Enhancement Of Computer Literacy In Primary Students Education Essay

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1. Commencement of use of Information and Communication Technology have been re-engineering almost all the fields of human life from basic needs like communicating with friend living abroad to fundamental needs like education, health and governance. That is not only a technological evolution but also a social revolution that enforces the primary students, to discover new habits, innovative morals and production of new life systems, so that to adapt with global change in human culture and life style. Our education system also to be formulate to meet this concept and to be aligned with this new technology. Hence, the innovative distribution of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for education of primary students is becoming compulsive need since the professionalism is the backbone that could change the culture and the society in time to time towards create outstanding living condition expected by the people.

2. Today, it is extremely important that a primary student should be competent with coherence in the area of computers and technology. It is impossible to be successful in today's job market and high tech lifestyle, if our primary students are failed for timely educate as early as possible to suit the existing requirement to this subject.

3. The computer literacy is now an essential tool that all students must be familiar with in order to complete their routine studies and focusing for future job demand. Whatever our job; Teacher, Planner, Lawyer, Accountant or Salesperson; computer literacy are mandatory them to succeed. Primary students are also need to gain certain level of computer literacy in order to complete basic every day skills to face our future society. In Central Colleges in Sri Lanka most of the primary students are aware with computer studies but they have to use it in a way to achieve mandatory results need for join the future world and join the future community.

4. The use of the internet facility is highly required skill for students and they are to thoroughly master it definitely. Computer literacy and Internet are almost one; in the same thing usually one isn't mentioned without the other tagging along. Without the Internet, there would be no way to instantly find the name of a famous book your favorite writer was in five years ago. Primary students will need to be familiar with the Internet in all types of educational methods whether it is research on any topic or surfing for information. For this purpose primary students need to know what a search engine is and how it works, what a keyword is and how it works, how to open a browser and how to use a link, etc. The Internet is a huge wealth of information that every students should take advantage for gather information skills. There are web sites that will help primary students to find educational tours by posting their resume online. Online skills allow primary students to learn and share social, cultural, environmental facts of other countries, people and religions. Many secondary level students today are now getting their degree online in the comfort of their own homes on their own schedule. It's amazing how today with a couple of clicks, every student can go anywhere in the world in two, three seconds without leaving their computer.

5. Promotion of computer literacy is one of the most essential areas in education. The important role which it plays is intellectual, social, emotional and spiritual development of children. The students normally use sensory perceptions to know his immediate surroundings. It is automatically widens his vision. The computer literacy skills of students are not a one time experience. It is a continuous lifetime experience. It is accepted that a proper skills of Computer Literacy has to be inculcated and nurtured in the early years of age.

6. It must be distinguished as the ability to work with understanding and appreciation. In Sri Lanka computer is mostly a "Information Communication Technological" skill which is brought about by brute repetition of a given stimulus together with the appropriate response. It is a matter of some doubt whether all children have acquired the ability to learn in the genuine sense, by the time they have reached school leaving age. It needs at least four years to attain the computer skill and is it reasonable to expect these children who drop out after primary level to sustain that skill afterwards? Computer literacy is a not a severe complex process. It is an average simple skill which once learned, can be increased with referral to the Information Technological contented publications.




1. This paper will emphasis and analyze why the children are not skilled in Computer Literacy and for examine the factors which determine computer literacy in children and what steps have to be taken for the enhancement of computer literacy and information technological skills in primary school children in Central Colleges in Sri Lanka.


2. It is required to study of Primary level students of Central Colleges computer literacy and the present environment to enhance their capabilities in computer literacy.

In this research need to focus on their Computer educational system and clarify the difficulties and the to the mechanism that they required to strengthen the computer literacy, information technology aspects, as considering the future job opportunities that can be gained by primary students in Central Colleges Sri Lanka.

3. The question is at present scenario is ,the primary school students in Central Colleges in Sri Lanka have not been able to acquire the required standard of Computer literacy, and information technology to enhance their minimum skills required in Computer field.

4. This paper will identify and analyze why the Computer Literacy in primary students is dwindling, the factors which determine literacy and suggest recommendation for the promotion of mechanism that needs to enhance skills, knowledge in primary level students.


