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What is perception
Paul Rookes and Jane Willson explain perception and perceptual processes in a way that almost anyone can understand. The study of perception, or how the brain processes information from the senses, has fascinated psychologists and philosophers for a long time. Perception takes the key research areas and presents the arguments and findings in a clear, concise form, enabling the reader to have a quick working knowledge of the area.
This clear and informative text discusses sensation and perception then looks at theories and explanations of perception. The way visual perception is structured is examined, followed by an analysis of the development of perceptual processes. The authors then consider individual social and cultural variations in perceptual organization. Perception will be particularly useful to students new to higher-level study. With its helpful textbook features to assist in examination and learning techniques, it should interest all introductory psychology students.
Reference : http://www.infibeam.com/Books/info/Paul-Rookes/Perception-Theory-Development-and-Organisation/0415190932.html#newUsedBooks
Definition from web
Perception in psychology, mental organization and interpretation of sensory information. TheÂ gestaltÂ psychologists studied extensively the ways in which people organize and select from the vast array of stimuli that are presented to them, concentrating particularly on visual stimuli. Perception is influenced by a variety of factors, including the intensity and physical dimensions of the stimulus; such activities of the sense organs as effects of preceding stimulation; the subject's past experience; attention factors such as readiness to respond to a stimulus; and motivation and emotional state of the subject. Stimulus elements in visual organization form perceived patterns according to their nearness to each other, their similarity, the tendency for the subject to perceive complete figures, and the ability of the subject to distinguish important figures from background. Perceptual constancy is the tendency of a subject to interpret one object in the same manner, regardless of such variations as distance, angle of sight, or brightness. Through selective attention, the subject focuses on a limited number of stimuli, and ignores those that are considered less important. Depth perception, considered to be innate in most animals, is produced by a variety of visual cues indicating perspective, and by a slight disparity in the images of an object on the two retinas. An absolute threshold is the minimal physical intensity of a stimulus that a subject can normally perceive, whereas a difference threshold is the minimal amount of change in a stimulus that can be consciously detected by the subject. Recent studies have shown that stimuli are actually perceived in the brain, while sensory organs merely gather the signals. William Dobelle's research, for instance, has offered significant hope for the blind.
Visting date on this link is : 18-9-2010 .
Perception is the process of which we use to organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful and useful experience of the world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes or ears, nose or tongue or skin. Perception, on the other hand, better describes one's ultimate experience of the world and typically involves further processing of sensory input. In the real term, sensation and perception are virtually not possible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process.
Thus, perception in humans describes the process whereby sensory organism to act is translated into organized experience. That experience, or percept, is the joint product of the stimulation and of the process itself. Relations found between various types of stimulation and their associated percepts suggest inferences that can be made about the properties of the perceptual process; theories of perceiving then can be developed on the basis of these inferences. The reason is that the perceptual process is not itself public or directly observable (except to the perceiver himself, whose percepts are given directly in experience), the validity of the perceptual theories can be checked only indirectly.
Historically, systematic thought about perceiving was the province of philosophy. Philosophical interest in perception stems largely from questions about the sources and validity of what is called human knowledge. Epistemologists ask whether a real, physical world exists independently of human experience and, if so, how its properties can be learned and how the truth or accuracy of that experience can be determined. They also ask whether there are innate ideas or whether all experience originates through contact with the physical world, mediated by the sense organs.
As a scientific enterprise, however, the investigation of perception has especially developed as part of the larger discipline of psychology. For the most part, psychology bypasses the questions about perceiving raised by philosophy in favor of problems that can be handled by its special methods. The remnants of such philosophical questions, however, do remain; researchers are still concerned, for example, with the relative contributions of innate and learned factors to the perceptual process.
Such fundamental philosophical assertions as the existence of the physical world, however, they are taken for granted among most scientific students of perceiving. Typically, researchers in perception simply accept the apparent physical world particularly as it is described in the given branches of physics concerned with the electromagnetic energy and optics and mechanics.
