There has been demonstrated a view on inclusive education in case of any type of disability. Inclusive education is considered as the complex issue for the purpose of education. At the point of basic level policies such as disabilities, health, labor markets etc are some issue that crosses education, health, employment and social welfare sector (D. Cameron & F. Valentine, 2001). Policy development in case of disabled individual faces so many challenges for the purpose to avoid uneven and fragmented services. Inclusion (education of all students either with or without disability together in the same school) has become the policy agenda for all developed countries.
The fact is that Inclusive education can be executed at any level and it also holds different goals and motives. Thus the reflection of special education need can be observed. There are six levels identified such as physical level, administrative, terminological, psychological and curricular level (C. J. W. Meijer, Sip Jan Pijl & S. Hegarty, 1994). The intensions for inclusive education are derived from the vision of educational reforms along with the economic concern issues. The policy framework and historical view of inclusive education says that almost ten percent of children and young people with the disabilities are having any type of education. And it has been declared that an inclusion of children in the education sector is mandatory.
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In context of Greece, the special classes were renamed as inclusive classes and it was one of the ways to drive the inclusion. Within the same legislation, the term inclusive classes were renamed as an evaluation and assessment process for identifying students with the disabilities. Thus it is used in numerous contexts. The idea of inclusive education in this developed world has posed a challenged for the traditional aspects as well as role of special type of education. This type of challenge is facing by the disable movements that are taking place in Europe, UK and USA. Inclusive educations first came forward as an access to the mainstream education for disable students.
The mainstream education was first personified within the legislation in USA as per the public law 94-142/99-457/101-476 and education act 1981 in UK. The Salamanca statement has declared that regular schools include inclusion for making a inclusive society and getting education system for all (UNESCO, 1994).
Learning outcome 2: Understand some of the challenges facing teachers in an inclusive classroom.
Inclusion is observed as a long last process with the efforts, time and competence and confidence through the involvement of teachers as well as students. Teachers play a role to maintain the inclusive classrooms and it is unquestionable (Anderson et al, 2007) but it requires an effective and suitable employment of education. The international move is headed for the inclusion of children into the mainstream classrooms before giving education to them in the separated environment. It has become the major concern as well as a challenge for the teachers at present times (Chalmers, 1998).
The biggest challenge faced by the teachers is an integration of children with mixed abilities. Teaching the students with so many types of disabilities can be regarded as a challenge for the teachers to teach in the inclusive classrooms. Students who are having severe disability require much attention than the average students. So the teachers are needed to be having experience to handle the severe type of disabilities and to create the lesson plans on the basis of individual disabilities/ lack of the experiences leads the child not to progress with the necessary skills.
The researcher has shown the fact those students who have the lowest ability in terms of their behavior problems are always be time transition process (Larrivee, 1985). Normally teachers are not exposed to the needs of classrooms and it can be disadvantageous/ challenge for them. The inclusion classrooms involve all students in the activities and therefore teachers need the proper communication and encouragement for the participation. If proper language and adaptive communication tools are lacking, it created difficulties for the teachers to perform in that classrooms.
It is not necessary that all students have to be exposed to the special type of need. Thus it becomes a challenge before the teachers. They should not bear any type of selfishness so that all students can be treated with respect. The teachers also face with a situation of chronic illness in the students and the teachers have to agree with the deaths of students in such type of cases (Chalmers, 1998). When the classrooms and number of students are large, it becomes the big task for the teachers to assist them with the daily routine activities. Their rude behavior may lead to frustration in the students. The abilities vary in case of inclusive classrooms, so the teachers are challenged for addressing children's needs on the basis of their ability.
Learning outcome 3: Understand how learning outcomes can be impacted upon by inclusions.
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Inclusion has become a common concept at the center of the national as well as international policy making in the context of legislations. Inclusion and the school development are linked with each other by a number of researchers (Ainscow, M., Farrell, P., Tweddle, D. and Malki, G., 1999). The inclusion has taken place in the education sector and it is morally right. But the question is that the approach is good for the students or not. Therefore, it is quite crucial to analyze the impact that inclusion process of education can play on learning outcomes. On considering the view of students, it can be noted that education is the process for one and all.
Education plays an indispensible role in the success of students. Education is the characteristic for individuals. However, the learning capacity differs from one student to the other. Therefore, it becomes crucial to provide supportive learning process for individuals who are slow to learn. As stated that is the inclusion impacting learning outcomes or not (Hines and Johnson, 1996). Researchers have found that the inclusion of special students creates an accepted society of learners along with the students who are having disability (Logan, et al., 1995; Staub & Peck, 1995). Those with slow learning capacity shall be given an opportunity to relearn. Therefore, disable students need to be handled in a different manner by teachers. The students sometimes become assertive due to their lack of performance in class. At such instance, the support by teachers comes into role. The teacher shall thus provide separate sessions for students with disability.