5. Mechanism will be strengthening to face the future job demand.

In this aspect is to be achieved in a way of researching experimental computer study of guidance in formulation with Government educational policies on Information Technology for enhancement of Computer Literacy of primary students in Central Colleges


The scope of this research focused on the primary students in Grade 1 to Grade 5, their teachers and principals are to extract their ideas by questionnaire and interviews. Also the research will analyze educational specialists' personal views on what should be the background surrounding the primary school children to promote their Computer literacy.

The anonymity of the researcher was maintained by asking questions from certain group heads and teachers under the name of a consented individual. The purpose was to eliminate biased answers which may be given as a result of the fact that the questions are presented by a known IT instructor. This is also to investigate any differences in response for the same questions based on computer literacy. This method is adopted as the topic is of sensitive nature and based entirely on individual attitudes.


7. Data collection methods are as follows.

a. Primary source.

(1) Primary source of information were collected by interviewing IT educationists and heads of schools.

(2) Further data collection done by a questionnaire prepared for the primary school students and their teachers.

b. Secondary sources. Books, paper articles and websites used as the secondary sources of information.


The thesis is structured as follows :

a. CHAPTER I Introduction

b. CHAPTER II Methodology

CHAPTER III Computer Literacy of Primary Students in Central Colleges

(1) Computer literacy introduction of primary students

(2) Present literacy skills and IT environment of primary students

CHAPTER IV Weather educational support and the required guidance and assistance will provide to enhance the computer literacy

How teachers adopt educational method to improve computer literacy of students through policies of educational department.

How the other aspects on infrastructure facilities given to improve on computer literacy of primary students

(3) Enhancement of Computer literacy and IT Skills of Students

i Learning interests of students

ii Students interests in internet

iii College IT Environment

iv Teachers opinion about Computer literacy

CHAPTER V Impact of Computer Literacy for primary students at Central Colleges and future Job demand at society

(1). How the computer literacy help to increase job demand for future society

(2). Increase job demands and the computer literacy as main educational aspects of needs in primary students.


Reasons behind the inefficiency of present practices on computer studies of students.

Why the basic computer needs cannot preserve the computer education at Central Colleges

Present skills of students and personal interest on computer literacy of primary students.

Education level of primary students in line with present technology changes behind computer educational systems.

Awareness studies and competency of teachers on newly introduced software systems and theories on computer studies.

Other aspects that can be used to increase the computer studies.

The malfunction exist in routine and system stability on computer studies of students

Advantages and disadvantages of utilizing adequate study hours for increase computer literacy.






1. Language is a process that helps people to express themselves and to make effective social relationship among people all over the world. It is through language that people could acquire information to improve their basic needs such as health habits, consciousness, scientific changes and different types of skills to earn a living. Piaget, the renowned physiologist believed that the real key to human intellectual development, conceptual development, is language. Language is the most effective mode of communication. The lack of language ability often hinders one's progress. [1] The language aptitude and literacy performance of the primary level indicates the standards of children's reading habits and information skills.


2. Sri Lanka has attained the first generation education objective of providing widespread access to primary education (grades 1-5). However one major challenge that the country has to overcome is the moderate level of learning achievement in language proficiency among primary school children. [2] 

3. According to recent studies carried out by NIE and NEREC, University of Colombo only between 35 to 38 per cent of primary school students have achieved standard level of their mother tongue (Annex 'B'). This is a serious constraint to further learning, as all subsequent studies will draw on the child's mother tongue capability.

4. There is a considerable difference in the achievement of mastery level in their first language between urban and rural schools. According to the above studies more than 40 per cent of urban children achieve mastery level in their mother language contrast to below 34 per cent in rural areas. Also more than 1/3 of pupils have failed to achieve standard level for their mother language. This shows the dwindling of reading habits and information skills among primary school children.

5. The regional disparity in achieving mastery level in first language is clearly shown in Table III.I. 41.24 per cent of Western province Grade 5 students achieve mastery level in contrast to 42.40 percent in Uva province students have failed to achieve the required standard level. This shows how the availability of physical and human resources affects performance.

Mastery = 80% - 100% Non Mastery = 0 - 59%

Table III.I - Achieving mastery levels in literacy in Grade 5 - by provincial levels

Source - Performance of Grade 5 students in literacy and numeracy - NIE


5. According to the research project on development of language skills among primary school children carried out by NLDC (Annex 'C'), the overall performance of Grade 2 pupils is satisfactory. There is hardly any disparity between districts or among school types.

