Factors Influencing Jobs Satisfaction In Malaysia Education Essay

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All the education levels including higher education are overseen by Malaysia's government with rules and regulations. Since decade, it is an important institution in Malaysia because it drives the country to be more successful in the future with stability and continuous sustainable movement. [1] Higher education are to develop new knowledge, provide correct pathway in life, educate students and as a tools to encourage social justice and equality to students. [2] Nevertheless the successful of the colleges are relying on the participation and assisting by lecturers (academic staff) and it is directly related to the successful of the college by satisfy the lecturers, because a healthy colleges may improve the level of job satisfaction on lecturers, meanwhile also increase the efficiency of colleges. [3] 

In the world today, Staples et al. (1998) mentioned that job satisfaction is an interesting and continuously topic to discuss. It is because works has occupied most of our lifetime, rather than other activities and it provides fundamental economic support to human life (pg1). [4] As we can say that, no one will work at a job they hated. [5] Thus, it is clearly shows that the job satisfaction influenced on everyone's life and it has been recognized to enhance the employees' commitment. Hence, the researcher will be analyzed the job satisfaction on academic staff since Kusku (2003) mentioned that it is an important issue today. [6] (pg2)

Research question

Researcher is interest to analyze as follow:

What is job satisfaction?

What factors that determine job satisfaction and dissatisfaction?

How teacher being satisfy from institution perspective

Research objective

The purpose statement of this study is:

To understand the impotency of job satisfaction on academic staff

To identify what factors that influence job satisfaction amongst lecturers from institution perspectives

To analyze the factors that might influence lecturers

Scope and limitation

Due to job satisfaction is a wide topic to discuss, thus it to make this topic to be more interested and easy to analyze, so the discussion scope will be focus on institution perspective only and the education level to be analyze was in Malaysia's general education level,

However when start doing this research, there are some problem raise up. First it is hard to find the suitable and relevant journal or article that suit to my title no matter from internet or books.furthermore,most of the internet resources especially journal we cannot direct access to it, need either register as their member or pay to the view the related journals.

Lastly,it is hard to collect information from every lecturer in kbu college,because each lecturer have different arrange of time table,thus it is difficult for researcher to complete the research.

Problem statement

The level of job satisfaction will increase the efficiency and effectiveness on the institution, meanwhile to reduce the probability on employee turnover, as we can say that job satisfaction will benefit employees as well as employers. [7] Nonetheless, nowadays it seems quite difficult in education institution. educators are highly concerned by everyone, because most of them are dissatisfy with their current job and tend to resign. As Guardian Educational Poll disclosed that 51.7% of the teachers in university and colleges mentioned that they had thinking about looking for new job rather than stay at higher educational institution [8] .

the fundamental problem is that the academic staff discovered the expectations of job scope have changed drastically when compared with decade ago, sometimes they cannot handle the position of changing environment. Thus, it will lead to decrease the job satisfaction level on academic staff or even the dissatisfaction's problem occurs [9] (pg2).

Regarding Tack and Patitu (1992), factors that relating to job satisfaction level from college's perspective such as job security, supervision, salary, working condition, policies and administration and other [10] (pg 21).On the other hand, occasionally the low job satisfaction or dissatisfaction of educators is also come from personal factors as well. for example education, gender, salary, particular status, working condition, and institution's culture,marital and parental status [11] (pg1). hence,it will directly lead to the educational institution decrease their productivity, little performance, strike, absences. It is difficult to achieve student's needs and meet their expectations too [12] .

Based on the problem that mentioned above, the researcher is interested in analyzing the factors that affect job satisfaction or dissatisfaction from company factors and personal factors in Higher Education College.

Literature review

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been measured and defines as global construct and as a concept with variance facets and dimensions [13] (pg4). Hence the term of "job satisfaction" has make up different view-point by many scholars. Generally, people think that job satisfaction achieved when they satisfied with their job. Locke (1969, 1976) argued that the job satisfaction is "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences" [14] . Job satisfaction is achievable when the job's expectation fulfills employee if compared with their previous experiences and what they planned before [15] . Simultaneously, Hoppock (1935) said the job satisfaction is gathering of persons' feeling, emotional and how the job affected them in live [16] .So, it is clearly states that job satisfaction can be defined as an attitude that posted to a job by employees. (book, management).

In year 1999 Reiner and Zhao had grouped two categories from variance variable analysis when analyzing the level of job satisfaction [17] , which is;

(1) the personal characteristics of employees; and

(2) the characteristics of the job position itself.

however, Kerego and Mthupha (1997) viewed that job satisfaction is directly affected by understandable of communication, clear staff policy, involvement of employee in decision making, and good governance from the company [18] (pg23).moreover, job satisfaction might instantly affected by the institution phenomena as well, such as the company hierarchy and furthermore employees are more favored to decentralized administration because they can have more authority to doing decision making on their own task [19] .