It does not matter much that the student is having disability or not. The inclusion has impacted learning outcomes a lot. The researchers have identified some leaning outcomes that are impacted by inclusion of non disabled students (Farlow, 1996). These outcomes are as follows (Staub & Peck, 1995): reducing fear of differences in human qualities that are accompanied by increasing awareness, better self concept performance, identification of principles, improved cognition, caring friends. These can overall help in attainment of better results. Thus, it can be analyzed that the inclusion doesn't work well for all the circumstances. There should be an approach at place to give due care to students suffering from disabilities. This would help them in learning well.
Unit 2 Developing Differentiated Lesson Planning Skills
Learning outcome 1: Demonstrate understanding of the key areas of a lesson plan
A lesson plan enables the objectives that are necessary for carrying out the lesson objective with the proper equipments and material needed. Learning outcomes specify that what pupil understand after completion of the lessons. Lesson planning skills are leaned in the same way as the other skills are learned. The lesson plans are the written sketch of the academic content that helps teachers to organize their methodologies as well as objectives. The lesson plans determines the aim and rationale of the study by focusing on the lesson to be presented.
There are several key areas present that should be included in the lesson plans such as preplanning, lesson set up, opening, body, extended practices, lesson closing and the assessment or evaluation of the lesson plan. Preplanning must include the subject matter that that the person is going to teach. Listing of the important facts, skills, vocabulary terms are also needed to cover in the lesson plan. The aims and objectives along with the clear idea of the subject must be mentioned in it. Learning outcomes are necessary to add so that it can make the clear way of lesson plan.
Lesson setup should include the signal for having attention towards the teacher. Speaking about the rules and procedures is the key area of the lesson plan. Positive language should be used while delivering the lesson plans. Opening of the lesson must state the objectives of the lesson plan. Lesson body is major key area of the lesson plan. It provides a detailed explanation of the related topic step by step also it tells about the description of the introduction part. The lesson body must include the specific things, techniques, materials, multiple check for methods to be used.
The next major key area should provide the platform of opportunities before going for the evaluation part. This area focuses on motoring the session and also it gives feedback to the students. It includes mainly two parts such as homework and follow up practices. Then the closing of the lesson take place that review the key points of the lesson. It gives the students an opportunity for drawing conclusions from the lesson. It must be meaningful to all. The assessment or evaluation is an important key area of the lesson plans. It explains the ways to find opportunities for the students. Overall these all sections are the key areas for understanding the lesson plan.
Learning outcome 2: Explain how a lesson plan can meet the needs of individual learners
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Learners make use of their own approaches for better learning ability. There is always the need to have a lesson plan of such a nature that it is good for all the learners. The plan shall not just act in favour of one or two people, but shall act in a universal manner. The idiosyncratic approaches differ from one learner to the other. Learners shall be treated as key practitioner for their unique performance skill. For an instance, one expects them to carry on the process of learning and become a strong practitioner, there are chances of mistake.
Text books also serve as the learning sources with their own set of plans for learning. Learning process in classrooms help in creation of assertion among learners due to improved learning approach (Artiles, 1995). For all the learners, there is a different vision. The same chapter can act differently from one person to the other. This helps in ensuring the learning takes place in a different manner for all. The lesson plan at such an instance gives one an opportunity to learn in a thorough manner. The approach used for the learning through lesson plans gives a summary of the learning process, prior to starting the learning.
Each of the individual has his own set of priorities. Furthermore, there are different set of skills in each of them. To ensure the effect of lesson plan, it should fit well to the individual needs. There should be tailored approach for all them. These provide a brief introduction of the requirement for learning, which are helpful in actual learning. The summary in advance gives one an opportunity to explore the concepts beforehand, to ensure that there are positive effects of the learning process at secondary stages (Bouwer & Toit, 2000). This would overall result for better growth of learning process.
Therefore, the lesson plan can help at such instance for the learners in IEP cases as well. The needs are completely satisfied based on the individual needs. All the people belonging to different genera and skills learn from the process to act in a favourable manner for the skill set.
Learning outcome 3: Be able to adopt an inclusive plan for a mixed-ability group
Learning process is quite crucial for a being to praise the culture of society. This helps in empowering the state of society functions. The process of inclusion learning has its own pros and cons for the students. Depending on the need and perception of individuals, there are different groups to carry on the learning process. The individuals with mixed ability operate to result in better learning from each other. The good mix of talent gives an opportunity to learn from different skill groups. This is the reason that researchers like Cigman (2007) have appreciated the use of mixed ability leaning process for inclusive groups.