The Role of Perception
As we grow in our life and mature into what some would consider the adults, we are told to make the sure we know about our environment and make sure to "do unto others as you would have done to you". In order to do this, you have to have a level of perception in which you are able to see things in ways that others may or may not. How do you see perception?
According to Kendra Van Wagner (UNK), "Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our in the world survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the real world around us; it allows us to act within our environment that is around us." That being said, how does that apply to everyday life and how does that affect the views of those around you on you?
The best way to approach this is easy to find the most effective ways to view perception. Three aspects can alter or influence how things are viewed. One of them is the world as a whole. What is meant to say that "the world" is to say how the world is viewed in real, no matter what it is that you look in the world. Everything has a their own view and opinion from everyone who sees it, from the poor peoples and homeless peoples to the rich peoples. Every person has an opinion on why the homeless are homeless and why the rich are rich. What part of the scale do you fall on? Are you the type that says that the homeless are homeless because of bad luck and hard times? Do you lean the other way and think that the homeless are homeless because they are lazy and deserve nothing more than what they have? "Of the estimated 1.3 billion people living in poverty around the world, 70 percent are women and girls. Women and girls are also increasing as fastest group of impoverished those are destroyed financially, this is a process we called "the global feminization...
Sensation vs. Perception
Often confusion arises over the relationship between sensation and perception. Behavioral theorists believe that individuals interpret situations based upon their senses and stimulation and that this was how they gained knowledge of the world. Individuals use their sensory organs to sense -- for instance, eyes to see, ears to hear, skin to feel, nose to smell, and tongue to taste. Therefore, sensation is the basic behavior of individuals caused by their physiological functions.
Perception, on the other hand, involves people's assimilation of raw data through their senses, after which they organize and modify the data with the help of cognitive thinking to form a coherent picture of the situation. The perceptual process of individuals passes through several sub-processes. They are stimulus or situation, registration, interpretation, feedback, behavior, and consequence. Stimulus or situation is the first sub-process in the process of perception. Here people are confronted with an external or internal stimulus. As a result, they might experience an immediate sensual stimulation or the confrontation may take place with the entire physical and socio-cultural environment.
In Registration, the individuals record in their minds the stimulus they have received from the environment. Physiological mechanisms such as listening, hearing, etc. play an active role in the perception of individuals. During Interpretation, people analyze the stimulus they have received. It is a cognitive process that is influenced by learning, motivation, and personality.
Feedback is the response individuals receive from the stimulus i.e. environmental situations. Feedback has an impact on the perception of individuals. For instance, if employees receive appreciation from the manager for their work, then they perceive that the manager is satisfied with their performance. Registration, interpretation, and feedback occur within a person and are in response to a given stimulus from the external environment. These sub-processes lead to a certain behavior by the individual, which again leads to a certain consequence.
How Does Perception Affect The Organizational Process?
Perception affects the things we experience in our daily lives too so of course it has an impact on the organizational process also.
Perception is basically what the peoples think of something, someone, a situation etc. Our thinking might be our thinking own or it might be the result of what someone else thinks of a particular situation in a particular time .
The reason of the perception affects the organizational process is because if the employees cannot perceive the given goal or the aim of the organization properly then they might not be working towards it and if they are not working towards it then that organization faces a gap between what is required of the people and what is actually being done by them.
I hope you have heard of the about the "change process" that happens frequently in organizations. If suppose that process is being implemented then it's very important for the employees to know what the organization is going to go through and what is going to happen after the process of the given situation. If their perception is not clear about it then they might resist the change a lot which isn't good for the company. The employees perception can help the company's organizational process run smoother or become difficult in a time.
Learning organization concept is defined and the transformational processes involved are explored. The four steps of organizational learning cycle, information generation, integration, interpretation, and action are studied.
