Importance of education can never be neglected in any stage of life because without education survival is difficult in today's world. The function of education is to teach and to educate people about the practical world. Its role is to teach and to let other think intensively and critically, so as to develop intelligence. It creates identity of a person and has ability to generate skills, talents, abilities, proficiencies, knowledge and dexterity.
World has now globalized and in this globalized world, one has to do something in order to maintain his importance or survival. Third world countries lack behind due to lack of nuclear technology, they have no proper military and no resources so as to protect and secure themselves for future danger. Thus, at the time of crises, they have to ask support and monetary funds from other countries those who adapt knowledge and education earlier.
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Sociological theories that is Functionalist theory, Conflict theory and Interactionism theory has put emphasis that education is important not only for an individual but for society as well. It has ability to remove differences and discrimination and it has generated a sense of integrity, trust and faith. In reality, these theories has made the system in education work, with the teachers, parents, school boards and committees the institution of education continues to function (Croninger, 2011).
These theories has played a vital role in developing and spreading the importance of knowledge and expertise, and has presented the benefits of education in a different way thus to aware people about its significance.
How does Each Theory apply to the Selected Sociological Institution? What are the Similarities? What Are The Differences?
Speaking about theories and its applications then according to functionalist perspective, education has played an obvious role in the development of society as society is composed of interconnected units and education has endowed with hold and strength to society through social synchronization. It has focused on the traditions that universal education can serve the needs of society. The theory believes that education is a mean to convey, express and transmit knowledge and skills to the next generation and it has developed strong and productive members of society (Piaget, 1965).
The functionalist theory is divided into four main components. The first one is to transfer the dominant culture, then to determine that society is a mixture of people that is integration of society third is to promote the values, ethics, norms and tradition of society and forth is to promote a desirable social change. If we look from the functionalist's point of view then education is optimistic and constructive in serving society to function because it provides a value consensus and social solidarity.
Another perspective of Functionalist theory about education is that education is one the teaches children about the values and traditions of society that is child gets its basic education through school so all the traits of life like confidence, teamwork, spirit of determination, enthusiasm of creativity and innovation, humility, patience and ability to meet deadlines, he gets from his early basic educational institution.
Thus functionalist theory wants students to learn and educate themselves so that their future can be saved.
According to conflict theory, through education, one can raise its standard that is through education an individual can develop and can convert his life from a poor and needy to an obedient worker. Thus, it is an ordered system of inequality that is beneficial to the people and organizations so as to have resource of brain and intelligence.
Both conflict theory and functionalist theory has same functions that is, to spread education but according to functionalist theory, education is beneficial for an ordered system of society having equality rather than inequality. Also there is a dissimilarity that functionalist theory sort people based on merit but conflict theory starts from the school life that is instead of merit, conflict theory provides training and develops a child to be proper in future. It further disagree that schools opt along distinct class and ethnic lines. According to conflict theory, those people who are securing a work position, they are trained by schools and the theory has recognized their position as a low class member of society (Kohlberg & Turiel, 1971).
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Speaking about Interactionism theory, then this theory is limited to classroom boundaries that is, direct classroom observations. For instance, teachers lecture, students' performance, students' intake and perception and their behavior in front of teacher. Thus, this theory defines education in terms of social interactions and symbols (Gilligan, 1982).
Interactionism theory is quite different from the two because this theory is depend on direct observation where as other are indirect forms. Also, the theory is not defined in terms of merit nor any structured system, instead it is a general observation which is restricted to a room.
Interactionism theory serves education in micro level, whereas conflict and functionalism theory serves humanity on macro basis.
How does Each Theory Affect the Views of the Individual Who Is Part of the Institution?
Functionalist theory refers to individualism, thus it is defined in such a way so as to promote liberal rights that is, and one must be open-minded and straight forward. Thus, this theory is an example of American culture, which are individualistic and those who like to generate competition rather than being grouped. So, view of those individuals will be career oriented and competitive, which are parts of functionalist theory. Individual are more competitive and consider success as their main aim.
For functionalist theory, there can be both positive and negative views. Speaking about positive views so approach towards education and stuff is positive. It is good to opt for best and thus refine or furnish them for brilliance. But there is a negative approach as well; it is an approach of generating antagonism and opposition that is if competition is friendly then it is good, but if it is creating a hostile environment then there are chances that society will become enemy of one another.
Conflict theory refers to hard work and determination. These people consider education as an influential medium to maintain dominance, power structures and thus a submissive and complaint personnel for capitalism. In the eye of an individual, conflict theory is a way to increase the level of IQ and to gain more technology and high salaries.
There is a change of mind setting in conflict theory; every individual has started to respect himself or herself as an eligible member of getting education as conflict theory has allowed each and every member without merit basis to get education in a proper manner.
Before Interactionism theory, there was no concept of concentrating students in class, it was a routine of teachers to come, teach and go, without recognizing the aspects that student understand and the one which he not. Interactionism theory creates a difference and thus according to the students, now they are more towards learning and proper development. The theory has encouraged them to take keen interest in education.
Besides focusing on student's ability, Interactionism theory conducted a research about student's preference on the seats of classroom. The research was carried out by Rosenthal-Jacobson that is he let children choose for the seats. On examining, Jacobson found that the excellent students preferred to grab the first row, thus good students quickly approached for middle one, while the weak at the last, so he then arrange students in an opposite manner, that is he sent middle and the last row in front which results in better understanding of the children.