This acts in favour of the beings. The paraprofessional teaching process can further be supported by the inclusive form of education (Loreman et al., 2005). There is a direct impact of this approach on the results. The mixed ability helps in creation of an environment that is of varied nature. Someone might be good in differentiation skills, while for other the integration is a good choice, someone might be comfortable to work with numbers, while for the other theoretical concepts are a better option. At such an instance, the opportunity for students to work in groups gives them an opportunity to perform better. They can learn from each other during this process. A student good in numbers might help his colleague, no matter whether he is disabling or not. This can also act in favour of increased collaborative approach of students.
Thus, the outcomes shall be well supported by the performers. The instance would also act to support the learners perform at different instances. There would be better work environment at place to give them an opportunity to perform well. The integrated work culture results in attainment of outcomes. This helps in creation of assertive nature of an individual to execute well at different instances. The ability to respond in different situations is helpful for learning process. Therefore, it can be concluded that the mixed approach has better opportunity to perform well in various situations and carry on the process of learning in an inclusive manner. This can help right from the early stages of an individual to perform well in work environment (Deiner, 2009), which can overall result in further benefits to the learning process of an individual, whether disabled or not.
Learning outcome 4: Be able to demonstrate understanding of an IEP
IEP (individual education plan) are the written statements that are designed to meet the individual needs of the children. It is required in case of individual with the disabilities and adopted under the individuals with the disabilities education act (IDEA). It guarantees the child an appropriate public education (FAPE) within the preventive type of environment. IEP is takes as the characteristic of individual education. Thus it improves the teaching as well as learning. It is mandatory under the laws that these must be reviewed once in a year.
Peter is a student who is having the problem of social earning difficulties (Asperger type) and there is no diagnosis for his illness. His social integration skills are very weak so he was not able to attend the schools in his early childhood. Therefore a proper implementation of IEP is needed. The interest of Peter to please his teachers for his good work, and perform well, can act in favour of him. The approach can result in guiding and supporting an individual for special needs (Dupper, 2002). The proper plan shall be at work place to make Peter learn a lot of issues related with the learning process. This would be of help for his future. The learning process in him is different as compared to that of others. Thus, the approach can help in attainment of outcomes.
For proper results, it is suggested that IEP shall not only limit to options for placement or service availability (Gargiulo, 2010). Parents, guardians, and people who are close to an individual, can help in attainment of results (Gargiulo, 2010). Therefore, it is suggested that for Peter, people related to him can be of great help in designing the learning process. However, parents are considered as the most important and effective for IEP structuring process (Lentz, 2004). Therefore, these shall be made use of in designing the program for education of Peter on individual basis. He would be able to learn from his weaknesses, as exposed by his people. This would help in making a safer tomorrow at the expense of tough work for present times. Thus, the process would overall help him in performing well.
Unit 3 Classroom Behavior Management
Learning outcome 1: Understand different strategies for dealing with children's behavior in the classroom and their link with different theories on behavior
Generally children deal with the inappropriate behavior problems in the classrooms that make difficult for them to learn anything. Thus it causes harm to their body as well as their mind and he/she detach himself/herself from the teachers. Children who are having learning difficulties can evaluate themselves severely. Thus self evaluation process helps in it to monitoring their inner self. For these types of students, teachers can establish criteria and then students can compare themselves with others (Coleman & Webber, 2002). Students as well teacher set their own standards to meet the goal and also they can reward themselves only if they find their performance well.
Bringing proper outcomes and rewards should be the main work of the teachers at the time of dealing with the students in the classrooms (Darcy Andries, 2006). The classroom environmental settings should be requesting by giving some serious attention on the classroom behavior management aspect. Thus it prevents monotony in teachers as well as students. It can be related to the contingency management theory. When some undesirable activities are expected to reoccur then positive reinforcement in the environment effectively works. It is used when the behavior of students is out of control in the classroom.
In inclusive education, all students learn together under the same roof, thus weak students find themselves weak. It becomes the duty of a teacher to deal with such type of situations. The solution based model also shows that how disruptive classroom behavior approach by the teachers can improve the behavior of students as well as classroom environment. Thus the psycho-educational model helps in finding the disruptive competencies of students, avoids child behavior deficits and finds strengths for giving better solution. It has been proved that when teacher focus on the strengths of the students, the context changes from the problem based to the solution based behavior model (Metcalf, 1999).
