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Technology can be used to strengthen student learning and enhance pedagogy and can be used effectively as a cognitive tool for teaching and learning in the classroom (Bruce & Levin, 2001; Bransford, Brown & Cocking, 2000). Teachers use technology for a variety of reasons and these include record keeping, writing lesson plans, creating worksheets and communicating with parents. However, despite the widespread use of technology in schools, it seems that teachers are more inclined to use technology to support their existing practices (such as providing practice drills, demonstration).Previous studies revealed how and why individuals adopt new information technologies (Venkatesh, Morris, Davis & Davis, 2003), but it is not known what influences teachers to use technology in their classroom; we need a better understanding of the beliefs that inform these decisions. Previous studies have shown various attributes that can be associated with the utilisation and integration of ICT in the classroom. For instance, teachers' attributes is variously grouped into personal characteristics, one of such characteristics: Self-efficacy, perceptions and ease of use(Albion, 2001; Enochs, Riggs, & Ellis, 1993; Kellenberger, 1996; Riggs & Enochs, 1993; Wang, Ertmer, & Newby, 2004a). When a teacher perceives that he or she can effectively use technology in the process of teaching and learning, it will impact that teacher's ability to use technology in the classroom. However, the factors that influence self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration remain largely ambiguous, particularly when examining the possible influences of students' attitudes towards technology. These beliefs are likely to be related to each other and they interact dynamically in influencing teachers' decisions about the use of technology in the classrooms.
Bandura (1997) describes perceived self-efficacy as "beliefs in one's capabilities to organise and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments." As this applies to the integration of technology into education, self-efficacy beliefs toward technology integration have been theorized to be a determining factor in how well a teacher is able to effectively use technology to improve teaching and learning.
Given that teachers act as change agents for technology integration in schools, it is critical to understand the factors that facilitate and those that act as barriers to teachers' use of technology in schools. Research has found that teachers' belief on the use of technology is influenced by many factors, such as environment, funds, availability of required technologies etc. (Leggett, & Persichitte, 1998). The factors can be classified as either arising from the external environments where the teachers work in or the personal characteristics of the teachers (Chai & Khine, 2006). While both internal and external conditions affect technology use in classrooms, (Ertmer 2005) argues that although environmental conditions in terms of technological infrastructures have improved, factors pertaining to teachers' beliefs are yet to be resolved. . In Nigeria, there are some cultural factors such as religion, belief, age, that can contribute to teachers' inability to integrate technology in the classroom (can you support this claim with a literature?). In addition, an issue that arises from Nigeria is that only well-trained teachers have enough confidence to actually use ICT as a teaching mechanism in the classroom teaching (Forster,2008). Before the emergence of ICT, pre - service teachers were not expose to new modern channels of information, which and will develop in them self-guided learning materials, placing more focus on learning rather than teaching.
Insufficient access to computers is one of the main obstacles for ICT programmes. This is particularly relevant for educational institutions located in rural areas where the school or training institution is the only access point for computers. Swarts(2002) noted that government cooperation is necessary for ICT programmes to be sustainable. Its cooperation is needed in order to support the education curriculum system, which is vital for the survival of ICT utilization and classrooms integration (Kozma, 2008).
This study will therefore look into teachers' beliefs about technology usage in the classroom among secondary school teachers in Lagos state, the integration of technology into teaching and its teachers influence on the students' attitudes toward technology.
Significance of study
This study will be significant to the following individuals as stated below:
Teachers will be aware 0f the key concern driving policy and interest in the pedagogical integration of ICT and the premise that ICT is important for bringing changes to classroom teaching and learning so as to foster the
development of students' 21st-century skills.
It is important because it will help to build up teachers' confidence in using technology in general, which would hence increase their intention and willingness to use technology in the future (Yuen & Ma, 2008).
It is also useful because it will help to develop a school environment which enables teachers to have more hands-on experience in new technologies (Allan, 2007; Fleming et al., 2007),
Students may acquire special, these skills include the ability to become lifelong learners within a context of collaborative inquiry and the ability to work and learn from experts and peers in a connected global community (Law, Pelgrum & Plomp, 2008;121)
This study would contribute to the limited research in this area and add clarity to the relationships among these beliefs and will help to them suggest ways of convincing teachers to use ICTs in their classrooms because they are indispensable in this technologically globalised era.