A learning organization is one that constantly improves through the rapid development and enhancement of capabilities required for success in the future. Companies attempting to become continual learners should go beyond simply training and developing employees. Learning should be incorporated into every activity of the organization to provide the best products to its customers. The typical learning organization has five elements: a leader with a well-defined vision, a detailed and quantifiable action plan, the quick distribution of information, inventiveness, and the ability to implement the plan. Examples of companies that can be considered learning organizations include Corning Inc., Analog Devices Inc., Boeing Co. and Lear Seating Corp. A Learning Organization Quiz that can be used to ascertain whether a company is a learning organization is provided.
Learning is a process of permanent change in a behavior through experience, instruction or with study. Learning cannot be measured it's the process of getting better output through learning. So we can say that learning is a permanent change in a behavior of individuals.
"The different curriculum standards reveal a common the spirit. Over and over again these professional organizations Reprimand traditional models of education for emphasizing memorization, and decry their push to cover content at the expense of deep conceptual understanding. Instead, the reports regard learning as the active, goal-directed construction of meaning. All emphasize in-depth learning; learning oriented to problem solving and decision making; learning embedded in real-life tasks and activities for thinking and communicating, and learning that builds on students' prior knowledge and experiences.
Implementation of the new standards in schools would help to develop students who are successful learners-learners who are knowledgeable, self-determined, strategic, and empathetic. By focusing on core concepts and treating them in depth, students acquire a firm conceptual base for organizing the content they learn into coherent knowledge structures. By emphasizing the connection to their own experiences and attitudes, the guidelines, when implemented, would validate students' experiences and enable them to become competent 'knowledge workers' in the various disciplines. By uniting process and content, students learn the strategies they need to acquire, produce, use, and communicate knowledge. And, finally, by looking at the subject areas from multiple personal, cultural, and historical perspectives, students develop empathy for the experiences, feelings, and world views of others.
The new definition of learning can serve as the framework for restructuring a curriculum. By using a new school-based definition of learning, drawn from the research-based definition of learning, all members of a school community and its broader community can develop a common language for curricula reform. Sharing this language will help build a community of individuals who have a common framework for curricular reform. They will have a basis for rethinking, as a community, the content and intent of the curriculum.
In addition, all professionals in the school will come to see that the reforms in their own disciplines--whether it be language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies--have a common basis, since all reforms are guided by a common research base and conceptual framework for learning. Thus, they can make curricular changes as a community, and they also can have common ground for interdisciplinary efforts. The characteristics of a thinking curriculum will become part of the school mission that the school as a whole and its community formulate in collaboration."
Reference : http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/sc4anew.htm
AÂ Learning OrganizationÂ is the term given to a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Learning Organizations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organizations and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment. A Learning Organization has five main features; systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision and team learning
Learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together. (Senge 1990: 3)
The Learning Company is a vision of what might be possible. It is not brought about simply by training individuals; it can only happen as a result of learning at the whole organization level. Learning Company is an organization that facilitates the learning of all its members and continuously transforms itself. (Peddler et. al. 1991: 1)
Learning organizations are characterized by total employee involvement in a process of collaboratively conducted, collectively accountable change directed towards shared values or principles. (Watkins and Mar sick 1992: 118)
Learning is the power of growth, and individual learning is the resource of business growth. Based on the organization metaphor in organization theory, Sense (1990) introduced learning organization theory. The academic definition of the learning organization covers individual, group, and organizational learning with the effort for organizational and individual learning. It is a type of collective activity to reach the organization's shared vision. Many books have been published about the learning organization and many research papers have presented the impact of various variables on learning organizations.
Four types of organizational cultures:-
Competitive Culture in a organization
Learning Culture in a organization
Bureaucratic Culture in a organization
Participative Culture in a organization
The Conceptual Framework
Organizational Culture Learning Organization
â€¢ Bureaucratic Culture â€¢ Personal Mastery
â€¢ Competitive Culture â€¢ Mental Models
â€¢ Participative Culture â€¢ Shared Vision
â€¢ Learning Culture â€¢ Systemic Thinking
â€¢ Team Learning
Bureaucratic culture;- that type of culture of organizational culture characterized by low environmental adaptation and low internal integration.