Students display their behavior for variety of reasons such as their initial transition from home to the school along with some environmental factors. It can be very difficult for the teachers as well as students (Hanline, 1993; Rosenkoetter, Hains, & Fowler, 1994). Some children have the problem of language and communication. Thus it leads to the frustration. The behavioral approach is directly linked with it. Teachers can reinforce the positive environment by understanding the behaviors of students.
Learning outcome 2: Understand the strategies for organizing pupils in groups, paired and individual learners
The wide gap has been found between the potentiality of group work and their use in the schools. These types of groups in the classrooms are formed without using any strategic approach and the teachers as well as pupils are concerned with their group work. The pupil grouping in groups, pairs and individual can be used as an organizational manner at the departmental or school level by using banding, streaming, setting and mix ability terms. Other grouping can be used as different type of principles researched within the classrooms (Kutnick et al, 2005). The grouping of people varies in size, assigned tasks (collaborative groups or co-operative groups) and composition.
Generally two types of strategies are used for organizing pupils such as organizational grouping and within class grouping. In case of organizational grouping, pupils are assigned to the particular classes with the specific subjects. Within class grouping strategy is used for make groups of pupil within the classroom to enhance the learning ways. It may create a problem for the teacher when he/she teaches students of mix ability pupils. For that reason only, they have to manage them by using several management strategies such as work groupings. It helps them to organize these type of students wither in a group or in an individual manner.
They can make groups of low ability learners with the high ability learners, high with the high, and low with low. If the activities are well controlled then the high ability person will work well with low ability learner. Group work strategy is also beneficial for the teachers to organize them well. The groups may be of mixed types of similar types. In the smaller group, the weaker student will feel more talented to contribute in the group. If group work with a pool of information, then divides the information between the groups and pressurize all the students to work together. These strategies may help the teachers for preventing the process of stigmatization.
Whole class mixing can also be done and this can be assumed as the favored strategy for the teachers to be adopted. This mingle activity includes students and they can talk or interact with various students in the class to achieve the task objectives. The students can work with students at various levels and can have the experience of stronger as well as weaker communication. It gives support to the weak students and provides chance for strong students.
Learning outcome 3: Understand management strategies for teaching pupils with EBD and other special education needs.
The children with the emotional or behavioral difficulties (EBD) or with the social, emotional or behavioral difficulties within the classroom increase some behavior management policy aspects and inclusive education. Some groups such as staff people, children and parents are likely to have interests in this area (Chazan, 1993; Cooper, 1989; Kolvin, Garside, Nicol,
Macmillan & Wolstenholme, 1976; Laslett, 1982; Wheldall, Merrett & Borg, 1985). These management strategies are located with academic criteria. These approaches are used to promote some acceptable behavior of students at the schools.
There are many management strategies available for the teachers to support the students. Behavioral strategies can be used to deliver the rewards to the students within the classrooms. It is effective for the students in reducing behavior that is unruled in the classroom. Positive effects can be controlled at the time of involvement of delivery. These strategies are incorporated for getting teacher's support. Cognitive behavioral strategies are used to train student with self instructions. Thus it reduces the disruptive behavior and it sustains over the time. The researcher has shown that gender along with the tradition is more important identification factors for the certain groups of students who are having EBD. Thus it leads the focus towards the support offered to pupil (Daniels et al., 1998). These can be used for the students whose behavior may be affected by their learning.
There so many management strategies available for the students with the special education needs such as leaning difficulty, hearing difficulty, autism etc. The approaches like ecological approach, behavioral approaches are used for managing these types of students. The planning of these strategies is very complex to find responses from the students with the special educational needs. Behavioral models are used for reinforcing theories in the learning backgrounds. It includes the all the behaviors to be learned.
Cognitive-behavioral approaches are used for understanding the reflection of their behavior patterns. The advantages of this model lies down in the practical aspects that allows all learning and teaching strategies for understanding goals for pupils. Constructivist models seek the knowledge out and make great sense to gain satisfaction from their learning. Ecological models are used to concentrate on in interaction part or goodness of fit.
Unit 4 Use of ICT in Lesson delivery
Learning outcome 1: Create or adapt resources for a mixed-ability group of learners
The mix ability grouping of learner is an important tool for the multigrade teachers. When the utilization of ICT (information and communication technologies) resources are combined with the grouping techniques, the result can be remarkable in this case. The differentiated learning is proved as a better solution for this. Planning of the session with the outcomes enables the learners with the literacy, language and ICT. The use of differentiated learning makes all the learning processes available and additionally, it promotes the development of ICT skills. This type of resource enhances the mix ability learners to meet their needs and objectives.
