In The Modern University Teachers Education Essay

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In the modern university teachers play an important role in the learning process and the range of its psychological and pedagogical impact on students is expanding. Teacher cannot be only a guide of knowledge and information; he should be an educator, psychologist, and psychotherapist. On this depends the success his pedagogical activity and authority.

Recently, Russia has a growing number of students who require replacement teachers. Students defend their right and complain about the incompetence of teachers avowedly and demand their resignation. Not so long ago the students of the Moscow State University of Printing achieved ​​the resignation of the university rector [4].

In this connection the following thesis was advanced: I demonstrate that interaction on the line - «teacher and student» is impossible without of contradiction and conflicts because of mismatch of value - normative views.

The aim of this work is to study the essence of conflict between two closely related groups - teachers and students. In this connection, the following objectives put forward:

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1) To reveal the essence of conflicts between teachers and students and to study patterns of behavior;

2) To study the causes of conflict between two groups - teachers and students;

3) To study ways of managing conflict and ways to resolve them.

Features of interpersonal conflicts in the university

Cross-cultural conflict can be defined as conflict generated, and perhaps exacerbated or perpetuated, by cultural differences among the groups involved in the conflict. A person's culture informs his or her worldview, moral code, judgments, and ideas or perceptions about others [1].

The most common reason for conflicts between students and teachers - the inadequacy of assessing students. Often (during examinations and tests) there are situations when subjective opinion of teacher comes up against subjective expectations of the student. Many students, for example, unreasonably require to increase the score. And also, there are teachers who are almost never put "excellent", such teachers are convinced that only they have an excellent knowledge of the subject. Such a teacher is always in conflict with the students. Some teachers nevertheless understate assessment based on the personal characteristics of the students. Also students retorts in practical classes and their unacceptable behavior during lectures cause negative attitudes of the teacher. Sometimes, considering assessment of their knowledge as inadequate, students come into conflict with the teacher. But most of the student just does not show negative emotions - hostility, hatred, jealousy, mistrust, revenge, and then offended student tells his friends about it.

For today, developed many classifications of pedagogical communication between teachers and students. I consider that the most accurate is the classification suggested by M. Talen. He divided all possible styles of pedagogical communication on 7 models.

Model 1 - "Socrates." A teacher with a reputation as a lover of disputes and discussions in class. He is characterized by individualism and unsystematic in the learning process because of the constant confrontation. In this model, students reinforce the protection of their own position, learn to defend them.

Model 2 - "The head of the group discussion." Main thing in the educational process is the achievement of agreement and the establishment of cooperation between students. This teacher is a mediator, for which a democratic consent is more important than the result of debate.

Model 3 - "Master". The teacher acts as a role model. Students try be similar to this teacher, primarily not only in education, but in attitude to life in general.

Model 4 - "The General". Avoid any ambiguity, exacting, rigidly achieves obedience because he believes that he is always right. Students, as an army recruits must obey implicitly. According to the author's typology, this style is most common than all together, in teaching practice.

Model 5 - "Manager". Style, was extended in a radically oriented schools and closely related with an atmosphere of effective classroom activities, the promotion of their initiative and independence. Teacher tends to discuss with each students sense of the problem, he seeks to a qualitative control and assessment the final result.

Model 6 - "Coach." Students in this case are similar to the players of one team, where each individual are not important, but together they can achieve great things. Teacher plays the role of the mastermind, for which the main thing - the end result, a brilliant success, victory.

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Model 7 - "Guide". Teacher plays the role of walking encyclopedia. Concise, accurate, low-key. He knows answers to all questions in advance, as the questions. Such a teacher is technically perfect and that is why often boring. [5]

These models are a kind of extreme. Most often in the teaching practice students are faced with a combination of styles in varying proportions. Picture of the mutual expectations of the students and teachers is as follows. Students expect that the teacher will: respect the students; will give the course program and the requirements for the exam;  regularly attend classes; offer modern material; use effective methods of teaching; start and finish the lesson on schedule; adequately assess student knowledge. Teacher expects that the student will: respect the teachers; regularly attend classes; prepare for classes; work actively during the lesson.