Competitive culture:- A type of organizational where culture characterized by high
Environmental adaptation and low internal integration. There is a competition between the organizations environment adaption is high and low internal integration.
Participative culture:- A type of organizational culture characterized by low
Environmental adaptation and high internal integration.
Learning culture:- A type of organizational culture characterized by high environment adaption and high internal integration.
Emergence of Learning Organizations
The new species and technology of organizations is called a learning organization, and it increase the capability to:
The act in a time adapt more readily to environmental impacts.
Move faster to the development of new products, processes, and services.
Become more proficient at learning from competitors and collaborators with the help of practical skills
SpeedÂ up the progress of the transfer of knowledge from one part of the organization to another part of the organization.
Learn more effectively from its mistakes in a learning organization.
Make greater organizational use of employees at the all levels of the organization.
Short time of period required to implement strategic changes.
To develop continuous improvement in all areas of the organization.
Organizations that learn More quickly will be able to adapt accomplished rapidly and without delay and thereby achieve significant strategic advantages.
There are four major areas, which have changed profoundly over the last years:
1. Economic environment, social environment and scientific environment.
Economic and marketing competition of organizations.
Environmental end ecological pressures of organizations.
new sciences of The branch of physics based on quantumÂ theory and chaos theory (understanding of quantum physics means that one cannot predict with absolute certainty, that chaos is a part of the reality)
Knowledge of the today's environment (knowledge that exists in an organization is the sum of everything and everybody in your company knows that gives you a competitive edge. The greatest challenge is to create an organization that can redistribute its knowledge.)
Social Instability in the workplace environment
Information technology and the in unformatted organization (Unformatted organizations are able to immediately acquire information that can be used to get a job done, generate new information as a by-product, and develop new information)
Structure of organization and size of organization: Key resource of the business is not capital, or personnel, or facilities, but rather knowledge, and information, and ideas. Another form of restructuring is a virtual organization, a temporary network of independent companies, suppliers, customers, and even rivals linked by information technology to share their skills, costs, and access to one another's markets. Three other emerging management theories gaining popularity is reengineering core competencies and organizational architecture.
Quality management movement (Competitive advantage comes from the continuous, incremental innovation and refinement of a variety of ideas that spread throughout the organization.
Workforce diversity and mobility
Boom in temporary help
3. The customer expectations (cost, quality, time, service, innovation, and customization)
4. Workers (Those who make steady progress will have problem identifier skills, problem solving skills and strategic broker skills. Corporations depend on the specialized knowledge of their employees. Knowledge workers do, in fact, own the means of production and they can take it out of the door with them at any moment.)
The Systems-Lined Organization Model
A systematically define learning organization is an organization which learns powerfully and collectively and is continually transforming itself to better collect, manage, and use knowledge for corporate success. It empowers people within and outside the company to learn as they work.
Organizational learning refers to how organizational learning occurs, the skills and processes of building and utilizing knowledge.
There are a number of dimensions of a learning organization:
Learning is accomplished by the organisational system as a whole.
Organisational members recognise the importance of ongoing organisation wide learning.
Learning is a continuous, strategically used process - integrated with and running parallel to work.
There is a focus on creativity and generative learning.
Systems thinking is fundamental
People have continuous access to information and data resources.
A corporate climate exists that encourages, rewards, and accelerates individual and group learning.
Workers network inside and outside the organisation.
Change is embraced, and surprises and even failures are viewed as opportunities to learn.
It is agile and flexible.
Everyone is driven by a desire for quality and continuous improvement.
Activities are characterised by aspiration, reflection, and conceptualisation.
There are well-developed core competencies that serve as a taking-off point for new products and services.
It possesses the ability to continuously adapt, renew, and revitalise itself in response to the changing environment.
The systems-linked learning organization model is made up of five closely interrelated subsystems: learning, organization, people, knowledge, and technology. If any subsystem is weak or absent, the effectiveness of the other subsystems is significantly weakened. Marquardt discusses each of the subsystems in their own chapters so I won't go into the details here.
