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Primary education is the basic and foremost right of every child.Its availability and provision is not only the responsibility of state but parents and households. Primary education brings awareness among the masses, opens avenues for opportunities as well self-advancement and improvement and reduces chronic and inter-generational poverty. As a first step in the creation of welfare and just society, universal primary education is an absolute pre-requisite for sustainable development.
Every single child that means girls as well as boys should be able to complete full course of primary education.
In order to compete with the surrounding world, children are prepared from very early childhood. As early as four or five years, the children grew up in the home, where they seek advice about how family life, and how to interact with people in general pretense. But life and the competition and the whole world, life and excel in the upcoming one in later life.
General education in various disciplines is essential to provide each of which is primary education for children. Primary education is compulsory for students on life, where all the related disciplines the basic knowledge and necessary, which may include counting, word formation and understanding of general ethics, norms and standards of knowledge around.
Primary education is usually started before, in some countries, such as nursery classes in other counties is the first step the main nursery. All children to education, the use of this very crude and professional life around the world, they have to deal with in later life information.
This is in all countries, all of the programs and courses to take mandatory status and children with language, art, science, mathematics and other aspects of life, especially the basic knowledge of religion, introduced compulsory education.
Primary education usually ends at ten years old as fifth grade students through their exams. Started within this period of time, so that all students in the community to work as a class and how to deal with and obey the general understanding in society. Other than this discipline is the most important aspect is secondary in these initial experiences to strengthen vocational education in the former stream.
Yet basic education in poor countries like Pakistan is in crisis.
67% of children (aged between6-10) go to school (72% male and 62% female)
57% literacy rate (69% male and 45% female)
Thousands of new trained teachers are needed today to provide childern with a decent education
There are so many reasons for children to miss school , but poverty is the main one. Parents cannot afford school fees, uniforms and books amount.
Most of communities may not have enough resources to run a school .In most of rural areas, schools are at long distances which make children to avoid them and especially it makes impossible for girls.
The explanation for girls' exclusion isn't simple. In different cultural values boys get priority when it comes to education. Girls are kept home to help with childcare and household working.They do not enjoy the same freedom of movement as boys.
It is important for the Government of Pakistan to make extra effort by running more programs and educational prioritized policies to achieve Millennium Educational Development Goals set under the declaration signed in 2000.
This topic is chosen to draw attention of every individual to strive together for the development of elementary education which can be guided by the analytical framework provided in claiming the Millennium-Development-Goals.
The study will enable us to find impact of different factors effecting the achievement of Millennium-Development-Goals for education. It also includes programs and policies used to achieve the gaps and attain maximum accomplishment of goals. To conclude, it will highlight the problems relating to this issue and giving solutions to them.
1.2 Importance of research title:
The goal of achieving universal primary education is especially important because educational attainment has been noted as a key aspect to overall economic growth ( Gupta et. al., 2002). To measure progress towards this goal, the United Nations has chosen three indicators of primary universal education: Universal Literacy, Universal Primary Enrollment and Universal Primary Education Completion. Additionally, the United Nations has called for Gender Parity, or the equal representation of males and females, in primary education as a part of a separate goal meant to promote gender equality and empower women. As the deadline for completing the MDGs has been set for 2015, developing countries must establish the most efficient ways to achieve these goals with the limited resources available.
The primary objective of this topic is to review the extent to which-and how-educational developments are reflected in national MDGs-based development strategies and policies in Pakistan, in order to identify critical gaps and challenges, and to see what can be learned from these experiences to make improvements in achieving goals.
The topic, therefore, is intended for use by development of educational authorities, and specifically by policymakers, national human rights institutions, civil society organizations, and United Nations funds, programs and agencies working to integrate educational rights into national and international efforts to achieve the Millennium-Development-Goals (MDGs).
1.3 Brief review of status of education in Pakistan since its birth:
Since the birth of Pakistan, in last 63 years different comprehensive documents and policies at national level on restructuring and improvement of education system were produced in different years 1959, 1972, 1979 and 1992. Yet, the limited economic resources, poor appreciation of education priorities, inadequate commitment, and improper implementation of laws and lack of response from the people never allowed the desired transformation to take place.
In 1998, the then government, made an agreement to this basic responsibility, by announcing the policy on 27th March 1998. The National Education Policy 1998 was formulated to transform the Pakistani nation into an educated, cultured, integrated, cohesive entity that can compete and stand up to future challenges. The two of the main objectives that were set under this policy were to universalize primary education for the children, youth and adults by the year 2010 through non-formal approach and to attain universal literacy rate.