Paul Spector has identified nine facets which to influence job satisfaction and determine the employees' attitude of the job and the workplace condition [20] . Below are Paul's nine points:

Pay - salary

Promotion - equal opportunities

Supervision - supervisor with equally allocate task

Fringe Benefits - hostel, transportation and foods

Contingent rewards - recognition, appreciation and respect

Operating procedure - policies and procedures

Coworkers - colleagues that work together

Nature of work - the tasks that responsible by employees

Communication - communicate or sharing information within the organization

meanwhile, extensive research also proved that organizational variables factor will affect job satisfaction, such as structure, size, pay, working conditions and leadership (Schneider & Snyder, 1975; Hellriegel & Slocum, 1974; Kerego & Mthupha, 1997; Peterson,1995; Boeyens, 1985). (cited in JOB SATISFACTION IN RELATION TO ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE)

Furthermore job descriptive index (JDI) had conducted by smith,kendall & hulin (1969) is to measures five main aspects that related to job satisfaction . the five main aspects which is:

Natural of the work itself - the tasks are interesting or bored.

Pay - salary pay fairness, bad or well-paid

Promotion - less promotions on opportunities, promotions based on ability or great opportunities

Supervision - does the supervisors able to assists workers? Not supervise enough, just around when needed or good enough

Coworkers - colleagues that with smart, interesting or nasty

Theoretical framework

In a study of job satisfaction and motivation,Frederick Herzberg had identified dual-factor theory of job satisfaction. It is namely as hygiene and motivators theory. These theory are depends on two groups factors to determine the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Motivator factors that will guide to job satisfaction which relate to job content-related, however, hygiene factors which are job context-related that may influences job dissatisfaction. motivators factors include the natural of the task and achievement, recognition and growth whereas hygiene factors consists of pay, working condition, administration and company policy. [21] (pg2).nevertheless,herzberg et al (1959) had conclude that job content-related excluding the job itself , is likely to produce satisfaction,but once lack of them,it is not necessary will produce dissatisfaction. [22] (pg 24)

Besides, Miller (2002) had argued that employees willing to work harder, when they are intrinsically motivated, and this statement has supported by empirical evidence from Lu (1999) he reported that intrinsic motivation positively affects employees [23] (pg5,6). The intrinsic work motivation and job satisfaction happened in employees' personal factors such as gender, age and educational level and length of service as well. (A. Clark, et al., 1996; Finlay, et al., 1995; Gaertner, 1999; Ganzach, 1998; Groot & Maasen van den Brink, 1999; Miles, et al., 1996; Robie, et al., 1998; Sousa-Poza & Sousa-Poza, 2000) [24] (pg1).

Teacher's job satisfaction

Currently factors of job satisfaction for lecturer have attracted the researcher's attention [25] (pg537). According to Santhapparaj & Alam (2005), employee's job satisfaction is caused by personal characteristics and the job's characteristic. The variable factors of personal characteristic will be the gender, age, length of service, salary and education status [26] (pg1). Whereas the job's characteristic are working environment, organization culture, supervision style and job security [27] (cited in )

regarding to Indian Education Commission (1964-66), teacher can work effectively by providing them a qualify preparation meanwhile form an acceptable working conditions. besides, Sand Frankiewiz (1979) revealed that, there is a direct relationship among job satisfaction and effectiveness on teacher's behaviour [28] . Teachers' satisfaction should be maintained, because it may influence the teaching instruction that given to pupils, teacher's retention on the particular institution and the effectiveness of the education institution [29] .(pg3)

Chakravorty (1990) has argued that teacher will be satisfied in work when they fully utilize their knowledge, abilities and skills that required in teaching methods, but lately in year 1992,Hart & Conn have stated that it has extensively to include morale and affect of optimistic toward the job area to achieve job satisfaction [30] (pg 3).

to understand more deeper on job satisfaction of teacher, thus Evans had pointed a number of factors in teachers' job satisfaction had indicated by the level of job satisfaction in education institution [31] (pg15)

Level I: policy and condition of service. The basic is pay arrangement, an acceptable and good pay will increase satisfaction

Level II: leadership style, from senior teachers or head of school. The institution climate consists of teachers' freedom, the outline of school's management, methods of reward and punishment of teachers and other.

Level III: this level is concern on the decision of job satisfaction from personal attitude, individual behavior and emotional that will affect this level, however employee decision to fulfill individual's need, fulfill employees expectation and value congruence.

The needs and fulfillment of everyone is different with each others, so teacher's job satisfaction is not only relying on the job itself, but it is also depends on personal, economic condition and the working condition. [32] .(pg16)

Conceptual framework

The conceptual framework for this study is based on the research finding of personal and institutions factors with job satisfaction of lecturers in Higher Education College.

This study will give a review of individual and institution studies that involve the relationships between both perspective factors with job satisfaction, as below ;

Personal factors; age, gender, education, salary, length of service,

Institution factors; supervision style, working environment, organization culture and job security.

At the same time provide a critical analysis of the main factors. figure 1 shows the conceptual framework for this study based on consideration of personal factors, institution factors and job satisfaction and from the previous studies as well.