According to our topic, further study local or abroad, journal by Mazzarol. T. and Soutar G. N. explain in detail, why we are choosing this topic, demand for education particularly higher educational, has traditional been driven expectation of its ability to raise the economic and social status of the graduate. For people in less development country limited access to education in their own country lead to a significant rise in the number of international student studying oversea. Between 1960 and 1970, the average growth in the inernational students flows was around 9 percent, and continued about 6 percent from 1970 to 1980 (Hughes, 1988). While there is some evidence of a slowing in the overall flow of international students during the 1980s and 1990s (Kemp, 1995), a global industry has been created.
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The global pattern of international flows may be experience by a combination of “push and pull” factors that encourage to study eversea. “Push” factors operate within the source country and initiate a student’s decision to undertake international study. “Pull” factors operate within a host country to make that country relatively attract to international students. Some of these factors are inherent in the source country, some in the host contry and other in the students themselves.
In the other hand, Bakalis S. and Joiner T. A. (2004) said, encouraging students to undertake part of their study abroad is likely to not only enhance a student’s employability but also assist in developing important life skills. Plus, also identify some of the factors that may be associated with students’ participation in tertiary study abroad programmes, by investigating some of the reasons that may be explain the absence of a strong culture that values international study experiences. Againts this background, note that previous studies attempting to explain the participation of students in study abroad programmes have not considered the difference in personality dimensions of students participate, and those who do not. They argue that students who have personalities characterized by perceptivity to diversify and change are more likely to participate in an exchange programme compared who do not participate.
Conclusion, this two authors give us brief description about why we are choosing this topic, “study local or abroad” and what might be the factors and the reasons for the students to continue study abroad or stay in their home country. As our own, we discovered that culture, cost and employer perception will be another factors that attibute to the decision to further study local or abroad.
Recent trends have seen an upward surge in the number of students further study outside of their country. This research is to determine the specific factors that influence study abroad decisions by students. Beside, this research is done to discover which one is better,pursuing inside or outside of the country. Statistical analysis will indicate the decision to participate is influenced by several factors. The research will also discover the effects of a study abroad programme on students in term of personal growth and career development. Not even that, it also touch on the cost involve as the students decide to further study outside of their own country. By this study, the student will be able to experience on how to interact with the foreignersand it will directly affect their future career in what ever directions. The research will find out, does personal growth in term of emotional maturity, empathy, flexibility is one of the factor that student will consider and do this factor really benefits them. In addition, this research is to discover whether students will get intelectual development in term of critical thinking, problem solving, when they are in the foreign country. The research will find out whether the study abroad programme improve their cultural understanding or they want to improve their career prospects, or they are pursuing study outside their regional country because of joining their friends which also participate in such programmes. Furthermore, this study will also discovered that if the students participate in study abroad programme,whether it shows any significant difference in global perspective and cross cultural cosmopolitanism.
Based on the Open Doors 2009, the international student annual mobility report issued by the US Embassy in year 2008, there was a 9.5% increase in the number of Malaysian students who enrolled in the United States, up from 5,428 students in the 2007/08 academic year. In year 2009 worldwide Open Doors report shows that the total number of international students at colleges and universities in the United States increased by 8% to an all time high of 671,616 for the 2008/09 academic year. Moreover, Malaysia is ranked as 21st among other countries sending students to the United States with 5,942 having enrolled for the 2008/09 academic. This show United States remained a top destination for Malaysian students who wanted to study abroad due to the quality and prestige associated with an American degree.
1.2.1 To determine the most important factor that effects their decision to
study abroad or locally.
1.2.2 To determine the least important factor that effect their decision.
1.2.3 To examine the relationship between the factor and the decision to
further study abroad or local.
1.3 Scope of The Research
The title of the research is “further studylocally or abroad, which one is better”. Therefore, our respondent of this research is among UiTM students.
The dependent variable for our research is culture, cost and employer perception. Besides, the independant variable is further study local or abroad.
1.4 Significant of The Research
The important of the research to the study is, it helps the student to see the pros and contras of furthering study abroad or local. In addition, the students are able to make a right decision whether to go for abroad or local.
The importance of the research to the university is, the university can identify the best factor that influenced the student’s decisions on furthering studyabroad or local. It will also allow a university to know whether they provide with a good service to studentscompare on what international students expects from them.
The important of the research to the country is, it helps the country to know whether most of the students chose to go for abroad or locally. It also helps the country to know what is the most important reason that influences the student’s decision. Moreover, it also helps the country to know whether the level is on the same league with other country.
