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Human Resource Development:
In the age of fastest pace of life, machines are replacing people and rendering them unemployed. For sustaining in market there is needed to develop individual's skills in the organization. For this purpose, organizations has been implemented a phenomenon as Human Resource Development. It is an activity that has potential to develop adults at the workplace by serving knowledge based on their working profile. The HRD encompasses various aspects for empowering human resources in the enterprises with more emphasizing on training, payroll and employee performance.
Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for employees which helping them to develop not only organizational skills although also enhance their interpersonal skills. The central aim of formulating HRD concept in the organization is to enhance most advanced workforce so that employees and organization both can work for accomplishing their goals. In the current scenario, the paradigm in Human Resource Development is, it treats employees as the assets and value creators on the basis of resource view of the enterprise.
The Expansive Learning is a new learning approach which is focused on the procedure under which the identifiable skills and knowledge of employees corresponding to the changes in the behavior may be observed. It is self presupposition that knowledge and skills are stable and are well defined which is to be acquired. The lack point is most of the learning kinds in the organization are against with this presupposition. Most of the time individuals and organizations are indulged in learning something but which is not stable although not even understood the time. For transforming the organizational practices and personal lives, there is need to learn new activities which are not existed before. In the other words, in this learning technique learner develops new concepts and objects for their activity and later on implements this concept in practice (ENGESTR-M, Yrjö, 2001). This study analyses the implication of expansive learning in Finland's Children Hospitals where a dire need to implement new working techniques was felt to provide a comprehensive treatment tracking method for the patients' diagnosis. The solutions implemented by the Children Hospitals in Finland for monitoring the treatment trajectory by analyzing the data obtained from all the associated facilities indicate the contradictions that had arisen. These solutions indicate the implications of expansive learning where individuals are always striving to learn in an instable environment.
Source: (ENGESTR-M, Yrjö, 2001)
The expansive learning theory builds on several phenomena. The roots of this learning theory comprises of following points:
The essence of learning activity is to produce new activities and objects. It is an expansion of new activities from actions and recognized as a producing activity.
The distance between the daily actions of people and the historical form of societal activity that may be collectively facilitates solutions to the everyday actions.
The power of persons or stimuli controls their behavior and putting them into a group and also changes environment with some external activities. In this way they affect their own behavior (ENGESTR-M, Yrjö, 2001).
The process of expansive learning technique is elaborated as follows:
Source: (ENGESTR-M, Yrjö, 2001)
Step 1: The first step is comprises of questioning, criticizing or rejecting the practices and available wisdom. This step presents the jointly analysis of situational problems. This step is recognized as questioner because it is too simple.
Step 2: Under this step analysis of situation is performed. It is a systematic and historical analysis of identified problems that reveling the inner contradictions of the structures. This analysis involves mental, practical and discursive alteration of situations in order to evaluate empirical analysis.
Step 3: The third step comprises of models that includes solutions for the respective problems.
Step 4: The forth action is to create new activity model in order to examine the operations and execution of model and experimenting it for fully utilizing its dynamics and potential.
Step 5: It is the implementation of model by designing new tools and solutions through the practical and conceptual applications.
Step 6: It comprises of reflection on the process.
Step 7: The seventh action is to consolidate the results of model into a new stable practices (ENGESTR-M, Yrjö, 2001).
Social Learning System:
The social learning system is the learning of individual that took place in the social context and influenced by several social norms and practices. It defines the historical and social competencies. The social learning system is the integrate concepts of participation and environmental behavior. It is a framework that has been developed in order to understand its learning style and also provide understanding regarding procedures which are based on the social learning. Under this process, people deeply learned the implementation of experiments. Learning may be performed at any level weather at individual level or at organizational level. The social learning system comprises of three streams such as learning structures, knowledge management and social networking (WENGER, Etienne, 2000).