Building Dynamic Learning through the Organization
The learning subsystem is composed of three complementary dimensions:
1. Levels of learning (individual, group and organizational)
2. Types of learning (adaptive learning, anticipatory learning, deuteron learning and active learning)
3. Critical organizational learning skills (systems thinking, mental models, personal mastery, team learning, shared vision, and dialogue)
Learning, ultimately, is a social phenomenon - our ability to learn and the quality and openness of our relationships determine what we can know. Our mental models of the world and of ourselves grow out of our relationships with others.
Learning in organizations can occur at three levels. Individual learning is needed since individuals form the units of groups and organizations, or as Senge asserts "organizations learn only through individuals who learn". The factors that can contribute to individual learning in the organization include:
Individual and collective accountability for learning
Locus and focus of individual learning (learning should have immediate application to the job.)
Accelerated learning techniques.
Personal development plan (people recognize that employers cannot guarantee them lifelong employment but that they can assist them in achieving lifelong employability. There should be a partnership between the organization and the employee to assist in the long-term career Development.)
Abundant opportunities available for professional development
Individual learning linked to organizational learning in an explicit and structured way.
Group/team learning means that work teams must be able to think and create and learn as an entity. They must learn how to better create and capture learning (learning to learn). A successful team learning system ensures that teams share their experiences with other groups in the organization. Team learning will occur more fully if teams are rewarded for the learning they contribute to the organization. Marquardt uses Watkins and Mar sick's team learning model that shows the learning organization as the union of individuals and organization. The key is the overlap,
Which is where teams function?
Discipline of Team Learning
The discipline of team learning begins with dialogue that allows the members to suspend their assumptions, engage in free-flowing communication to discover insights not attainable individually, and recognize the patterns of interaction in teams that undermine learning. Patterns of defensiveness often are deeply engrained in team operations. Unrecognized or unacknowledged patterns undermine learning, but if they are recognized and allowed to surface creatively, they can accelerate learning.
There are four types in which organizations learn:
1. Adaptive learning occurs when an individual or organization learns from experience and reflection: action? Outcome? results date? Reflection. Adaptive learning may be either single-loop (focused on gaining information to stabilize and maintain existing systems) or double loop (questioning the system itself and why the errors or successes occurred in the first place).
2. Anticipatory learning arises when an organization learns from expecting the future: vision? Reflection ? action approach.
3. Deuteron learning occurs when the organization learns from critically reflecting upon its taken for granted assumptions.
4. Active learning involves (a group/team) working on real problems, focusing on the learning acquired, and actually implementing solutions.
Marquardt has added Dialogue to the five critical organizational learning skills identified by Peter Senge:
1. Systems thinking: "A framework for seeing interrelationships rather than linear cause-effect chains, for seeing underlying structures rather than events, for seeing patterns of change rather than snapshots." Changes in one part of the organization can affect other parts with surprising consequences.
2. Mental models: An image or perspective of an event, situation, activity or concept
3. Personal mastery: A special level of proficiency that is committed to continually improve and perfect skills, a discipline of continually clarifying and deepening one's personal vision, energies, and patience.
4. Team learning: The process of aligning and developing the capacity of a team to create the learning and results that its members seek. The team involved must learn to tap the potential of many minds to become more intelligent than one mind.
5. Shared vision: Provides a focus, direction and energy for the members of an organization. And learning is a way of striving to accomplish that vision.
6. Dialogue: promotes collecting thinking and communication.
Top ten strategies to build learning subsystems:
1. Develop action learning programs throughout the organization (time and effort!)
2. Increase individuals' ability to learn how to learn
3. Develop the discipline of dialogue in the organization
4. Develop career development plans for employability
5. Establish self-development cash programs
6. Build team-learning skills
7. Encourage and practice systems thinking
8. Use scanning and scenario planning for anticipatory learning
9. Encourage/Expand diversity, multicultural and global mindsets and leanings
10. Change the mental model relative to learning (most people retain a negative picture of learning, one acquired in their school days).