How do teachers' beliefs relate to their instructional technology practices in classroom?
2 How do the environmental conditions affect ICTs use in classroom?
What obstructs teachers' positive belief about ICT integration in the classroom?
A major gap has always existed between affluent people living in developed societies with access to modern information technology and underprivileged people living in impoverished and rural communities in developing and least developed countries. Even today, an unequal adoption of technology excludes many from harvesting the fruits of the digital economy (Giri,2002).
To investigate the factors hindering teachers' readiness and confidence in using ICTs, Tella, Tella,Toyobo, Adika & Adeyinka (2007) examined Nigerian secondary school teachersâ€Ÿ uses of ICTs and implications for further development of ICT use in schools using a census of 700 teachers. They found that inadequate knowledge to evaluate the role of ICT in teaching and learning, lack of skills in the use of ICT equipment and software had resulted in a lack of confidence in utilizing ICT tools. This is consistent with Preston (2000) who concluded that lack of technical support to be the key inhibitor to the use of ICT in classroom. As indicated by Bradley and Russell (1997), recurring faults, and the expectation of faults occurring during teaching sessions have reduced teachers' confidence and caused teachers to avoid using technology. In addition, obstacles such as access to equipment, time pressures, lack of mentor and opportunities for apprenticeship of observation also have an impact on teachers' ability to use ICT (Slaouti & Barton, 2007). Further, teachers' workload and time management was found to be inhibiting the implementation of computer instruction in classroom (Guha, 2000). While there is a great deal of studies about how ICT is being used in developed countries, there is not much information on how ICT is being integrated into schools in developing countries (Beukes-Amiss and Chiware, 2006).
Investments in ICT for educational innovations and improvements purposes have been continuing, but the need for teachers who will employ it in the classroom as a staple part of the curriculum is disregarded (Niederhauser and Stoddart, 2001; Vacc and Bright, 1999). ICT does not have an educational value in itself, but it becomes precious when teachers use it in the learning and teaching process effectively. As Shakeshaft (1999, p. 4) notes, 'just because ICT is present does not mean that students are using it'. The impact of ICT is strongest when used in a particular content area and further supported by use across the curriculum (Ward and Parr, 2010). Since teachers are the key figures to utilize ICT in educational settings productively and to help integrate ICT into the curriculum, there is every need for them to develop and have positive attitude towards its utilization and efficacy in the classrooms. . ICT promotes a positive attitude towards information technology as an essential part of a lifelong interest in learning. Teachers also perceive the use of ICT as enhancing recall of previous learning, providing new stimuli, activating the learnerâ€Ÿs response, and providing systematic and steady feedback. It is further perceived as sequencing learning appropriately, and providing access to a rich source of information(Hennessy, Harrison and Wamakote, 2010). For example, Tella et al. (2007) found that computer use by teachers was driven by intentions to use it, and that perceived usefulness was also strongly linked to those intentions. The implication is that teachers will be inclined to use technology if they perceive it to be useful. Furthermore, ICT needs to be linked to specific needs of learners, desisting from the â€žone size fits allâ€Ÿ approach (Leach, 2005, p. 112). It is most effectively used as a learner-centred tool, instead of within a more traditional pedagogy. The real challenge for educationists is, therefore, how to harness the potential of ICT to complement the role of a teacher in the teaching and learning process.