Causes of the conflict in interaction of students and teachers

Specificity conflicts "teacher - student" is that the student is an independent subject of the pedagogical process. In fact, he acts as a "customer" of education and is able to consciously assess "the proposed product."

The learning process, as well as all development is impossible without contradictions and conflicts. The confrontation with the students is a common phenomenon which today cannot be considered favorable. Surveys indicate that the students in relation to the topic react very negatively to: the attitude of some teachers; sudden testing on the topic which is not passed; getting negative assessments due to personal hostility to the student or a personal conflict between teachers and students; prepossession of teachers without any justification; infringement of the rights; incompetence of teachers; lessons frustration due to delay or absence of the teacher in the workplace [2, 3].

Assessment is a kind of a statement of availability of knowledge about the subject. Not only in universities but also in schools can be observed that the assessment is not fulfilling its basic functions. There are cases when teachers use assessment to punish the student.

According to estimates of the students the causes of conflicts with teachers are: injustice, prejudice, teachers in classes and exams - 39%; arrogance, derogatory attitude toward students -29%; incompetence, negligent attitude to studies, inefficient organization of teaching - 23%.

It's hard not to notice the large number of statements relating to the imbalance of teachers. In the description of this type of conflict explains that "teachers yell at students," "humiliate and insult." Study of lifestyle of teachers found that they have symptoms of neurosis. The question: "Have you ever had the state of irritability, impatience, distraction or any other manifestations of discomfort?" 77% of teachers have called a periodic state. The study confirmed the idea of ​​the social origins of neurosis: teachers with lower status, low wages and opportunities more often notice disturbing symptoms. However, students also live in the same neurotic environment. Teachers observe their "rudeness", irresponsibility and unwillingness to match the status of the student.

Methods of conflict management in the learning process

There are several common ways of managing conflict in the learning process, in this paper revealed four of the most effective ways.

Resolution is a joint activity of its members, aimed at solving the problems. It requires the activity of both parties to change the terms of engagement and eliminate the causes of the conflict. Ie teacher and student must therefore give reasons for its position to each of them to understand the thoughts of another.

Settlement is elimination of contradictions through participation in the conflict a third party. If the student does not agree with the assessment, he may retake the subject in the presence of the commission, or to answer the same questions other teachers chosen by the university or the student directly.

Attenuation - temporary cessation of counteraction with preservation the main features of the conflict. It can occur due to depletion of resources of both sides (lack of arguments, may finish the time allotted for the lecture); loss of motivation - student accept the assessment, or teacher agrees to put the assessment required by the student; revaluation of motives - the student can accept the assessment in order to improve a relationship with the teacher.

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Elimination - this method based on elimination of the basic structural components of the conflict - that is, when students are transferred to another group.

CONCLUSION

Learning activity is regulated by the student plans and programs. She is a purposeful process of learning, skills and development of a student's personality. In the process of learning activity student act as its subject. Teachers have a huge role; depend on them how students will come out of the university and what is the treasure of knowledge in his head. But we cannot deny that not only teachers but also students have an impact on the learning process. They determine what will be the attitude of the teacher to the student group as a whole and to each of the students individually.

Thus, we can say that the conflict in the university is a specific form social interaction. It is a process of resolving contradictions that arise in the educational process, with a particular form of social interaction, which is characterized by high degree of mismatch of values ​​and normative views.

There are many reasons for conflict, both groups have certain requirements. Therefore, the main task of the teacher and the student to find the optimum middle in which their interaction will be much more successful and productive. The need find a compromise to make contact, to be loyal is a necessary requirement for the well-coordinated interaction, clear vision of possible problems and their solution.

Most negative way conflict could escalate into personal non-perception of people., ie complaints to the rector, dean, which can cause damage to business reputation, or refusal to communicate with each other. In any case, conflict must be solved, without moral injury and effects on impairment of personality and dignity. The main criterion for resolution of the conflict must be the result of the satisfaction of the parties. Parameters such as the degree of resolution of conflict and the victory of the right opponent are important.