6. The Grade 4 assessment revealed disparity in performance among the districts and between school types. AAVG level schools show highest performance while SS level schools show poor performance. These variations in performance pin-point the inequalities in distribution of learning and teaching facilities for the school subjects, particularly in language skills.

7. More than half of the number of pupils in the sample have not been able to attain the expected achievement level for the vocabulary & synonyms/ antonyms, spelling and grammatical writing ability and creative wring skills for the Grade, after four years of schooling. This suggests that they are suffering from lack of reading habits. [3] 




1. There is no particular age at which a child should actually begin the process of learning to read. It should appeal to real activity, to spontaneous work based upon personal need and interest. [4] Children have an innate desire to know about their surroundings. As the child develops learning through sensory perception, he becomes more and more curious to understand his environment; what has happened and what is happening are his interests.

2. Children may come to understand an important part of their world through the experience of reading. They start to learn about reading in a natural and incidental way. [5] If a book satisfies child's needs, he will start reading it for pleasure. A child begins acquaintance with a book by looking at pictures. If the book catches his interest, he returns to the book again. Also he is being exposed to the printed word in the environment such as bus boards, various posters on the highway, road signs, labels of goods in the market, advertisements on television and newspapers. The child sees lots of words in his environment and tries to grasp them meaningfully. Therefore, most children have a form of awareness of the printed word. [6] 

3. According to the study it has clearly shown that children are interested in books, magazines, children's papers and they have a thirst for information, knowledge and communication. This inbuilt desire and interest found in children has to be harnessed to improve their reading habits and information skills. As such it is the duty and responsibility of the parent, the teacher and the authorities to take the full use of it. [7] 

Table IV.I would like to spend my Table IV.II would like to spend my leisure time …….- Grade 2 leisure time …….- Grade 4


4. The child gets motivated to read when he hears stories or when an adult reads aloud a story to him. Today the child could get this type of satisfaction through the mass media. When children watch television or listen to the radio, those programmes which are meant for children create awareness and need for reading and they could be made use of to develop reading habits and information skills.

5. As per the study it is revealed that Both Grade 2 and 4 children's best television programme is cartoon stories. Most of children like to listen to songs and stories by radio. These interests could be made use of in varied ways to develop reading habits and information skills in the classroom and home.

Table IV.V - Interest on Television Table IV.VI - Interest on Television

Grade 2 Grade 4

Table IV.V - Interest on Radio Table IV.VI - Interest on Radio

Grade 2 Grade 4

Table IV.I - Grade 2 Table IV.II - Grade 4

Children's interests on children's paper

6. Above two tables indicate that a very high percentage of children in all three districts read children's papers. It was found that this is a habit developed by the good teachers of those schools by exchanging papers within the class, when those parents who could afford to buy papers for their children bring them to school. This high percentage suggests that if reading materials are made available to children, and then reading habits and information skills of primary school children could be definitely improved.



1. As a foundation for the development of reading habits and information skills, the four language skills listening, speaking, writing and reading has to be developed in the classroom and the home. The child should be able to read with ease and facility in order to develop reading as a habit. The first requisite for this is to gain ability to identify letters and words. Then the child has to read words and sentences to infer meaning and gain knowledge, information etc. This is a complex process. [8] 

2. Reading skills could develop only if reading materials are available. Non availability of suitable reading materials create serious limitations in developing reading habits. Hence the laying of foundation on a sound footing is the responsibility of the parent, the teacher and the school.


3. A teaching-learning situation is significantly affected by the availability of building with sufficient number of classrooms, seating accommodation and furniture. Primary sections of some popular urban schools have more than 50 pupils in one classroom, which could accommodate only 40. This situation has resulted adversely. Neither the teacher nor the pupil could move about freely to give and receive individual attention. [9] 

4. The situation is worse in some schools where the classes are conducted in unpartitioned open halls. In such schools both teaching and learning has become drudgery and some teachers are force to conduct classes under the trees in the garden. [10] 

5. The teacher is the key factor in improving reading skills and habits in pupils when resources are sub standard. In those schools the teacher is the only source of learning. Out of the 25 teachers who supplied information through the questionnaire, 21 are primary education trained and 3 are trained graduates. However the response of head of the schools revealed that there are quite number of teachers who are not trained. The standard of education undoubtedly recedes when teachers are not trained for the profession.