In the learning system, learning structure focused on the international learning, knowledge management facilitated exchanges of knowledge process and social networking stream provides a range of access to the people and networks. These three streams provide most beneficial ways to the organization with individuals to develop their skills at each platform. This system provide employees a creative way of learning on the basis of the requirements of enterprise. It leverages the huge amount of knowledge in organization at international platform. This social learning system aid to the current training and learning practices and also emphasized on the social networking system (WENGER, Etienne, 2000).
The social learning system covers several aspects that are relevant to the individual as well as organization. Belongingness is one of the modes of learning which tells about the engagement, imagination and alignment. Under engagement, people engaged in the learning of experiences that they can learn and also analyze the response of world. Another mode is imagination; it comprises of constructing an image in the world and then makes sense to find out our standing at the ground. After this alignment style comes into light, it is the process which ensures that all activities are perfectly aligned or not with the other processes in order to enhance effectiveness of the individual as well as enterprise (WENGER, Etienne, 2000).
The social learning system provides several management techniques to the organization along with the individuals in order to develop not only organizational performance although also groom individual with the pace of life. This concept covers all management tools such as leadership, connectivity, membership, learning projects etc. This system more emphasized on the boundaries and communities. Communities are the basic building blocks of this social learning system because they are that containers that make such system. These communities more focused on the organizational operations, mutual understandings and degree of awareness. Another factor is boundaries; it is important to the social system because it connects all communities and also facilitates various opportunities in according to their own right (WENGER, Etienne, 2000).
The perspective of a social learning system has several implications at multiple grounds. These are as follows:
For individual, it highlights the significance of finding on the basis of vibrant set of communities that belongs to centrally as well as peripherally to the communities.
For communities, it needs balance between the processes of core and boundary level. For this purpose strong node practices is required in the web for interconnections that enables deep learning in any specific area with connecting to the other systems for production, transformation and exchange operations.
For organization, this perspective involved a need to learn in order to encourage participation in social learning system both at the inside organizational boundaries as well as outside organizational boundaries. The social learning system are not keenly encompasses in organization although it can encourage them, influence them but not able to control and fully own them (WENGER, Etienne, 2000).
Self Efficacy is our belief and measures of own ability to perform tasks and accomplish goals. The sense of self efficacy may play vital role in the process of approaching goals and challenges. This learning tool emphasized on the observational learning and social practices in order to develop individual's personality. Self efficacy affects each area of individual endeavor, the organization learn techniques to encourage their employees for the development of self efficacy in themselves (ZIMMERMAN, Barry J.).
This study emphasizes on the implications of self efficacy in students wherein those who undertook self efficacy were found to portray a higher learning interest and these students had established regulatory measures for themselves so as to ensure the effectiveness of the learning attained. Moreover these students were found to respond less emotionally to the relevant challenging stimuli.
The self efficacy motivates individuals for the more participation in the organizational perspectives. Self efficacy individuals have belief and ability to accomplish their tasks and also work for the attainment of their organizational goals.
Self efficacy provides individual with a sense of action in order to motivate their learning skills through the usage of self regulatory procedures such as self monitoring, setting goal, self assessment and usage of strategies.
It focuses on the four types of beliefs such as enactive attainment, verbal persuasion, vicarious experiences and physiological states which ensures several management techniques for the attainment of goals (ZIMMERMAN, Barry J.).
Contrast between the Studies:
The expansive learning theory highlights the identification of learning needs by managing management bodies in order to provide techniques to the challenging environment to the human resource. The social learning system reveals the dynamics of social learning system owing to the competencies that are identified by the social units. The self efficacy theory revels that the adoption of this practice increased the working possibilities and also enhanced the effectiveness of the learning. In my opinion, self efficacy is the best suited learning practices at the workplace because it provides self assessment to the individual and encourage them for the attainment of goals.
Self efficacy is the most useful in the context of organizations as it enables the employees to implement self driven measures for undertaking learning of the new skills and knowledge. Moreover it relieves the management of managing social dynamics by enabling each employee to monitor his own learning growth and developments.