How Parenting Styles Effect On Child Development Education Essay

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The aim of this survey is to investigate whether the parent's way of handling children impact on their child's development. A small-scale survey on the attitudes that the parents and children have towards different parenting styles was conducted with different approaches and different angels in order to keep the investigation unbiased and to filter the best possible result for the created hypothesis. This topic is important to be researched as today many parenting styles are highly coordinated with child well being in terms of social and emotional development, school performance and childs later behaviors. Therefore it is vitally important subject in current society which is not majorly looked into. A sample of 10 parents along with their kids' total 30 will be selected for the survey initially.

Introduction - Developmental psychologists have long been interested in how parents impact child development. However, finding actual cause-and-effect links between specific actions of parents and later behavior of children is very difficult. Some children raised in dramatically different environments can later grow up to have remarkably similar personalities. Conversely, children who share a home and are raised in the same environment can grow up to have astonishingly different personalities than one another.

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There are many ideas about how to rear children. Some parents adopt the ideas from their own parents used. Others get advice from friends. Some read books about parenting. Others take classes offered in the community. No one has all the answers. However, psychologists and other social scientists now know what parenting practices are most effective and are more likely to lead to positive outcomes for children. The research attempts in applying the same logic in the local concept and to see whether it has a direct impact in the local contest which has a strong influences from the cultural, social and mythical environment.

Goals and objectives - I want to investigate how parental attitudes towards their children's upbringing, impact on their child's holistic development.

Literature review - Ideas about child rearing can be grouped into four styles. These are different ways of deciding who is responsible for what in a family. Despite all the challenges, researchers have uncovered convincing links between parenting styles and the effects these styles have on children. How do parents "parent" and what impact do their behaviors have on their child's development? This question has been of interest to researchers, teachers, parents and others involved with young children for many years. An approach that has attempted to answer this question and one that has sparked numerous studies over the years is the concept of parenting styles.

Parenting styles, first established in the 1960's by Diana Baumrind, centered on the idea that "normal variations in parenting" could be described by an overall pattern of "parents' attempts to control and socialize their children" (Darling, 1999. p.1).During the early 1960s, psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted a study on more than 100 preschool-age children (Baumrind, 1967). Using naturalistic observation, parental interviews and other research methods, she identified four important dimensions of parenting:

The Four Parenting Styles

Authoritarian Parenting

In this style of parenting, children are expected to follow the strict rules established by the parents. Failure to follow such rules usually results in punishment. Authoritarian parents fail to explain the reasoning behind these rules. If asked to explain, the parent might simply reply, "Because I said so." These parents have high demands, but are not responsive to their children. According to Baumrind (1991), these parents "are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation".

Authoritative Parenting

Like authoritarian parents, those with an authoritative parenting style establish rules and guidelines that their children are expected to follow. However, this parenting style is much more democratic. Authoritative parents are responsive to their children and willing to listen to questions. When children fail to meet the expectations, these parents are more nurturing and forgiving rather than punishing. Baumrind (1991) suggests that these parents "monitor and impart clear standards for their children's conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative".

Permissive Parenting

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Permissive parents, sometimes referred to as indulgent parents, have very few demands to make of their children. These parents rarely discipline their children because they have relatively low expectations of maturity and self-control. According to Baumrind (1991), permissive parents "are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation". Permissive parents are generally nurturing and communicative with their children, often taking on the status of a friend more than that of a parent.

Uninvolved Parenting four parenting style introduction

An uninvolved parenting style is characterized by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. While these parents fulfill the child's basic needs, they are generally detached from their child's life. In extreme cases, these parents may even reject or neglect the needs of their children.

Each of these styles describes a pattern of beliefs and behaviors that determine the quality and the quantity of parental control/demandingness along with parental responsiveness (Baumrind, 1991; Maccoby & Martin, 1983, as cited in Darling,1999) Based on these dimensions, Baumrind suggested that the majority of parents display one of the four different parenting styles and there is no particular right or wrong approach but certain parenting practices can have positive outcome of their children.

Research Method - This research will be conducted through distribution of questionnaires and investigation out of direct and indirect observation.

A total of 30 questionnaires will be distributed amongst the selected sample group which includes 10 of the parents and other 20 for their children. The questionnaire has been compiled with simple 10 questions with multiple choices of answering so that the parent can simply tick off the relevant answer to assess their personal attitudes towards the methodology of upbringing their children. Also an additional comment box will be also included at the end of each question for the participant to include their own ideas on various other answers so that I can favor the individualism along with the common answer.

Parents will be educated about the different parenting styles through sending a pre prepared simple video presentation so that they can have a thorough idea about the 4 parenting styles, whilst having the ability to distinguish among them and to apply them to themselves in order to self evaluate prior to the answering of the questionnaire. This could merely lead to an accurate answer scheme. Also through my survey I have used a secret identification method of the question papers but not requesting to diversify any personal information directly in order to streamline the biased. Therefore this survey will be a voluntary and anonymous one with minimum biasness.

Observation of parents and children will be carried on in order to double check on the validity and the accuracy of the answers of the questionnaire and to exclude any false outcomes which could probably mislead the research out from its success. Unobtrusive Observations will be used without the participant not knowing that they are been observed So that such findings can be strong in external validity. Conversational and non conversational methodologies will be used at such occasions to collect data.

