector, making E-learningbecoming perhaps the main technological enablers of economic globalization and sustainable knowledge dissemination.

    Chapter 2

    2.0 Introduction

    This chapter basically is going to emphasize on Nigerian context with ICT as a major in determining the growth of it educational sector.

    As Nigeria being the most populous country in Africa and with an economy vastly dependent on crude and agricultural product, Nigeria is generally characterized by a poor economic outlay. This will examine education background in its context and the actual level of ICT (E learning) practices in Nigeria. It will focus on how the federal government actually carryout the ICT practices of teaching and learning. Furthermore, attention is also provided to the regulatory environment, that is, IT relations in Nigeria. Within the Nigerian over all contexts, ICT is seen as one of the major fastest growing sectors of the economy – growing on an average 37.5 percent yearly (National Bureau of Statistics, 2006) .The emergence of ICTs in view represents high promises for the education sector. E-learningcould indeed play a role on three fundamental aspects of education policy in the country: this is access, quality and cost. E-learningcould possibly rapidly advance knowledge by expanding and widening access to education in both rural and urban areas, by improving the total quality of education and reducing its cost. All this would also build more capacity for the advancement of modern knowledge economies. E-learning is a global trend and can be a viable source of economic reform in a nation. Nigeria, a third world country is leaving no stone unturned to make life easier and more comfortable in this electronic age. Though developed countries are on the verge of conducting e-learning securely and comfortably, Nigeria is absorbing techniques involved either by espionage, knowledge transfer or other means (Achiebe ndom 1999). Hence, the need for ensuring effectiveness, awareness among inhabitants, and security of resources involved must be taken into account (Cellesti 2007).

    For education in developing countries e-learning has a huge advantage of reduced research costs and learning costs here, it improves efficiency of operations by reducing time for looking for information, and lot more. The Internet and other ICTs facilitate access to research information. Internet Allows quick packaging and distribution of information to specific target groups.

    However, there is doubt regarding whether there is enough information on the Web that is relevant and valuable for the average student in a developing country that would make investment in Internet access feasible. Underlying this is the fact that most business in developing countries like Nigeria caters traditional form of teaching rather than investing more on E learning. For this reason, there is a need to substantially increase the amount and quality of information content (including local language content) on the Internet to make it useful especially to students in the rural areas of Nigeria.

    2.1 Brief history of Nigeria

    Nigeria is an African nation that became independent in (1960), before it was under the colony of the British. It is situated at the gulf of guinea with an area of 356,669 square miles. Nigeria is the most populous African nation, with more than 250 ethnic groups and population of about 120 million (population census 2008).majority of the population are found in rural areas with no good economic facilities.basically,70% of the population engage in agricultural trade. IT development is very poor and the nation is backward in that basis compared to other nations of the world. The development of modern ICT facilities is the question need to be answered in Nigeria.

    2.1.0 Information technology in Nigeria

    Information technology has always played a very important part in human life ever since its existence. However, dated to the mid 20thcentury, the role of information technology increased immeasurably as a result of social progress and the rapid development in science and technology. The pace of change that is brought by new and emergence technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Emerging technologies along the globe challenge the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the major way education is managed worldwide. Information technology has basically played an important role, in various areas of economic growth and development. It has brought about easy worldwide communication; it provides access to a vast array of useful data, also challenging assimilation and assessment skills.

    The aspect of Knowledge, innovation and also Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have had strong impact on many economic sectors, e.g. in the information and communication area, finance, and transportation areas (Foray, 2004; Boyer, 2002).

    Furthermore, computing and Telecommunications (and also such major areas as broadcasting and publishing) used to be quite large and distinct industries, involving extreme technologies. Recently it has covered around certain important key activities such as use of the Internet. The pace of adoption of new IT activities has been very speedy within the globe: it is markedly fast moving rapid than that of earlier revolutionary technologies which existed such as the steam engine for train or electric motor. But in a country like Nigeria, information technology is rather a recent/new phenomenon. Telecommunications, which is the oldest element of IT, it had a modest beginning with the earliest trunk telephone services between two towns in early nineties (Ofulue, 1999). Though it was not until the mid century that substantial expansion in IT began with the introduction of VHF radio systems though in small quantity, then came 116 manual and 5automatic telephone exchanges in Nigeria. In other to enhance the full quality of telecommunications services in Nigeria, telecommunications arm of the Post and Telegraph Department of the Nigerian telecommunication limited (NITEL) and the also to boost IT growth in Nigeria, The Nigeria Domestic Satellite System was Established in the 1975/1976 era with a network of six 11-metre earth stations all operating on a borrowed INTELSAT satellite transponder. This network was subsequently developed to comprise three leased Transponders each of 36 MHz, 20 earth stations as IT was becoming more and more acceptable in Nigeria,

    Recently, to show how acceptable IT has become in Nigeria, phase of the digital project at Nigeria’s capital Abuja was commissioned in 1990 by the then military president Ibrahim Babangida, while other similar work is in progress on several other IT projects. Some organizations in Nigeria have ventured out developing their own private networks all in the mission to build a strong and more reliable IT projects. One of the greatest achievements in IT sector are that of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), which in early 1990, installed a new digital communications network regarded as one of the largest in Africa. It is a hybrid network of fiber optics been developed and coaxial cable. Another of advancement that has been achieved in that area of application of IT technology is that, unlike previously before the coming of IT, economic growth wasn’t easily sustained.