1.5 Key Term/ Concepts
1.5.1 Further:Contribute to the progress or growth of
1.5.2 Study:To apply one’s mind purposefully to the acquisition of
knowlegde or understanding of (a subject).
1.5.3 Abroad:A foreign country or country in which to live or travel(John
1.5.4 Local:Relating to a city, town, or district rather than a larger area
which is not broad or general.
This chapter provides a review of the literature on the topic “Further Study Abroad or Locally”. Section 2.1 explain on the and benefits and advantages of studying abroad. Section 2.2 is on Factor Influence Study Abroad. Section 2.3 is about barriers study abroad. On the other hand section 2.4 explain on advantages and benefit studying locally. Section 2.5 about barriers studying locally and lastly section 2.6 explain factor influence study locally. Section 2.7 provide the conceptual framework. Finally 2.8 is identifies the Hypotesis of the study.
2.1 Literature Riview
2.1.1 Benefits and Advantages of Studying Abroad
According to Chesterton G. K. (1986), the journal is about the benefit a student can expect from joining a study abroad programme. The teaching style in the classroom will be different, so the student will be forced to develop their own ability to learn. The lifestyle and social rhythm within the walls of the university or educational center will be different, forcing the student to expand their social skills in order to get assistance from tutors, teachers’ assistants, school staff, classmates, as well as to make friends among their peers. While the student’s personal development will pay dividends immediately after their return in the form of higher social standing, and increased scholastic productivity from their improved cognition, the student will also derive much benefit from the expansion of their communication abilities later. They will develop their character and achieve a new degree of self-reliance. It is important to note that while cultural exploration goes far beyond locating foreign counterparts, and extends deeper into matters of language usage, the arts, social relationships, alien religious observance and geopolitics will produce an impossible to remove impression on one’s character and a lasting sense of self-confidence. In conclusion, the student can get lot of benefit by furthering abroad.
According to Hammer M. R. (1997), the journal is about culture and benefit that student get when they choose to further abroad. Choosing to go for abroad give they access to intercultural competence, knowledge of other cultures an awareness of the dignity and worth of every human being plus respect for cultural differences. Furthermore, it increases their intercultural friendships as the time spent with people from other cultures upon their return to their own country are more. Significantly it lowers their level of anxiety or discomfort around other cultures, and leads to a significant increase in intercultural competence, especially for students who began the program with a polarized view of other cultures. Next, the benefit is foreign-language speaking ability anxiety around other cultures and the social networks. In addition, they gain the ability to act as a responsible global citizen increase in students’ knowledge of the host culture, moves students forward dramatically in their spoken fluency in the host country’s language. In conclusion, the student will learn lot about culture and gain some benefit from it.
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According to Dwyer M. M. (1999), the journal is about benefit of study abroad. Furthering abroad good in term of personal growth, 97 percent said studying abroad served as a catalyst for increased maturity, 96 percent reported increased self-confidence, 89 percent said that it enabled them to tolerate ambiguity, and 95 percent stated that it has had a lasting impact on their world view. Findings also show that study abroad leads to long-lasting friendships with other. In addition it give intercultural development, 98 percent of respondents said that study abroad helped them to better understand their own cultural values and biases, and 82 percent replied that study abroad contributed to their developing a more sophisticated way of looking at the world. The experience of living and studying in another country was so eye-opening. Lastly study abroad ignited interest in a career direction pursued after the experience, compared to 60 percent of non-intern respondents. In addition, 83 percent said that it allowed them to acquire skill sets that influenced their career path, compared to 75 percent who did not intern. In conclusion, students choose to further abroad for better understanding their own culture value.
According to Peters C. K. (2000), the journal is about competitive advantages.Competitive advantages over students who never venture abroad to study, including improved foreign language skills and a more cosmopolitan. Furthermore, they gain international perspective plus greater tolerance for other opinions and ability to think more originally. In addition, they see more than one perspective on an issue, greater self-reliance and self-confidence plus more comfort with complex situations. In conclusion, there are advantages and disadvantages of furthering abroad.
According to Yu A. H. et. al (2004), modelling the effects of the study abroad programs om college students. Studya abroad programs facilitate improvement in five education outcomes, learning, culture immersions, personal growth, foreign interaction and career development. Plus, they also believe foreign environment helps students learn how to cope with phsychological and physical changes . In conclusion , the implications is languange learning effects, the focus of much research on study abroad outcomes are not the only significant results from such programs yet cultural immersion and carrer advancement should be more focusing on.