In September 2000, at the United Nations HQ in New York City,just after two and half years of national education policy for Pakistan was devised, 189 countries from across the world signed the Millennium Declaration to achieve minimum standard of quality of life. Pakistan was also one of them. Eight Millennium-Development-Goals were agreed to achieve the objectives of the Declaration by 2015 and begin a new era of peace and equality. The first specific goal set under MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty and hunger,second was to achieve universal primary education, third to promote gender equity and empower women, fourth to reduce child mortality, fifth to improve maternal health,sixth to combat HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases, seventh to ensure environmental sustainability and eight to develop a global partnership for development.
Primary educational development is the second goal to achieve after eradicating hunger and poverty.
To set the world on a new course of progression, rich and poor country, old and new, had signed a declaration. The human race had never done much collective effort and potential to do well before in history.
Declarations can be signed but just as easily forgotten. In todays life of international politics due to global economic and social unstability, priorities change fast and commitments are delayed. As a nation, it is our responsibility to join together and to fight against this global war. It can be our generation that eliminates illiteracy and create a world for every man. It can be our generation who can provide a path of success and bright future for the next generations.
Governments are answerable to the people they govern and it's those people, you and me, who have the ability to make sure they keep their commitments. So far the current rate of progress for Millennium development goals to be fulfilled by 2015 is difficult.If we want to, we can make a difference by joining with each other to make our voice count. Our vote counts and so does our voice. So let's make our difference to the country today and make illiteracy history.
These are the several reasons which hinder the achievement of MDGs for education will be focused but other important variables will not be ignored. All these elements have been identified in this research paper and are given in detail.
Though Pakistan has run through a political turmoil as well as natural disaster like earthquakes of 2004-5 and floods of 2009 has horrible and awful after effects on the economy as well as social infrastructure of Pakistan. Yet we as a nation should not give up and continue to our best to achieve these MDGs.
1.4 Importance of topic for Academic authorities:
The research paper has its scale and importance. It has a very wide scope and its scale of importance is also immense. The topic has its importance globally as this problem is not the problem of one country but it is a global issue and has a global perspective. A lot of work has been done in this regards but still there is a need to pin point the problems until no proper action is being taken.
This research investigates the achievement for educational MDGs in Pakistan, identifying the problems, issues and hindrances in not achieving the desired goals and suggesting some recommendations to achieve the targeted goals.
This paper, therefore, is intended for use by development of educational authorities, and specifically by policymakers, national human rights institutions, civil society organizations, and United Nations funds, programs and agencies working to integrate educational rights into national and international efforts to achieve the Millennium-Development-Goals (MDGs).
Ministry of education has gained importance and is playing a very fruitful and dominating work in the society. Students and teachers are doing research on such topics; it will help them understand well the problem.
1.5 Key Definitions :
The definitions of important terminologies or words are as follow:
The act or process of educating; the result of educating, as determined by the knowledge skill, or discipline of character, acquired; also, the act or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study or discipline.
It is most often referred to as elementary education, which is usually composed of grades one through six. The main purpose of primary education is to give children a strong foundation in the basics of a general curriculum, with an emphasis on reading and math.
(www.ehow.com › Education › K-12 › K-12 Basics)
1.6 Study objective:
This study attempts to review and examine the country's specific policies , programs, existing provisions and strategies which have been adopted to achieve the millennium development goal to ensure that by2015 every single boy and girl will be able to complete full course of primary schooling. Moreover, the study also suggests some recommendations and looks at the different factors that have an impact in achievement of these goals.
To study the impact of the Net primary enrolment ratio (%) on literacy rate gap.
To study the impact of the completion / survival rate grade 1 to 5 (%) on literacy rate gap.
To study the impact of the GPI (Gender parity index) on literacy rate gap.
To study the effect of the Public expenditure as % of gdp on education on literacy rate gap.
To study the impact of the Pupil-teacher ratio on literacy rate gap.
To study the proposition that Poverty rate has significant/insignificant impact on literacy rate gap.
To study the impact of Non formal education(deeni madrasas) on literacy rate gap.
To study the insignificant/significant impact of population aged (0-14) (% of total) on literacy rate gap.
To study the proposition that primary education teachers (% of females) has a significant/insignificant impact on literacy rate gap.
To study the impact of low weight babies on literacy rate gap.
To study the impact of number of primary schools on literacy rate gap.