How does each Theory Affect the Approach to Social Change within the Selected Institution?
Functionalist theory added a survey based result that those children who has joined the school at an early age and has equipped themselves with high school and university environment are better in differentiating between right and wrong, treatment versus mistreatment and bad versus good and they are the one responsible of making society as classy and well-mannered. Those children who spent their life without school, in an unproductive and non-defensive society have to face problems and queries in life (Turiel, 1983).
Functionalist theory has not brought any change in terms of social gatherings, but however it has generated a sense of friendly and fruitful competition. Everyone has its own identity and in order to enhance one's identity, special efforts should be taken in regard. One has to quit social gatherings and has to eliminate everyone so that a special good can be achieved.
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Conflict theory affects the approach of social change within education because before this theory one does not have idea to manage and improve himself. It is this theory that has brought a social change by recommending people to not waste their life haphazardly, instead work for their life by educating themselves properly and thus to create an identity.
This theory is involved in social change by modifying the ways of approaching people that is haphazard selection of information and on the basis of that information, serving of education. Several communal groups and shared public services have altered their traditional ways of living when they realized the need of information and technology. Obviously, if we speak about technological movements then technology is the biggest part of our life and of twenty first century. It has been discussed before that if any state wants to survive that is, if it wants to grow, to prosper, then technology is worth needed in order to dominate and to influence the world.
Interactionism theory brought up a change by introducing effective ways of teaching that is those ways which are likeable by students and are productive as well. Interactionism theory is between students and teachers. It is surrounded by a classroom environment. Before introducing a change, students were grabbing knowledge about theoretical work, but now teachers are introducing them with outside environment (Cliffs, 2012).
Teachers, first time realize the fact that students are likely to learn more from their normal day to day experiences rather than theoretical learning because they have to work in the real world. Although bookish knowledge is good to deal with specific situations, but obviously when you will enter in corporate world, so will provide worthwhile experience and market exposures.
Within the Sociological Institution Selected, how does each Theory Affect the Views of Society?
Those societies who consider education as very important has made education as a part of their culture and are keen to practice it in order to dominate the world. Education vary from place to place because when people move from one place to another they feel a difference of tradition, culture and values and so as education because believes of people vary according to location. Functionalism theory has provided its support to learn about several cultures so as to promote diversity. Society is now classy that is standardized and class conscious and thus more productive; they have learned a sense of unity and faith (Power, Higgins & Kohlberg, 1989).
Functionalist theory further modified the views of people and society by generating self confidence that is it educates people to learn more because more knowledge will add to the skills and capabilities and more capabilities will generate an internal sense of confidence and belief. An individual with self-confidence will have more spirit and determination to achieve something than those who are afraid of discoveries and inventions.
Conflict theory has worth affected society by introducing effective measures so as to promote knowledge. This theory has played a wide role in removing illiteracy that is theory has explained society the benefits of achieving education from the infant stage. If speaking about American society, then people want their children to go to school and learn. The illiterate though of not achieving education is on its verge of eradication. Now middle and lower class are more towards getting education.
Conflict theory in the eye of society is worth important because this theory has introduced a sense of learning among middle and lower class. Earlier, the concept was to educate the wealthy one; those who have money to grab knowledge but after this theory, there is a concept to educate each and every child.
Interactionism theory has brought fruitful effects of student's interest in education. According to society, Interactionism theory has motivated and encouraged children to learn; due to the teachers support and effective way of teaching, students are able to learn about internal and external environment.
The theory clarified the ways and how a teacher should interact with a student in a classroom environment and thus how to create interest that is ways to attract a student towards the way of learning and knowledge.
Education serves as a base of life. It is a mean to introduce a developed society and developed states. To educate is to flourish, to progress, to grow and to move to the world of peace and prosperity. The three theories have clearly mentioned the ways education can be reached to students and thus everywhere because education is a base to enhance effectiveness that is through education there will be an increase in innovation, technology and expertise.
Speaking about a state or country then those countries that struggled a lot and strive out their best in order to grab knowledge are successful in achieving dominancy and influence over others. For instance, Japan is rich in innovation and technology and thus due to education it is moving ahead in every field.
As far as theories are concerned then, Functionalist theory serves education on merit basis and thus promoting competition and individualism, like that in U.S.A. It is a way to carry self-esteem, self-confidence and self-worth. Functionalist theory is an idea of selecting the best out of all. Conflict theory wants each and every child, whether belong to higher middle or lower class, to get education and to serve humanity. The ordered system of inequality of resources should sustain by providing equal opportunity to students to grab knowledge. Inequality in terms of education should be removed and thus everyone should grab a chance to get education and to prove himself. Interactionism theory serves the foundation of group work, this theory refers to interaction between students and teachers and the knowledge that they grab during interaction. The interaction between teachers, students and lecturers is based on the performance of students, the devotion and passion of teacher, enthusiasm of students towards learning and the favorable environment of classroom.
The theories have a positive effect in the life of an individual, group, people, society and overall world because this world would not have been globalized without education. In short, these theories serve as a foundation stone to acknowledge ethics and moral values thus to promote good thoughts.