The use of ICT applications at any place and at any time has become the possible phenomenon for giving support to teaching and learning. Mixed ability group of learners also help in creating a lively environment in the learning hall. The different skill set of individuals learn skills from each other. This adds to the performance of individuals. Therefore, it is suggested to make use of this technique for better results. There should be a balance maintained for using this approach. At certain instances, there is the probability of failure of approach due to risk features attached with it. As per the research conducted in England; teachers preferring not to have mixed ability group learning process (Anon, 2010). This is especially for the learning process of Mathematics. Therefore, it is suggested to use different work environments for the learning process. Mixed ability teaching is therefore a tough choice for courses using technical terms.
On considering the other side, we can note that mixed ability teaching process helps individuals to learn more from each other as per Killen (2006). This process makes individuals know about each other, their strength and weaknesses, their approach for answering or responding to certain tough situations etc. These all result in learning at a faster rate. Thus, the process ensures the benefits to individuals. Therefore, we can note that there are both pros and cons attached with this sort of learning process. Depending on the need of an individual, the selection shall be made for better gaining of knowledge.
Learning outcome 2: Create or adapt resources for two pupils with learning difficulties
It becomes very important to know that the students who have the learning difficulties need various ICT resources for the purpose of learning. ICT supports in this area most. The wide ranges of resources are available such as hardware and software. It includes the total variety of special educational needs in mainstream as well as special schools (Sally McKeown, ISBN 1-84190-041-9). These ICT resources help the pupil with the learning difficulties. It provides the better support to them and also increases the curriculum experiences of the student with the learning difficulty.
Thus the resources help in motivating and developing the skills. Numerous resources can be adapted to enable the learners to respond effectively according to the demands of the prospectus. For the pupil with moderates type of LD, on screen grids and overlay keyboards can be given for the purpose of writing and presenting their information. Word processor can also be provided them with the list of topics. It helps them to provide access o the vocabulary exercises. The pupil can build his own way of writing. Instruments such as spell checkers and calculators support the learners who have the difficulties in memorizing and sequencing.
Multimedia technology can also be used that presents pictures, sounds, videos, texts and graphics on the screen. It provides support as well as ideas to work with student with LD. They may be able to take photographs and can make its display on the computer screen. Thus it gives opportunity to the learners who are dependent on the written words. Speech feedback also gives some additional support to become independent learners. Software for strengthening spelling or memory work is also helpful for moderate problems.
If the pupils have the severe learning difficulty then different type of ICT resources is to be used. Pressing space bar key on the keyboard can be used for changing the picture on the computer screen provides a better experiences of cause and effect. A touch screen device can be used to match the thing on the screen for making use of the choices. It gives a quick feedback to the pupil on their reactions. Speech recognition system provides a better platform to input information to the students. Speech feedback system, computer, overlay keyboards, on screen grids are other tools that give support for understanding anything (Becta, 2000).
Learning outcome 3: Understand how these resources are meant to meet the needs of the learners in your class
Teachers play an important role in maintaining the decorum of the inclusive classrooms and it is conclusive (Anderson et al., 2007). But there are significant mission required for achieving suitable and effective means of education. For this purpose ICT resources are helping in it and they are gifted or hopeful resources. It helps the students to maintain their learning behavior and rises above it. ICT is most powerful tool to support inclusive classroom practices for the learners by providing better means of communication and by assisting the learners to break the learning barriers. Thus it leads to some under achievements to meet the needs of the learners in the classrooms (Becta, 2007).
The ease of accessing multimedia products as well as offering bets practices in education sector helps the teachers to make the use of ICT resources of ICT tools to support all the students. The proper and effective use of learning styles depends on the learning experience of learners. Individuals have different type of learning behavior as well as preferences. Thus the use of interactive multimedia resources helps to engage the learners with all type of abilities in terms of e-learning. To meet the learners' academic needs, the digital learning resources would be appropriate for academic level. The proper level of understanding or advancing the knowledge as well as ability according to the learners should be used.
There are some factors that encourage the positivity of learners from using these types of resources such as: use of various media sources, skill levels, proper feedback, versatility, clear focus, good environment and a feeling of achievement. Children always want to personalize their learning skills. The elements of motivation lead the motivation for pupil. Thus the ICT resources such as e-learning software enable them to research with various approaches to meet their needs. It may be the important element to build self worth in their learning.
The effectiveness of ICT resources is not always helpful for everyone in all places and it depends on their use and purpose. The valuable sources may be practiced from best performance but there is no one formula available to determine the best possible level of ICT integration in the education sector.
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