According to Dwyer M. M. (2002), the journal is about conventional wisdom in the study abroad field has held that more is better; that is, the longer students study abroad the more significant the academic, cultural development and personal growth benefits that accrue. The study was designed to measure the longitudinal correlations between specific program features language study, housing choice, duration of study, enrollment in foreign university courses, participation in an internship or field study, among others and a variety of student outcomes. Long-held beliefs that studying abroad for a full year has more significant and enduring impact on students were supported by the data of this study. While it has been long believed that study abroad changes people’s lives, little evidence exists to explain what kinds of tangible changes occur and for how long. This study shows that study abroad has a significant impact on students in the areas of continued language use, academic attainment measures, intercultural and personal development, and career choices. In conclusion, the age-old premise that ‘more is better’ holds true when it comes to the duration of a study abroad experien.
According to Farrell P. and Suvedi M. (2002), studying abroad in Nepal, understanding impact on students lives. The valued outcome of study abroad is to help the individual acquire a deep understanding of another culture, and to begin appreciate and develop empathy for people who are different, plus there will be an impact on the intellectual, international perspectives, cross-cultural interest and personal development students.They also revealed three areas of significance, language proficiency appeared to increase substantially, a greater interest in international affairs and a large increase in their level of knowledge about the host country. Finally , students study abroad will experience higher level of self-confidence and sociability , also they will learning about cultural sensitivity, social and professional polish , wider personal horizons and improved career opportunities for students. They believe students who adapted quickly to new people , places and situations, were able to communicate and think critically.
According to Wang B.C.Y and Bu.N. (2003) attitudes toward international careers among male and female Canadian business students after 9-11. The advantages of study abroad are personal growth , exciting new life experiences and travel opportunities , plus , family factor appears to weigh more in education decisions. In conclusion , students who have at least one of their parents travelling internationally for work are more likely want to study outside from their country , next, the more languages they can speak, the more likely they thinking about study abroad because they confidence in their ability to interact effectively in foreign environments . Lastly, students who have foreign friends are also interested in study abroad than who do not, this might be because socializing with them can be a various learning experience which increases curiosity toward foreign culture and decrease anxiety about them.
According to Sheila J. Curran (2007), why must need to student further study abroad and it is a way to gain critical career advantage for each individual itself. There are multiple benefits accrue to those who spend significant time in another country and also a significant proportion of students see the experience as an important part of their college. Everybody knows student likely to have fun, but when we think about study abroad as a way to gain critical advantage we will find that all foreign experiences are not created equal in the minds of employer. Therefore, employer were looking for graduate who can communication as well as writing, know the important of cross cultural understanding and an appreciation for different point of view and also it make student gravitated in demonstrate maturity, initiative, and creativity.
According to S. Chan (2009). Further study abroad is not learning alone but the total experience that lures our student to foreign shores. In 2009, statistics review that there are already 23000 Malaysian students currently studying in Australian institutions of higher learning, over 13000 in the United Kingdom (UK) and another 6000 students in the US. There are biggest reasons for going overseas to complete their tertiary education is to enhance their employability prospect. In the other hand, going overseas may help a student built his self-confidence. The multinational companies also may prefer candidates from foreign universities who had perception that student exposed to different nationalities and cultures and also there better communication, interpersonal skill and enabling them to cope better in a matrix organization.
According to Ingraham. P. (2004) the journal is about the idea that study abroad is deeply beneficial and important for undergraduate students. However there is a relative scarcity of systematically gathered qualitative and quantitative information that assesses the impact of study abroad. In their study, they have outlined six goals for studying abroad including to facilitate students’ intellectual growth, contribute to students’ professional development, accelerate students’ personal growth, develop students’ skills for relating to culturally different others, enhance students’ self-awareness and understanding of their own culture and also contribute to the internationalization of the student’s home department, college, or university. Other than that, they also discussed that studying abroad to have an impact on students’ intellectual growth (including both academic performance and language learning), personal growth, intercultural awareness, and professional development. In conclusion, the research should help to understand the type and amount of learning that takes place in study abroad.