6. Out of 15 schools exclusively primary education is given in only 5 schools. In those schools primary education is entirely managed by a Deputy Head. Of other 8 school primary heads three are trained five are graduates with post diploma. Academic professional status of the head of the school, his attitude toward improving the mother tongue, commitment to his profession, his support in providing reading materials and promoting reading habits is of significance in this context.

7. Out of 15 schools of the sample five schools do not posses libraries catering to the reading needs of primary school children. Out of the 10 school libraries three of them have 100 - 500 books. Three school libraries have less than 1000 books and two National schools in Colombo district and one National school in each other two districts have a wealth of 3000 or more books. The two schools in the sample which have a few books received as a donation complained that there are no storage facilities available for them even to keep them safely. Out of the 15 schools 7 schools do not buy even a single newspaper. In the mean time out of rest 8 schools only 5 schools buy children's paper for the primary school children. [11] 

8. Except for the national schools librarians trained for the job are not available in the rest of the schools. In most of these schools a teacher from the staff helps in the library. In three schools a girl is employed for the work in the library paying a nominal fee.

9. This clearly displays the disparity between schools with sub standard resources and schools with above average standard resources. This fact substantiates the view presented earlier that the socio economic level at home and school affect achievement level of children.


10. The response presented by the 25 teachers of the schools of the sample revealed that children are really interested in reading and teachers do their best to promote reading by managing classroom libraries under difficult situations. Each child in the classroom brings a story book at the beginning of the year. Sometimes teachers give the names of the list of story books. Also those who can afford to buy children's paper bring them to the class. These books and papers are exchanged among the pupils. There by teachers help children to develop reading habits. Instead in some schools teachers get a few books, about thirty from the secondary school library and distribute them among children once a month or so.

11. Some teachers are of the opinion that the primary syllabuses contain far too much material for the year that they cannot complete and it is difficult for them to concentrate on developing the reading habits individually. There should be verity in the content of the curriculum to cater individual needs. Also they pointed out that Grade 2 and Grade 4 even Grade 5 text books do not motivate children to read as the stories do not awaken their feeling and curiosity. Stories do not create opportunities for children to think. Therefore the teachers say that children mechanically read by heart, even if they cannot identify letters, words or meaning of what they pretend to read. Therefore the authorities concerned have to be more cautious in the selection and grading curriculum and text book content.

12. Teachers also revealed that in addition to the scarcity of reading material, children of sub standard and average type schools suffer from other deficiencies such as socio economic conditions at home, large families, parents not been educated, their inability to realize the importance of reading.

13. Method of teaching plays an important role in learning situation. What was observed was teachers are more concerned with covering the syllabus, merely using general methods of teaching without thinking of special and innovative techniques and individual differences of learners. There is hardly any system of evaluating reading. Teachers do not seem to undertake feedback programmes and maintain record of it. Lack of teaching aids was observed in most of the schools and teachers depend only on 'Talk and Chalk'.


14. Research done in western countries has revealed that success in reading had been achieved by children who were provided with plenty of opportunities for reading and access to books. Avid readers had stories read or told to them regularly by parents or grand parents. [12] 

15. Children read anything and everything they get hold of as they are interested in reading. If is therefore the duty of the adults to select suitable books for children, as they cannot discriminate between suitable books and books not suitable for them and evaluate them.

16. It is assumed that when family size is large, children do not get equal need satisfaction enjoyed by children of small families of the same income level. In the questionnaire the family size of pupils was divided in to two categories.

a. Category 1 - Number of family members four or less

b. Category 2 - Number of family members five or more

Table V.I - Indicating family size

17. According to the table V.I in Colombo district smaller sized families percentage is higher than other two districts. This factor seemed to have affected the achievement performance of children, as it is apparent from the highest ML percentage in Colombo district.

18. Parental support in supplying reading materials such as books, papers and magazines undoubtedly helped development of children's reading habits and information skills. This in turn is conditioned by the socio economic status of parents. Table V.II & Table V.III indicate the number of books Grade 2 and Grade 4 children posses is quite eloquent of this factor.