Roblyer (2002) found that many pre-service teachers are still entering universities with little knowledge of computers and appropriate skills as well as lacking positive attitudes toward ICT use in the classroom. Again, Gunter (2001) states that many higher education institutions are still failing to prepare pre-service teachers for positive technological experiences and utilisation. This will make it difficult for teachers to be able to transfer their ICT skills to their students and encourage them to implement ICT when they themselves have negative belief toward ICT integration in the classrooms (YÄ±ldÄ±rÄ±m, 2000). Many studies indicate that it is teachersâ€Ÿ attitudes, expertise, lack of autonomy and lack of knowledge to evaluate the use and role of ICT in teaching (or technophobia in teachers) that are the prominent factors hindering teachersâ€Ÿ readiness and confidence in using ICT support(Hennessy, Harrison & Wamakote, 2010). In order for ICT to be effectively used in education, a sense of its value needs to exist as well as the expectation that its use will lead to success. Teachers' education requires instructional design, and a belief about computers needs to be present if all teachers are to use ICT in their classrooms. Classroom practices need to change in order for ICT to be fully effective, and attitudes of some who may be unwilling to move away from the traditional way of teaching, need to be taken into consideration when training teachers for ICT use (Tella, Tella, Toyobo, Adika & Adeyinka,2007). Therefore, teachers' perceptions of ICT integration and utilization in the classrooms are somewhat related to the technology acceptance model (TAM) which was originated by Davis in 1986 (Davis, 1989). The model indicates that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are two specific determinants of a user's acceptance of a technology. Perceived usefulness indicates the user's perception of the extent that the technology will develop and improve his job performance positively. This includes decreasing the time for performing the job, more productivity and accuracy. Perceived ease of use refers to the user's perception of amount of the effort necessary for using the system or the extent to which a user believes that employing a specific technology will be easy. Summers (1990) found that the lack of knowledge and experience in the computing area is one of the most common beliefs for teachers' negative attitudes towards computers. Selwyn (1997) found that a major deterent to the use of computers by teachers was computer phobia. These teacher anxieties could be caused by psychological factors such as having little or no control over the activity, thinking that they might damage the computer, and feeling that one's self esteem is threatened; sociological factors such as ICT being regarded as a solitary activity, needing to be clever to use one, and being replaced by the computer; and operational factors such as being beyond one's abilities, having to cope with unfriendly jargon, and the likelihood of the technology going wrong. Teachers should be provided with adequate and appropriate support in their classrooms, and be guided by professional standards that incorporate a code of conduct (Semenov,2005). The successful use of computers in the classroom depends on the teachers' belief and attitudes towards computers (Lawton & Gerschner, 1982). By means of survey and data collection using questionnaire, the study will also explore factors impeding both qualified and prospective secondary school teachers' positive beliefs and their future expectations related to utilization and integration of ICTs in the classrooms during teaching and learning.
The design adopted in this study is a descriptive survey method. This will allow the researchers to have a complete description of the impact of teachers' belief on utilization and integration of ICTs in the classrooms.
Population and Sample
The population of the study comprised all public and private secondary schools in Lagos state Nigeria. Three hundred secondary school students from both Twenty five percent public and private schools were purposefully selected because it will not be convenient for the researchers to use all the schools in the Lagos state, again they make a good representation of the schools in the state. Then, a number of teachers in each schools were taken.This gives a total of ---------- which their ages ranged between 25years - 45 with a mean age of 35 years ( NB we will get the exact fig. from data collection/questionnaire) They consist of ----males and ----females.
An instrument named Teachers' Belief on Utilization and Integration of ICTs in the Classrooms was developed by the researchers and used for data collection. The instruments consists two sections. Section one requested demographic information from the respondents. The second section contains ten questions on likert type response format and the respondents are requested to choose from strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The instrument was administered on thirty respondents to ascertain its reliability after modification.
All the 250 teachers used for the study were given questionnaires in their respective schools with permission granted by the various authorities of the schools. The administration took place after the school hour in each school. Before then, the entire respondents were informed about the date of the exercise.A day was allocated for two schools. This mean that 15 days was used to cover all the 30 schools selected in which the respondents were selected.(NB pls note how many questionnaires were administered and no. that were valid)
Method of data analysis
Data collected were analyzed using chi square and -----------why?/?
Recommendation( this is just a guess and to know whether it is in line with how it is beig written)
The findings showed that most teachers perceived ICT as very useful and as making teaching and learning easier but still do not believe in utilization and integrating them during teaching and learning especially in Nigerian situation where there is no steady power supply, cost of the equipment, unavailability of the ICTs in most schools,lack of expertertise especially in public schools, etc. It was recommended that professional development policies should support ICT-related teaching models, in particular those that encourage both students and teachers to play an active role in teaching activities. Additionally, emphasis should be placed on the pedagogy underlying the use of ICTs for teaching and learning.