Impact Of Educational Technology At Secondary School Level Education Essay

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ABSTRACT

The study investigated into descriptive research to evaluate the role of educational technology at secondary school level in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Pakistan). The study has defined the role of emerging technology, needs of educational technologies, impact of educational technology and effectiveness of educational technology. The main objectives of the study were to determine the role of emerging technologies, needs, impact and effectiveness of emerging technologies at secondary school level. The following results were drawn by the researcher in the light of the analysis of the data. It was found that the educational technology have facilitated secondary education as an interactive process. Computer had disseminated theoretical and practical activities for remedial teaching and learning process. Computer mediated communication for counselling was not used. Besides, computer was not used in science practical, overhead projector, educational TV were not used and educational trips and exhibitions are not arranged. There is also shortage of skilled educational technologist.

Keyword: Educational Technology, Emerging Technologies, Computer and Secondary School.

INTRODUCTION

The present era is of technology. The foundation of all types of technology is laid down in educational institutions. The education at secondary level plays a pivotal role and is held responsible for the development of society. Therefore, secondary education can be made effective with the use of educational technology. The secondary schools are using educational technology in curriculum development, in learning process and in the evaluation of learners. Its scope and needs are becoming greater day by day.

Aggarwal J.C (1995, PP.1,2) "Technology has two aspects, i.e. technology as things and technology as social process. Technology as things in the use of scientific knowledge to practical works by organization which involve in 2 Ms i.e. machinery men, while the technology of social process means the use of scientific and other organized knowledge to practical works by hierarchically ordered systems which include men machines."

The word E.T was recognized in 1967 with the establishment of national council for Educational Technology in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom Association for programmed learning immediately added "E.T" to its title in 1968. In the USA it was the department of Audio-Visual Instruction of National Education Association for Educational Commission and technology in 1970. The word "System" appeared quite regularly in the early writings on educational technology. But it did not become widely adopted at once as a central conceptual frame work Educational Technology permanently established now as a field of study. Instructional development educational communication and educational resources are some names which describe the field. Venkataiah (1996, pp.4,7)

LITERATURE

Educational Technology is a field made up of elements of other areas. There is very little content which is unique. It has taken components of cognitive psychology, perception psychology, measurement, evaluation, communication, management, media and system engineering. These components are organized synergistically to a point where the whole is larger than the total of its components. The field is quickly evolved from audio-visual education through educational communication to Educational Technology. There are limits to be overlapping of ideas namely among three terminologies viz Educational Technology, instructional technology, communication technology. .According to Kumar, K.L (2006, p.2) "technology is sign to the techniques as well as the technical invention. A methodical way of applying the techniques to achieve an objective is as important as the use of technical equipment for the same. In fact, techniques are compute as the software and the equipment as the hardware of technology".

Early evolution referred to the role of technology in education which signifies the use of audio-visual equipment, i.e. hardware in educational process. Latter developments recognise the concepts of technology of education, i.e. techniques and methodologies of the teaching learning process. In fact this is the software aspects of educational technology.

OBJECTIVES

Objectives of the study were to:

Evaluate the role of educational technology at secondary level in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.

Assess the impact of educational technology at secondary level in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.

METHODOLOGY

Data was collected through survey and questionnaires. The researcher administered three different self assessment questionnaires and sampled principals, senior school teachers and students at secondary school level in 12 districts out of 24 districts of Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa province (Pakistan) i.e. Mardan, Nowshera, Peshawar, Abbottabad, Kohistan, Shangla, Malakand, Swat, Swabi, Bunner, Dir Bala and Kohat. For demographic profile percentages were used to compare the frequencies of the responses. Chi square was applied to measure the role, needs, impact and effectiveness of educational technology at secondary school level. Heads of the schools, SSTs, students of secondary school and GHS, GGHS total population 1,2,3, and 4 were taken as a sample 1,2,3 and 4 i.e. 25%, 25%, 25% and 5%.

Result

The following results are presented after the data were analysed statistically.

Table No.1 Opinion of Principals regarding the availability of educational technology

S.No

Statement

SA

A

UD

DA

SDA

2

1

The principal possess skills in the use of latest technologies.

50

40

10

20

20

38.5

2

Teachers are interest to use emerging technologies in teaching learning process.

70

30

5

20

15

90.3

3

The emerging technologies make easy the teaching learning process as an interactive process.

100

10

4

16

10

234

4

Emerging technologies have promoted perception of

the learners.

100

20

10

10

-

238.5

5

Emerging technologies have proved to develop intellectual level of the students.

110

10

5

10

5

301

6

Emerging technologies allows direct access to other supporting sister's organization.

120

10

-

4

6

379.7

7

Emerging technologies provides a plane to achieve curriculum objectives.

100

20

5

15

-

240.3

8

The principal has have refresher training in the use of emerging technologies.

60

40

10

10

20

67.1

9

Emerging technologies covered the vast area for

Providing relevant information to teachers.

100

30

-

10

-

252.8

10

The principals have had enough personal control over media.