    The computer has made a tremendous impact on the organization using technology as a means of operational survival. The Nigerian private sectors are not left out in this information technological era. Also Nigerian university campuses are now jam-packed with new Information Communication technology facilities. It is no longer strange to see lecturers and their students doing their researches and other academic works using IT devices as modern technology like email and Internets. One is happy to realize that both the federal government of the federation and other international funding agencies around the globe are now interested in the general development of ICT in Nigerian higher education.

    This scenario briefly explains the stages involved in the development of information technology over the years in Nigeria.

    2.1.1 Education in Nigeria

    The New and emerging technologies challenge the traditional/old process of teaching and learning around the globe, and the way education is being managed. Information technology (IT an important area of study in its own right, is having an impact across all curriculum areas. Easily available worldwide communication provides access to a vast array of informative data, also challenging assimilation and assessment skills.

    The aspect of Knowledge has become the most important factor for massive economic development in the 21st century. Through its role and capacity to augment productivity, it also increasingly constitutes the foundation of a country’s competitive advantage (PORTER 1990). Many developing nations have neither articulated a developmental strategy linking knowledge to national economic growth nor building up their capacity to do so. Although it is the Africa’s largest country with about 20 percent of the region’s population, statistically Nigeria has only 15 scientists and engineers engaged in economic research and development per million persons. This in comparism with 168 in Brazil, 459 in republic of China, 158 in India, and 4,103 in the United States of America (WORLD BANK 2002 report). What positive chance does Nigeria have of participating in the challenging and emerging global knowledge economy?

    Nigeria as a nation possesses the largest university system in the Sub-Saharan Africa. Although in Africa, South Africa’s tertiary enrolments are much higher, Nigeria boasts more institutions in terms of number. With about 78 states, federal and private universities enrolling over 700,000 students (NUC annual report 2008), the Nigeria education system supports numerous graduate programs about (9% of enrolments) and serves as a magnet for other students from neighboring countries to study. The education system embraces much of the country’s research capacity and also produces most of its skilled professionals. Nominally the responsibility of the regulatory body that is the Federal Ministry of Education is to enhance effective operation within the education system.

    The Nigeria’s educational system has witnessed changes in policies and programs over the years. Some of these changes have appeared to quite a number of people while one continues to wonder, some of the other changes were ever initiated in the system. Many of these changes in educational policies in Nigeria have been described as the product of total confusion (Ayeni, 2000). Therefore, a very high level of uncertainties, which is beclouding planning in Nigeria’s educational system. This can be very dangerous as the future of Nigeria will be determined by the overall level of education her nationals have acquired.

    2.1.2 ICT as a tool for developing education in Nigeria

    The role of technology in the teaching and learning aspect of the economy is rapidly becoming the most important and widely discussed issues in modern contemporary education policy (Rosen and Thierer, 2000).

    Nigerians’ Vision 2020 policy was formulated to ensure the transformation of Nigeria into becoming a fully developed nation and one of the best 20 economies of the world by the year 2020. The vision calls for Nigeria to achieve a self sufficient industrial set up, the Nigerian centric economy. In her quest to achieve the objectives of the Vision 2020, Nigeria has identified information and communications technology (ICT) as one of the major key foundations for its projected transition from its own production based economy to knowledge based economy by 2020.

    ICT is crucial enabler in a knowledge based economy because ICT facilitate the acquisition, utilization and dissemination of useful knowledge towards enhancing the economic and social values of the society. To spearhead the move towards achieving this Vision 2020, the Nigerian government has embarked upon the launching of its Nigeria sat 1 satellite for the development and nurturing of the Nation’s ICT industry, the Nigeria sat 1 provides first-world knowledge and infrastructure for IT, at developing-nation costs.

    • ICT in Education Policy
    • The federal Ministry of Education articulation of ICT in Nigerian education system focused on some major areas.

      National University Network (NUNET) IT facilities for all tertiary institutions in Nigeria

      ICT will formally be used as an enabler to reduce digital divide between the nation’s schools by enabling ICT access for all students, ICT will also be used as teaching and learning tools in Nigerian education, taught as an independent subject of its own and integrated into others subjects as well; and ICT will be used in enhancing efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of management in Nigerian education system.

      • Intensify total development of the ICT infrastructure;
      • Expand the access to and equity for ICT facilities;
      • Improve assessment and evaluation systems using ICT;
      • Emphasis the ICT integration into basic teaching and learning processes;
      • Improve ICT knowledge and the skills of students, teachers and other personnel;
      • Intensify the usage of ICT in education management;
      • Improve the management and the maintenance of ICT equipment;
      • Increase research and the development efforts in ICT; and
      • Increase cooperation between educational sector and the community towards expansion of ICT in the Nations education.
    • ICT for all Nigerian students to bridge the digital divide between Nigerian schools
    • a) The universities NUNET project

      The universities NUNET project is one of the applications envisaged under the Education reform agenda. This ICT project attempted to systematically transform the universities in terms of teaching and learning practices including research and school management processes in order to prepare students for modern information age.

      This project was implemented by the democratic government of Obasanjo in collaboration with a private organization

      NUNET IT solution encompasses the computerize School Management System, the browser-based teaching and learning materials and the Help Desk support services

      b) Establishment of new Computer laboratories

      Under NUNET project, which began in 1999, many computer laboratories were constructed on a large scale in Nigerian schools.

      These laboratories are equipped with major ICT facilities such as Personal Computers, Local Network, pr

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