According to Tammy O. (2004), the journal is about advantages of study abroad in term of career goal. Some choose to go abroad to increased interpersonal skills and a broadened understanding of international business practices. It also because employers view study abroad favorably and believe study abroad experiences develops highly-desirable skills for career advancement. People believe having a study abroad experience is beneficial in increasing one’s career opportunities. In addition, employers consider interpersonal skills the most important qualification for a potential job candidate this study assumes that a positive study abroad experience will lead towards a favorable international dimension in a given career. These dimensions would include a positive outlook on working in an international capacity plus the development of skills useful to international business, and entry into a career with international involvement. In conclusion, students believe that study abroad experience is beneficial to them in term of career opportunity.
According to Ozturgut O. (2007), the journal is about benefits of studying abroad for students in higher education. The benefits were discussed in three different categories. First one is Knowledge Transfer where knowledge in normal disciplines is more frequently and rapidly transferred from one country. Second, International Education and Research provides an understanding of different cultures regarding their socio-cultural, political, economic, and educational systems. Third benefit is Border-crossing communication and discourse where learning and research in an international setting is one way of experiencing different views, which will then broaden one’s horizon and promote global perspectives as a leap forward in students’ developing critical and reflective thinking skills. In the article, he also cited from Carlson et al. (1991) that the students participate in study abroad programs to improve their cultural understanding and to improve their career prospects. Other than that, various academic, financial, and other personal reasons affecting the number of students participating in study abroad programs and their choice of target country were also discussed in the article. All in all, it is explained through this study that study abroad programs have benefits to both institutions and individuals.
According to the Bott J.P. (2008), the journal is about benefit of furtheringabroad to humanity. Students studying abroad put a positive face on the nation. The student will recognize that they are in fact an representative representing their home country and should act accordingly, Even if the student does not have any understanding of the foreign policy or pop culture and cannot answer questions well, it is only natural that they very presence abroad will have a humanizing effect and lead to a more favorable impression of their country provided they are respectful of, and interested in the host country, its people and customs. The student has the opportunity to create lasting good will by showing similar respect in return, because such accord is rarely exchanged between members of differing castes or status within those societies. The cumulative effect of such good will, leads to further exchanges of ideas, trade and peace. Students studying abroad tend to carry with them youthful idealism and will tend to speak out against injustices and violations of their mores. In conclusion, furthering abroad give big impact to the student original country.
According to Gonyea R.M. (2008) the impact of study abroad on senior year engagement . Students who study abroad expect to expand their perspectives on world affairs, understand diverse cultures, acquire languages and gain maturity and self-awareness. The effects of study abroad will be increased interest in global issues, better skills in other languages and personal growth such as independence, social confidence, sensitivity toward people from other countries and more interested and self-assurance in continuing global travel . They also believed that study abroad program are often constructed and assessed . Plus , students with higher grades, better educated parents and strong engagement in the first year of college are more likely to participate in study abroad . In conclusion, those who participated in study abroad program significantly higher levels of engagement in two forms of deep learning(integrative and reflective) and in diversity experiences . Study abroad participants also reported more gains in personal and social development than their peers .
Based on The Star dated on 23rd October 2010 by Eugene Mahalingam, the news is about studying abroad versus locally. Choosing study abroad has its own benefits and disadvantage. Studying abroad requires a huge financial support because most of the country in the oversee cost of living is higher compare in Malaysia. Foreign graduates are more expert in English and have better thinking skills. They are more mature and independentthan local graduates. On the good side student with foreign qualification are more preferable among the employer compare student with the local qualification. Moreover the education standard offered in overseas is far better because education concept in Malaysia more towards academically-driven.
According to Lisa C. (2004), the journal is about global awareness . It was defined by four categories which intercultural awareness is about students in the abroad group were generally more aware than their peers at home of varying national and cultural perspectives. For personal growth and development, students abroad reported developing a greater appreciation for the arts than those on campus. In addition, the awareness of global interdependence was about those who travel may develop greater sensitivity towards other world-views. Lastly is functional knowledge of world geography and language is about daily challenge of trying to communicate in an environment where they were at a distinct verbal disadvantage. In conclusion, the students who spent the month abroad were more confident in their levels intercultural awareness and functional knowledge than their peers who remained on campus.
News from Bernama dated Dec. 21, 2012, stated that Malaysian’s Government will handle the programme to Malaysian student who study abroad to expert in their mother language. “The programe would be held on during semester break in cities referring to region and continent”, said by Dr. AwangSariyan. The collaboration with KPM establish syllabus where bring benefit as well as advantages gained from the programme. This would ensure Malaysian student did not outdate to learn basic and advanced knowledge and information which regards to the mother tongue. Besides that, the planning already approved and currently update by Deputy Prime Minister, Tan Sri MuhyiddinYassin. Therefore, Malaysian students are able to enhance their knowledge which regards to national language.