Table V.II - No. of books children posses for supplementary reading - Grade 2

Table V.III - No. of books children posses for supplementary reading - Grade 4

19. The table V.II shows 10 per cent of Grade 2 pupils in Colombo district have more than 10 books for extra reading while other two districts children have below 10 books. Also the table V.III indicates 54 per cent of Grade 4 pupils in Colombo district have more than 10 books for extra reading while other two districts it is below by 36 per cent. This factor also seemed to have affected the achievement performance of children, as it is apparent from the highest ML percentage in Colombo district.

20. The names of books read by pupils indicate that they read whatever those come in their way, they have no choice. They read anything and everything they get hold of as they are interested in reading. It is therefore, the duty of the adults to select suitable books for children as they cannot discriminate between suitable books and books not suitable for them and evaluate them.
























Total %





Table V.IV - Houses that buy newspapers - Grade 4

21. 10.7 per cent of the overall sample of children's parents do not buy a newspaper. However 38.8 per cent of the sample buy Sunday newspapers. This may be due to the fact that other form of mass media like the television and radio are being sought after for enjoyment and getting information. Thereby a good opportunity that the parents could offer in motivating the child to develop his habit of reading is neglected. It is only a very poor percentage of parents buy newspapers daily. Even in Colombo district 22.4 per cent of the sample only buy newspapers daily. It may have been caused by two factors. It may be due to lack of money or of time to read papers. Whatever it is, if the parents could afford to buy newspapers daily it would be a motivation for the child to read and improve their information skills.



1. More than 1/3 of primary school pupils have failed to achieve standard level for their mother language.

2. Most of Grade 2 pupils have acquired the language skills satisfactorily.

3. a. More than 50 per cent of pupils have not acquired the language skills expected for the grade, at the end of the year.

b. Performance of Grade 4 pupils in vocabulary & synonyms/ antonyms, spelling and grammatical writing ability and creative wring skills are very poor.

4. There is a marked disparity in achievement of language skills among districts and between school types.

5. There is no equitable provision of physical and human resources available in schools as yet for the promotion of reading habits and information skills.

6. Most of the primary schools of the sample do not posses libraries. Lack of suitable reading materials, librarians, varied kinds of books, a large quantity of books of quality to cater to varied needs and interests of primary children are found to be obstacles which stand in the way of development of reading habits and information skills.

7. The curriculum, text books and methods of teaching do not seem to suit the changed society of the modern day and it will not provide any encouragement to children for the improvement of reading habits.

8. The parental support and encouragement at home is not enough for the children to develop reading habits and information skills.

9. Family size the and the socio economic status of parents affect to the development of reading habits and information skills of children.

10. Children are interested in books, magazines, children's papers and they have a thirst for information, knowledge and communication.



1. Reading is one of the most important components of language. It is a basic tool subject especially in primary school. Reading helps to learn all the other areas of the school curriculum and provides vital means of learning. Reading is believed as a process of acquiring information, receiving a massage from a print in a meaningful way.

2. Reading is of greatest significance to the educationist because it is their responsibility to guide the child to develop his total personality for the welfare of the individual child and for the welfare of the entire society and also because it is the right of the child to be literate. It is important for children to read good books and develop their reading habits and information skills, in order to grow physically and mentally. Good reading habits are necessary for a healthy intellectual growth.

3. It is a matter of some doubt whether all children have acquired the ability to read in the genuine sense, by the time they have reached school leaving age. Teacher influence, home background and book provision hold the key to an improvement in reading. The main objective of carrying out this study was to find out the reason for deficiency in reading habits and information skills among primary school children. The quality of reading habits and information skills of anyone depends on many factors. Key factors among those are ability to read with ease and facility, comprehended what is read and infers information. Also achievement level of reading habits and information skills depend on the ability to interpret either in written or oral form when necessary situation arise.

4. During this research it has been observed that there is no equitable provision of physical and human resources in the schools to develop reading habits and information skills in primary school children. It is also revealed that this important responsibility has not been

undertaken seriously and satisfactorily either by the parents or by the teachers and authorities concerned though the children have clearly shown that they are like to be engaged in extra reading.

5. This study suggests that there should be quality and quantity improvement in children's reading habits in Sri Lanka. Also there should be better methods of selecting books for children and better technique to distribute them, within primary school children. Further it suggests to provide sufficient physical and human resources to the primary schools to develop children's reading habits and information skills.