Unstructured Interviewing will also be carried out in order to get a general idea and the background of each and every family. At such point concerns about current issues will also be indirectly checked so that the participants will not lead to emotionally biased answers.

Research could be a mix of observational variables such as Descriptive (no inference just writing down observational outcomes) Inferential (researcher make inferences about what is observed) and Evaluative (researcher make an inference and a judgment from the behavior)

Methodology - Main research methodology is the questionnaire which will be documented and a hard copy or a soft copy will be handed over along with the educating video copy. To each and every participant either posted, emailed, or handing over. Prior to this I will make sure that the participants' background is in a neutral and a general status so to make sure that the answers are given unbiased. Interviews could either be over the phone or face to face once.

Once the data is collected it will be primarily segregated to 5 different categories including 4 parenting styles and 'other category' which does not fit into any of the above 4 parenting styles based on the judgments made initially. Then the evaluation of the data will be carried on using both descriptive and summative data collected at the research. Data synthesis will be done using tables, charts and other numerical calculation methods so to be more understandable and clear. More attention will be weighted toward the qualitative data along the research as attitude and behavior are variable which can be hardly quantified and may could probably mislead towards the success of the research outcome.

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Plan of Action - Documented plan of action is attached below along with the estimated time schedule. Estimated time for the final script is 7 months as per the calculation which is subject to slight changes in the schedule.

Narration

Get as many as Possible Credible Date (Narration 1) - This is the primary stage of data collection which only includes the literal value of the data. The purpose of this data collection is to get the initial idea in order to create a valid hypothesis. Data collection methods include Book reference, Internet reference and other means such as tutorials of other modules.

Create a Valid Hypothesis (Narration 2) - I have attempted to create a specific and concise hypothesis which could lead to the advancement of the knowledge in the field. At this level the knowledge I have already granted through the experience of society around me as I see many children and youth who suffer psychologically due to their parental past and present attitudes. The hypothesis was later instrumented with the knowledge gain through the class and further through the primary data collected via different channels.

Collection of Primary data (Narration 3) - In this stage I will look for ways and means on how I should collect research data, by examining the methods used for collecting primary data. Unlike secondary research, where data is initially obtained by some other resources, collecting primary data could be interesting with responsibility.  In general I will use both the basic approaches (Qualitative & Quantitative) for the purpose of data collections.

Both methods offer advantages and disadvantages which are discussed in detail in this tutorial. This will be completed in carrying out four tasks simultaneously. Data collection will take place in 3 dimensions which will be further discussed in the following narrations.

Observation (Narration 4) - Observation involves recording the behavioral patterns of people and events in a systematic manner. Observations will be carried out in different cases in different ways in order to fit the best possible of handling the situation so to get 1st hand experiences about the subject matter. For example observations could take place at a kitchen while the mom is in interaction with the child on her dishes and observe/record how she is getting her child's help on her days work for few days. Or it could be a focus group - Ex: tacking the whole family together I may discuss the needs and problems or advantages of their current parenting system. Systematic approaches such as Structured (pre specifying in detail on what is to be observed) or Unstructured (monitoring of all aspects of the phenomenon that seem relevant) Disguised (ad hock observations carried on without the participants knowledge - hidden tape recorder) or Undisguised (where participants are aware they are being observed), Natural (observing behavior as it takes place in the environment) or Contrived (behavior is observed in an artificial environment - early morning and after work), Non-participant observation (without any communication with the participants), Participant observation (becoming a part of the observed group)

Questionnaire (Narration 5) - It is a series of questions used for the purpose of gathering information from respondents which is designed for statistical analysis of the responses. Considering the below advantages the Questionnaire approach will be selected as the main research tool through-out my research.

Can be used as a method in its own right or as a basis for interviewing or a telephone survey.

Can cover a large number of people or organizations.

Relatively cheap.

Avoids embarrassment on the part of the respondent.

Respondent can consider responses.

Possible anonymity of respondent.

No interviewer bias (in general).

Main consideration has been given on explanation of the Theme, Instructions for completion, Appearance, Length & Questions of the Questionnaire while considering about the other aspects such as Ensuring that the question can accommodate all possible answers, Use of a balanced Scales, Produce variability of responses and it being logical, Measure one thing at a time, Formulating Questions Formatting of the questions, Ordering of Questions

Interviews (Narration 6) - Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for people's attitudes, preferences or behavior. Interviews can be undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or in a group. They can be conducted at work, at home, in the street or in a shopping center, or some other agreed location. Following are the types of interviews which are planned to be use throughout the period as and when required.

Structured

Based on a carefully worded interview questionnaire.

Frequently require short answers with the answers being ticked off.

Useful when there are a lot of questions which are not particularly contentious or thought provoking.

Respondent may become irritated by having to give over-simplified answers.

Semi-structured - The interview is focused by asking certain questions but with scope for the respondent to express him or herself at length.

Unstructured - This also called an in-depth interview. The interview begins by asking a general question. Then encouraging the respondent to talk freely may be even using an unstructured format, the subsequent direction of the interview being determined by the respondent's initial reply. The interviewer then probes for elaboration - 'Why do you say that?' or, 'That's interesting, tell me more' or, 'Would you like to add anything else?' being typical probes.

Telephone interviews