50

40

10

30

10

45.7

Table No.1: It is observed from the above analysis that calculated value of chi-square is greater than table value of χ2 = 9.488 at P = 0.05, so as a whole that the result is significant. Therefore, it is supported that the emerging technologies are the basic needs of the schools.

Table No.2 Opinion of Teachers regarding the availability of educational technology

S.No

Statement

SA

A

UD

DA

SDA

2

1

Your learners are able to use your chosen media

conveniently and without undue cost to themselves.

250

140

10

60

40

628.3

2

Yours learners have positive feeling about your chosen media, and do they have the learning skills to use them.

100

200

5

250

45

354.5

3

Education television is accessible medium for the

secondary students.

50

30

20

200

300

515

4

Educational television is the effective sources of

increasing enrolment rate.

450

70

10

40

30

1150

5

Computer is used in your teaching learning process.

100

50

30

20

400

848.3

6

Computer disseminated theoretical and practical learning activities.

350

150

10

50

40

643.3

7

Internet and www have enabled students to gain new

learning experience.

400

100

-

60

40

860

8

Institutions have providing educational technologies items for the benefits of the students.

200

50

-

50

300

525

9

The teachers has have related training in use of educational technologies.

100

50

-

200

250

676.1

10

The teachers has have related refreshers course regarding educational technologies.

80

50

20

300

150

415

Table No.2: It is observed from the above analysis that the calculated value of chi-square is greater than table value of χ2 = 9.488 at P= 0.05, so as a whole the result is significant. Therefore it is supported the statement that the students faced problems in having access and use of emerging technology.

Table No: 3 Opinion of Students regarding the availability of educational technology

S.No

Statement

YES

TSE

NO

2

1

Access to radio as a medium is cheaper for you then such media.

3150

750

600

2730

2

Educational television is a familiar medium for you.

3450

650

600

3430

3

Latest information's about the courses was provided through ETV.

3720

480

300

4939.2

4

Computer mediated communication is fully interactive medium for you.

4050

150

300

6510

5

Educational technology encourages access of students to computer

mediated communication.

3830

180

490

5460.9

6

Computers are used in science practical in the laboratories.

2100

400

2000

1213.3

7

It was difficult to provide computer mediated communication facilities to remote areas.

3050

450

1500

2010

8

It was difficult to provide scientific laboratories facilities to remote areas.

3200

300

1000

3053.3

9

Emerging technologies have proved to increase intellectual level of students.

4030

200

370

5914.5

10

Students faced problems in having access and use of emerging technologies.

4200

100

200

7293.3

Table No.3 It is observed from the above analysis that the calculated value of chi-square is greater than table value of χ2 = 5.991 at P= 0.05, so as a whole that there was no provision of educational technology at secondary level.

CONCLUSIONS

The focuses of varied educational technology revealed that radio and television are not accessible as a medium of instruction both in rural as well as urban areas.

It was found that the teachers did not make effective use of educational technology in rural areas.

It was discovered that the educational technology is not available for technical subjects both in rural as well as urban areas.

It was also revealed that internet is not available both in rural as well as urban areas.

It was found that computer mediated communication is not use for counselling and science subjects both in urban as well rural areas.

It was found that the teachers do not send their recommendations about the subjects to higher authorities both in rural as well as urban areas.

In the same way that the syllabus is frequently being revised both in rural as well as urban areas.

It was also found that the teachers have no chances for refreshers courses both in rural as well as urban areas.

It was discovered that enough places are not available for the use of educational technology.

It was discovered that the educational exhibition are not frequently arranged both in

RECOMMENDATIONS

Keeping in view the constraints due to in-adequate educational technology facilities the researcher makes a few general recommendations. The researcher is firm in his belief that: if the existing in-adequate resources are optimally utilized and efficient management is corrected; the motivation for innovation would start within rural as well as in urban areas' schools themselves.

Educational technology accessibility may be ensured in all the secondary school in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.

Radio, television, computer and internet may be provided to each school.

Educational technology may be provided for technical subjects.

Educational technology may be used effectively.

Audio cassettes may be used for drama and documentaries.

Computer mediated communication should be used for counselling and science practical.

Flash card, felt board, static model, overhead projectors, sectional model, slides, opaque projectors and models should be used in teaching learning process both in rural as well as urban.

Enough places may be provided for the use of educational technology.

Educational technology should be provided for technical subjects.

Teachers may be sent their recommendations about the subjects to higher authorities.

The sufficient budget should be allocated for educational technology.

The Head of the institutions should be authorised to purchase educational technology equipment.

Television channel should be launched for secondary students.

AUTHORS INFORMATION

Dr. Sajjad Hayat Akhtar is working as an teachers Department of Education, Govt. of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

Dr. Ali Murtaza is working as an Assistant Professor Preston University Islamabad, Pakistan. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

DrHafiz HameedUllah is working as an Assistant Professor, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.. He did his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Research, UAAR, Pakistan.

E-mail: naseer_khanpk2000@yahoo.com

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