1. About 50 per cent of the schools of the sample suffer due to lack of physical and human resources. Equitable provision of resources to all primary schools in the inland is an impossible task. Yet, action has to be taken to alleviate these discrepancies by supplying basic necessities, such as separate classes, libraries and reading rooms, 500 - 1000 children's books a few magazines and children's papers, storage facilities and trained librarians. Renovating primary school buildings at least once a year and also maintain the atmosphere of the school pleasant and attractive to children is recommended.

2. Principles as leaders have to educate the parents and get their assistance for the welfare of the school. Also could seek community assistance for preparation of teaching aids, getting reading materials as donations from the affluent etc. Leadership and commitment of principals is vital importance for the improvement of children's education. Therefore head of the schools have to be selected cautiously and they should be given a training how to develop primary children's education by improving reading habits.


3. Developing the love for good reading is one of the greatest benefits that we can provide for children. In order to enrich the reading environment of children, reading habits should reach the people in rural areas. We have to promote reading among them. Therefore participation of people in the community should be encourage in reading promotion activities, because first and foremost parents have to understand how important it is for children to read good books and develop a reading habit.

4. Parents' awareness towards reading plays an important role in promoting reading by creating a reading family environment. The parents should realize that reading must start from a very young age and the teachers should guide them. Mothers can help a great deal in promoting reading habits by narrating stories, singing rhymes, songs, poems etc, while feeding, dressing their children.

5. Those who are able can read books to children who cannot read letters. This will create simply an interest in children to read. When children can read mothers should listen to their reading and praise them. Then children will feel proud of them and become fond of reading and consequently parents would buy reading materials whenever they could.

6. The school is the center in promoting reading habits and information skills among children. The teacher is the key factor who integrates all activities of children's learning. One possible means of promoting reading habit by the teacher is to organize a class library or a book corner exposing children to a richer reading environment by providing more printed materials to suit the grade level. This could be done with the cooperation of parents.

7. The teacher should organize a free reading activity once a week. She could introduce such items as puppet shows, games, contests, plays, dramas, story telling and other activities related to language development and reading interests.

8. The teachers also must attempt to relate reading to every activity of the school day. This is possible in the primary school as it offers a conductive environment for incorporating study skills and reading development work into the regular curriculum. Because one teacher is usually responsible for most areas of the curriculum, the teacher could easily adjust her normal classroom activities for reading promotion.


9. Utilizing mass media is another avenue for creating an interest in reading. For example having interesting book review columns in newspapers, discussions on books over the radio and television and also discussions, children's programmes etc. These activities

would assist in disseminating information to the masses about value of books and reading on a wider scale. However sometimes parental neglect force children to get addicted to watching the television and it would be an obstacle for reading habit development.

10. Therefore parents should;

a. Curtail television viewing time and offer children other interesting activities as alternatives.

b. They should watch good programmes with children and discuss their good aspects.

c. Talk about violence shown on television and show disapproval of aggressive behavior and point out alternative ways of facing problems and see that they watch less violence.


11. It has been found that still there are deficiencies in the production of quality books for primary school children. Also there are deficiencies in appropriate and equitable distribution of books, both librarians and teacher substitutes etc. Quick remedial action has to be taken to eliminate these shortcomings, for the improvement of reading habits among primary school children.

12. There is a lack of clear understanding among writers and publishers, of the objective of producing children's books and how it should be directed. Therefore steps have to be taken to produce quality books, which become more creative and awaken child's imagination and curiosity so that children begin to read for pleasure, which is a stepping-stone for life long interest in reading.

13. Distribution of books has to be carried out in such a way that many children are benefited. It could be done through public libraries, provincial libraries, community libraries, school libraries and so forth. It is essential that all primary schools in the island be provided with a library equipped with a range of books, children' paper and suitable magazines and trained librarians. Thus promotion of better library facilities all over the country is envisaged.

14. Library system has to be recognized in such a way that even a grade 2 pupil could make use of the library. The children should be taught how to find a book, what type of book to select etc. The teacher should check the children's reading habit by asking questions about the details of books read. These way children could be motivated to read, creating a life long interest for reading.

15. Another need for the day is changing of the library system in accordance with the changing society. Librarians could play a significant role in promoting reading habits among children with dedication and devotion. These Public and Provincial libraries can organize interesting activities such as; the story hour, quiz competition, book clubs, book fairs, reading camps, reading weeks at regional, provincial and national levels with the co-operation of eminent scholars.