2.1.2 Factor Influence Study Abroad
According to Aminuddin Mohsin (2011) Private Company was allocated RM 8.13 mil for its scholarship programme for this year. This can be conclude as factor that influence individual itself to continue studies, whether locally or abroad which is scholarship given. The private company which is Maxis recognized that, it is importance to them further studies where education is the most important to develop human capital and factor of culture, technology and innovation we will easy to adapt then.Morever, while the company focusing in given scholarship there directly support our government in helping eligible individual gain access to their tertiary education.
According to Mazzarol T. and Soutar G. N. (2001), “push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice . For people in less develop countries, limited access to education in their own countries led to significant rise in the number of international students studying overseas. Other factors influencing the selection of a country study destination have been a commonality of language, the availability of science and technology-based programs and the geographic proximity of the home and host countries. In conclusion, other factors that motivating the student of their decision to study abroad are personal recommendations, cost issues, the environment , social links and overseas course was better than local plus the “local environment” also influences the attractiveness of a host country.
News from Bernama dated Dec 11, 2012 which attracts Malaysian students to study abroad is India’s Government provide financial scheme in academic year 2013-2014(Study offer in India under self-financing scheme, 2012 ). This be very attractive news where Malaysian student able to study abroad with help from India’s Government. The news will give opportunities to candidates who interested to further study in medicine, dentist, pharmacy and engineering. Application form can be obtains directly to Level 28, Menara 1, Mon’tKiara. For further information and enquires can be through official website India’s Government. The information include course related, duration of each courses, expenses incurred, flight schedule, and etc. the application form need to be the hands of India’s Government before 31 March. This is because the form will take another 6 month before the result will out. There are many stages to process the application form. Therefore, end result only will be out on September 2013. In conclusion, India’s Government provide financial assistant to those who interested further studies there.
News dated Oct 10, 2012 from Bernama which related to mechanism that can be reason why wants study abroad. This is because Pahang Chair will provide financial scheme to those interested in programme stated in University of Yarmouk in master and doctorate programme. Recently, Pahang MenteriBesarDatuk Seri Adnan Yaakob made agreement in memorandum of understanding (MoU) with President Prof DrSutan Abu Orabi in Amman. IKIP International College who owned by Pahang Foundation make another one step ahead compared to other colleges, where made agreement with universities from oversea. With this, IKIP International College will be known to other countries and make the college’s level same as other oversea universities. Besides that, this be place where can interchange information and knowledge with others. Also can generate new ideas and bring improvement to Malaysia when the respected student coming back their hometown. The student not only knows culture there as well as lifestyle that adopted here. Cross culture can happened with or without notice about it. The relationship can increase the level of understanding each other. In conclusion, financial scheme provided by Pahang Chair give benefits to students in many ways.
Accorrding to Nattavud P.(2003), the choices of international education were investigate in order to improve marketing strategies. Interpersonal influence and recommendation from family members are among the important sources of information and encouragement for complicated services like international education. The flows of students internationally result from a combination of “push and pull” factors. There are four basic choices prior to studying abroad which is the choice of country, city, academic course and of university. The studies indicated the chronological order of choice of country, city, academic course and then university. Otherwise, there are five factor familial influencing factors which is finance, information, expectation, competition and persuasion on choices of international education. All of five choices of international education, familial influencing factors have stronger impact on the decision to study abroad, choice of country and city than choice of academic program and university. The study conclude that the different level of education perceived the influence of the family in the different way and the need for international education and the decision-making process of each group of student are dissimilar.
According to Gray B. J. (2003), the journal is about five main brand positioning dimensions which are environment, reputation, graduate career prospect, destination image and cultural integration. This positioning dimension can be summarized as a university’s learning environment which talk about excellent staff, facilities and research resources while the reputation is about the brand name, achievements and high standard of education that student can get. Next, graduate career prospects will talk about graduates’ employment prospects and expected income that the student might get as a student that graduate from that university and employers’ views of that university graduates. In addition destination image also is one of the reasons of making a decision, which it covers, political stability, safety and hospitality. Lastly, student will consider cultural integration where it related to religious freedom and cultural diversity. This is to ensure that they can adapt with that place. In conclusion, these five main brand positioning dimensions give big impact on student decision.
According to Bakalis S. and Joiner T. A. (2004), the participation in tertiary study abroad programs, the role of personality. The main obstacle apart from cost which been menti
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